Presentation on theme: "Sustainability of PBIS: Maintaining the Momentum Kent McIntosh Gary Mulry Sheree Garvey National PBIS Forum, October 2013 Handouts:"— Presentation transcript:
Sustainability of PBIS: Maintaining the Momentum Kent McIntosh Gary Mulry Sheree Garvey National PBIS Forum, October 2013 Handouts:
Who are we? Kent McIntosh Gary Mulry Sheree Garvey Who are you? Roles? PBIS implementation experience? Who are we?
Where are you in implementation process? Adapted from Fixsen & Blase, 2005
Maximizing Your Session Participation Work with your team Consider 4 questions: –Where are we in our implementation? –What do I hope to learn? –What did I learn? –What will I do with what I learned? Consider 4 questions: –Where are we in our implementation? –What do I hope to learn? –What did I learn? –What will I do with what I learned?
1. Share results of research on sustainability of PBIS Kent 2. Provide specific strategies at the district and school levels for enhancing sustainability Gary Sheree Overview Handouts:
IES: NCSER (R324A120278) OSEP: TA Center on PBS (H326S03002) Social Sciences and Humanities Council of Canada (SRG F ) Hampton Endowment Fund (J ) Support for these projects:
Participants in these studies State Networks Jerry Bloom, Susan Barrett and PBIS Maryland Cristy Clouse, Barbara Kelley and CalTAC Eric Kloos, Ellen Nacik, Char Ryan and Minnesota DOE Mike Lombardo, Rainbow Crane and Placer COE Lori Lynass, Celeste Rossetto Dickey, Chris Borgmeier, Tricia Robles and NWPBIS Network Mary Miller-Richter, Nanci Johnson and MO SW-PBS Justyn Poulos, Wisconsin PBIS Network Heather Reynolds, NC DOE Co-authors Thanks and Acknowledgments
In keeping with the new state initiative, this fall we will be implementing an exciting new district initiative of SNI in place of LYI. All Pro-D days previously scheduled for LYI will be rescheduled as staff development for SNI. The $500 for release time and materials for LYI will be discontinued and provided instead for SNI. By the way, you will need to create local SNI teams that meet weekly. The former members of your LYI team would be perfect for this new team. Your new SNI binders will be coming next week. Have a great year!!! Memo To: School Administrators From: District Administrators
What are the most important factors for why schools do and don’t sustain PBIS? Enablers? Barriers? Brainstorming
What do we perceive as the single most important factor for sustainability? McIntosh, K., Predy, L., Upreti, G., Hume, A. E. & Mathews, S. (in press). Perceptions of contextual features related to implementation and sustainability of School-wide Positive Behaviour Support. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions.
1. What features were perceived as most and least important for: Initial implementation Sustainability 2. What features were rated as significantly more important for sustainability than for initial implementation? Research Questions
Sample: 257 respondents from 14 US states 49% Elementary 16% Middle 5% High School Average implementation: 6 years (1 to 15) Measure Questionnaire asking respondents to share factors and barriers for: Initial implementation Sustainability Method
1. School administrators actively support PBIS 2. School administrators describes PBIS as a top priority for the school 3. A school administrator regularly attends and participates in PBIS team meetings 4. The PBIS school team is well organized and operates efficiently 5. The school administrators ensure that the PBIS team has regularly scheduled time to meet Most Important Perceived Factors for Sustainability
1. Other initiatives are present that compete with PBIS 2. School personnel are opposed to PBIS because it goes against their personal values 3. High levels of administrator turnover 4. High levels of school personnel turnover 5. High levels of PBIS “champion” turnover Less Important Factors for Sustainability
PBIS is viewed as a part of systems already in use (as opposed to being an “add-on” system)*** PBIS has been integrated into new school or district initiatives*** Parents are actively involved in the PBIS effort (e.g., as part of team or district committee)*** A vast majority of school personnel (80% or more) support PBIS*** More Important to Sustainability than Initial Implementation Note. ***p <.001
School Administrator Support Ok…what do we do when… 1. An administrator is opposed to PBIS? 2. A committed administrator moves on? Most Important Single Perceived Factor?
School Team Maintain the PBIS handbook Document support among staff and stakeholders Collect and share outcomes data Meet with the new administrator District Team Build PBIS into written policy Build PBIS competencies into hiring criteria Develop district coaching capacity Sustaining PBIS through Administrator Turnover (Strickland-Cohen, McIntosh, & Horner, in press)
What is the single strongest predictor of sustainability? McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Hume, A. E., Frank, J. L., Turri, M. G., & Mathews, S. (2013). Factors related to sustained implementation of School-wide Positive Behaviour Support. Exceptional Children, 79,
The SUBSIST is a research measure assessing the variables that enhance or prevent sustainability of school-based behavior interventions Two levels of questions School-level variables District-level variables A Measure for Researching Sustainability
School personnel perceive [the practice] as effective in helping them achieve desired outcomes [The practice] has been expanded to other areas (e.g., classrooms, buses, students with intensive needs, parenting workshops) The school team implementing [the practice] is well organized and operates efficiently Data are used for problem solving, decision making and action planning (to make [the practice] more effective and/or efficient) Sample SUBSIST Items
A Measure for School Teams The SUBSIST Checklist A self-assessment and action planning tool for school teams and coaches 50 critical features based on SUBSIST items An integrated action plan for sustainability Available for free at:
Model fit indices acceptable (except χ 2 ) χ 2 (731) = , p <.001, CFI =.96, TLI =.96, RMSEA =.03 R 2 =.45 Factors Priority (B =.14, SE =.39, p >.05) Team Use of Data (B =.61, SE =.24, p <.05) District Priority (B = -1.14, SE =.66, p >.05) Capacity Building (B =.98, SE =.43, p <.05) Results: Predictive Model
Sustained PBS Fidelity 5.38 **.07 Team Use of Data School Priority District Priority Capacity Building Sustained PBS Fidelity
School Priority (20 items) Administrator support, staff support, perceived effectiveness, perceived efficiency, integration into new initiatives Team Use of Data (11 items) School team/staff skill, functioning, regular meetings, data collection, use of data for decision making, presenting data to staff and community District Priority (5 items) District support, state support, funding, district policy, promoted to external organizations Capacity Building (3 items) Access to district coaching, yearly professional development, connection to a community of practice Four Factors
School teams can benefit from training in running meetings and using data Districts can support schools by offering training, coaching, and connections Implications
What are the most important critical features of PBIS for sustainability? Mathews, S., McIntosh, K., Frank, J. L., & May, S. (in press). Critical features predicting sustained implementation of school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions.
Research Questions 1. To what extent do school personnel ratings of implementation of PBIS systems significantly predict sustained implementation and levels of problem behavior? 2. Within any statistically significantly predictive PBIS systems, which critical features of these systems significantly predict sustained implementation?
Participants 261 US schools implementing PBIS PBIS Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) completed in Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) completed in 72% of our sample also used SWIS for Office Discipline Referrals (ODRs) for Data available from the Center on PBIS
Geography (n = 115) IllinoisOregonIowaMichiganColorado N. Carolina S. Carolina 68%23%2% 3%1% Urbanicity (n = 115) Rural Semi- Rural Suburban Small – Med City Large City 11%4%28%25%15% GradeElementaryMiddleHigh 70%22%6% Ethnicity (n = 113) European American Hispanic African American Asian American American Indian 54%23%17%5%1% Title I Status (n = 83) Title I Not Title I 38%62% Demographic Information
Four Systems School-wide Non-classroom Classroom Individual PBIS Self-Assessment Survey (Sugai, Horner, & Todd, 2000)
School-wide Non-classroom Classroom Individual Which system best predicts sustained implementation (BoQ) 3 years later?
School-wide Non-classroom Classroom Individual Which system best predicts student outcomes (ODRs) 3 years later?
Expected behaviors defined clearly Problem behaviors defined clearly Expected behaviors taught Expected behaviors acknowledged regularly Consistent consequences CW procedures consistent with SW systems Options exist for instruction Instruction/materials match student ability High rates of academic success Access to assistance and coaching Transitions are efficient Which features best predict sustained implementation?
Limitations Limited variability in BoQ scores Schools that did not report fidelity of implementation data at both points in the 3-year period were not included in the sample
Focus on bringing PBIS into the classroom Consistency with SW systems High rates of acknowledgment for prosocial behavior Focus on quality differentiated instruction across academic domains Student instruction at their level Lessons learned for sustaining School-wide PBIS
Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundCafeteria Library/ Computer Lab AssemblyClassroom Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Expectations
EXPECTATIONS Classroom Procedures/Routines Class-WideArrival Cooperative Learning Groups Independent Seat Work Teacher Led Whole Group Identify Attention Signal…….Teach, Practice, Reinforce Be Respectful Be Responsible Be Safe
EXPECTATIONS Classroom Procedures/Routines Class-WideArrival Cooperative Learning Groups Independent Seat Work Teacher Led Whole Group Identify Attention Signal…….Teach, Practice, Reinforce Be Respectful Listen to others Use inside voice Use kind words Ask permission Enter/exit classroom prepared Use inside voice Listen to others Accept differences Use kind words Encourage others Use quiet voice Follow directions Eyes/ears on speaker Raise hand to speak Contribute to learning Be Responsible Be prepared Follow directions Be a problem solver Make choices that support your goals Place materials in correct area Begin warm-up promptly Use Time Wisely Contribute Complete your part Be a TASK master Use your neighbor Follow directions Take notes Meet your goals Be Safe Keep hands, feet, and objects to self Organize your self Walk Use Materials Carefully Keep hands, feet, and objects to self Stay at seat Keep hands, feet, and objects to self
What are we trying to learn now? McIntosh, K., Kim, J. R., Mercer, S. H., Strickland-Cohen, M. K., & Horner, R. H. (in prep). Variables associated with enhanced sustainability of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports.
3 year, longitudinal study of factors related to sustained implementation of PBIS SUBSIST factors School demographic data School team actions Access to coaching, training, and community of practice events Fidelity of implementation and student outcomes data over 3 years 860 schools participating The Study
Demographics Years implementing PBIS? Grade Level (E/M/H)? Enrollment? Urbanicity? Percent of non-white students? Percent of students receiving free/reduced lunch? School team actions Do you have access to a coach with dedicated FTE? Number of hours of coaching received? How often does your school PBIS team meet? How often are data presented to all school staff? What is most related to high sustainability scores?
Years implementing PBIS Grade level (E/M/H) Enrollment Urbanicity Percent of non-white students Percent of students with FRL * p <.05. ** p <.01. *** p <.001. Demographics and Sustainability Scores.17** -.17**
Years implementing PBIS Grade level (E/M/H) Enrollment Urbanicity Percent of non-white students Percent of students with FRL * p <.05. ** p <.01. *** p <.001. Demographics and Sustainability Scores.17** -.17** -.13** -.14**.04
Access to coach Hours per week of coaching Frequency of school team meetings Frequency of data presented to school staff * p <.05. ** p <.01. *** p <.001. School Team Actions and Sustainability Scores.45***.14**
SUBSIST Scores by Frequency of Sharing Data with All Staff
Do you have access to a coach with dedicated FTE? t = 1.25 (ns) Access (49% of schools; n = 416) = 3.37 No access (51% of schools; n = 438) = 3.33 Does access to a coach help?
Interested in a PhD in PBIS at the University of Oregon? https://education.uoregon.edu/program/special-education-phd New Doctoral Leadership Grant focusing on IMPLEMENTATION SCIENCE in 2014 Federal funding for your doctoral degree (full tuition coverage, medical, monthly stipend) Research seminar with invited experts Specialization in PBIS, Secondary/Transition, Academic Intervention, Low Incidence and/or EI For details, or visit the following
Appleton Area School District Appleton, Wisconsin
Summary of AASD Implementation
Team Implementation Checklist (TIC)
Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)
McKinley Elementary Appleton Area School District Appleton, Wisconsin
School Wide Information Systems (SWIS) End of Year Triangle
Initial PBIS Stages for AASD: Each Spring/Summer months a review of the AASD PBIS District- Wide Framework is reviewed and planning for the upcoming school year begins: ◦ April ~ Budget is reviewed and new district-wide budget is created ◦ May ~ The AASD PBIS Leadership Team CELEBRATES the successes and determines its focus for the upcoming school year ◦ April/May ~ Final plans are completed for the AASD PBIS Regional Summer Institute: 2013 Positively Educating Healthy Kids Summer Institute ◦ June ~ All data is reviewed at Data Retreat allowing for Action Planning for district and sites ◦ August ~ AASD PBIS Regional Summer Institute is held (Two Days) ◦ August ~ Yearlong Blueprint is created for: Staff Development opportunities to build fidelity Internal Site Coordinators Training Schedule SWIS Training Schedule AASD District-Wide Roll Out Plan
Appleton Area School District Appleton, Wisconsin City of Appleton = 73,000 ◦ AASD also services multiple smaller municipalities outside city limits Appleton Area School District ~ Urban ◦ Employees = 1,600 ~ All Staff ◦ Students = 1,550 ◦ Fifteen Elementary Schools + Two Charters ◦ Four Middle Schools + One Alternative MS ◦ Three High Schools + One Alternative HS Thirteen Charter Schools (Schools within Schools) ◦ Demographics Ethnicity: 75% White, 8% Hispanic, 5% Black, 11% Asian, 1% American Indian Non-Disability/Disability: 86% / 14% Economic Status: 37% Economically Disadvantaged Homeless Population: 2%
AASD PBIS Leadership District- Wide Committee The Appleton Area School District has developed the following framework for its PBIS Leadership Team: ◦ External District Coaches (2) ◦ Assistant Superintendent of School Services ◦ Assistant Superintendent of Student Services ◦ Director of Assessment, Curriculum, and Instruction ◦ Director of Special Education ◦ Special Education Cluster Coordinator ◦ Elementary Principal Representative ◦ Middle Level Principal Representative ◦ High School Principal Representative ◦ Elementary Internal Site Coach ◦ Middle Level Internal Site Coach ◦ High School Internal Site Coach ◦ District-Wide School Psychologist Representative ◦ District-Wide School Social Worker Representative ◦ AASD Paraprofessionals Representative (2) ◦ Community Agency Member ◦ Parents (2) ◦ High School Student Representatives (2)
AASD PBIS Leadership Meetings The Appleton Area School District Leadership Committee meets once a month with meetings scheduled for two (2) hours in length Committee meeting is facilitated by the two (2) External District Coaches Committee Format: ◦ Points of Information ◦ All group: District-wide Discussions and Action Plan items ◦ Sub-Committee Reports & Committee Work Time Assessment, Surveys, and Data PBIS Tier 2 PBIS Anti-Bullying Internal Site Coaches Collaboration PBIS Pyramid Model (Early Childhood, Title One, and 4K) AASD PBIS Summer Institute PBIS Public Relations/Community PBIS Family Partnerships Web-Site & Share Point Link
Data and Fidelity - AASD Assessment Structure All Schools/District requirement take: Self Assessment Survey 1x per year (April) Team Implementation Checklist 2x per year (January and May: optional) Benchmarks of Quality 1x per year (May) Phases of Implementation 1x per year (May) School Evaluation Tool 1x per year (May) All Schools use SWIS-School Wide Information System District has three (3) SWIS Facilitators Each SWIS Facilitator oversees seven (7) schools
External District Coaches/Internal Site Coaches Layers of Support AASD has provided multiple layers of support to assist schools in increasing fidelity and maintaining sustainability ◦ Three/Four Coaches at each site ◦ Roles and Responsibilities Outlined ◦ Mentoring of Staff to assist with student behavior ◦ Individual/Small Group Social Skills Classes ◦ Action Planning ~ Data Digs in June ◦ Staff Development Days Presentations to support site Action Planning
AASD Training Opportunities AASD has taken the time and effort to ensure that all stakeholders have the Universal Framework components. Training groups include: ◦ Board of Education Presentations ◦ Administrative Presentations at Retreats ◦ All AASD New Teacher Hires ◦ All AASD Substitute Teachers ◦ All AASD Paraprofessionals ◦ All Summer School Teachers ◦ PBIS Universal Booster Sessions to any AASD staff wishing to increase PBIS repertoire ◦ Outside Agencies Appleton Police Department PSL Officers, YMCA Before/After School Care, Boys/Girls Club, Appleton Education Foundation, Outagamie County Social Workers, Youth Alliance Workers : Appleton Parks and Recreation Department and Appleton Community Partnerships
AASD Staff Development and Collaboration Throughout the entire school year/summer, we are providing school improvement/PBIS support: ◦ Continuous School Improvement Plans (CSIP) Thirty (30) hours of Action Planning During the School Year with DATA DIG at end of the Year ◦ AASD PBIS Yearly Blueprint Plan ~ Utilizing PBIS Blueprint Model ◦ External District/Internal Site Coaches Collaboration Sessions Two (2) days each year to share district-wide information ◦ PBIS Universal Booster Refresher Staff Development Four (4) times a year to AASD staff, AASD substitutes, and student teachers University Level ~ Presenting to Junior/Seniors at UW-Oshkosh ◦ Cool Tools/Behavioral Lesson Plans Staff Development Two (2) after-school sessions to collaboratively share and create ◦ PBIS National Conference in Chicago – October ◦ PBIS Wisconsin Leadership Conference – August ◦ School-Wide Informational System (SWIS) Quarterly Meetings ◦ AASD Share Point Web-Site ~ All AASD PBIS Resources in ONE Location
AASD PBIS Budget An AASD all-district budget has been created to support: ◦ All PBIS Trained Schools at each level (elementary/middle/high school) ◦ The AASD budget excludes the FTE allocations and salary for two (2) External District Coaches AASD PBIS Summer Institute ~ $18,000 (separate) Budget = $92,350 ◦ Internal Site Coaches Collaboration Days (2) ~ substitutes ◦ AASD Tier Two Implementation Work Days ◦ Internal Site Coaches Compensation ◦ AASD Building Allocations for Site PBIS Spending ◦ National PBIS Conference Travel ◦ District-wide Supply Account ◦ SWIS License Fees for all Sites ◦ Grant Writing Allocation
AASD Communication Efforts School/Site Level: ◦ Parent Handbook, School Web-sites, PTA Meetings, School-Wide PBIS Logos, Brochures, Folders/Agenda Planners, New Parent/New Student Orientation, Parent/Teacher Conference, Concerts, Plays, Talent Shows, Parent Reps on PBIS Team, School Newsletter, All-Alert Messages District-Level: The Appleton Area School District has created a Share Point web-base that allows all staff members and parents the opportunity to view and utilize PBIS district-wide resources District-Level: PBIS Universal District-wide Brochure ◦ ~ PBIS Tier Two District-wide Brochure being developed Web-Link: Character Education/PBIS ◦ All links have an overview page that provides reader with pertinent information ~ The links are: Universal Tier 2 Tier 3 Bullying District-Wide Implementation Information Internal Site Coordinators District-Wide Calendar
Site Teams-The Heart of PBIS Implementation
“ To build trusting relationships, we need to communicate with the intent to learn from others, not control them. Trust is the glue that makes effective collaboration and teamwork possible. Without trust, people become competitive or defensive, and communication is distorted and unreliable.”
Building your site team! Things to consider! Administrator needs to be on the team and at the table! Consider the skill set of your staff! Consider trust! Develop courageous conversations! Use data to determine your teams!
Committee Structure Aligns with Universal Recognition/Acknowledgement Team Publicity Social Skills/Teach -To Team Data Facilitated by Administration and/or Internal Coaches Lead a team Agenda Driven Roles and Responsibilities
McKinley Elementary-MJ WAY
DATA TEAM 1 st and 3 rd THURSDAY 7:30 a.m. SWIS-Review Big 7 and present to staff Behavior Referral Form-ODR-Office Discipline Referral Makes recommendation to Social Skills Team on lessons Problem Solves on specific students prior to BCT Think Tank Tier 2-CICO-Reviews students on CICO to monitor success Members: Sheree Garvey-Administrator Lori Smested-Internal Coach Jill Kinney Sara Hechel Heidi Schmidt Meeting Time is set! Roles and Responsibilities are set Led by Administrator or Internal Coach
Cost Analysis: Elementary COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Enter info below Time Regained School name Smith Elementary School StudentAdministrator Minutes Hours7758 Days107 Number of referrals for last year 546 Number of referrals for this year 315 Average # of minutes student is out of class due to referral 20 Average # of minutes administ rator needs to process referral 15
Cost Analysis: Middle Level COST/BENEFIT ANALYSIS WORKSHEET Enter info below Time Regained School name Howard Middle School StudentAdministrator Minutes Hours Days6145 Number of referrals for last year 2346 Number of referrals for this year 893 Average # of minutes student is out of class due to referral 20 Average # of minutes administr ator needs to process referral 15
Instructional Impact Improving social development and behavior management Creating a safe school environment Increasing student instructional time Increasing effective use of teacher and administrator time Data always needs to be utilized in moving schools forward and making decisions
Creating Culture of Collaboration
Development of Professional Learning Communities In the Appleton Area School District: RtI=PBIS and PBIS=RtI What do we want students to learn? How do we know they have learned it? How will we respond when they have not learned it? How will we respond when they already know it?
RtI=PBIS and PBIS=RtI Three Strands in Continuous School Improvement Plans Culture of Collaboration Response to Instruction Family and Community Engagement
AASD ~ Sustainability Thinking “Outside” the Box What works for your school district? Small Steps! Hiring Practices! Celebrate! Mentoring! Administrator Capacity Creative Budgets
Contact Information: We wish all of you continued success as you move your district and school sites forward with your PBIS Framework ~ Gary Mulry, AASD PBS Specialist Sheree Garvey, Coordinator of School Improvement for PBIS and Parent Partnerships
Final Thoughts... The staff member who says, “I just don’t have the time and effort to implement all of these positive behavioral strategies!” Is like the farmer who says, “I just don’t have time to build a fence ~ I am way too busy chasing the cows!!” There is no such thing as resistance to change, it is actually inadequate preparation!
Leadership Team Action Planning Worksheets: Steps Self-Assessment: Accomplishments & Priorities Leadership Team Action Planning Worksheet Session Assignments & Notes: High Priorities Team Member Note-Taking Worksheet Action Planning: Enhancements & Improvements Leadership Team Action Planning Worksheet
Coffey, J., & Horner, R. H. (2012). The sustainability of school-wide positive behavioural interventions and supports. Exceptional Children, 78, Curtis, M. J., Castillo, J. M., & Cohen, R. (2008). Best practices in system-level change. In A. Thomas & J. P. Grimes (Eds.), Best practices in school psychology V (pp ). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists. Hume, A. E., & McIntosh, K. (in press). Construct validation of a measure to assess sustainability of school-wide behavior interventions. Psychology in the Schools. Mathews, S., McIntosh, K., Frank, J. L., & May, S. (in press). Critical features predicting sustained implementation of school-wide positive behaviour support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. McIntosh, K., Horner, R. H., & Sugai, G. (2009). Sustainability of systems-level evidence-based practices in schools: Current knowledge and future directions. In W. Sailor, G. Sugai, R. H. Horner, G. Dunlap (Eds), Handbook of positive behavior support (pp ). New York: Springer. Selected References
McIntosh, K., MacKay, L. D., Hume, A. E., Doolittle, J., Vincent, C. G., Horner, R. H., & Ervin, R. A. (2011). Development and initial validation of a measure to assess factors related to sustainability of school-wide positive behaviour support. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions, 13, doi: / McIntosh, K., Mercer, S. H., Hume, A. E., Frank, J. L., Turri, M. G., & Mathews, S. (2013). Factors related to sustained implementation of school-wide positive behaviour support. Exceptional Children, 79, McIntosh, K., Predy, L. K., Upreti, G., Hume, A. E., Turri, M. G., & Mathews, S. (in press). Perceptions of contextual features related to implementation and sustainability of school-wide positive behaviour support. Journal of Positive Behaviour Interventions. Strickland-Cohen, M. K., McIntosh, K., & Horner, R. H. (in press). Sustaining effective practices in the face of administrator turnover. Teaching Exceptional Children. Selected References