Presentation on theme: "Onsite Professional Development"— Presentation transcript:
1Onsite Professional Development Nanci Smith,Judy Rex,Differentiated InstructionThe Journey to Best PracticeFebruary , 2008North Carolina Department of InstructionRaleigh, North CarolinaOnsite Professional Development
2Good Morning! Please find a seat and then do the following anchor activities: Read and complete “Rate Your Knowledge” on page 1 of your packet.Now think about the various students you have had in your classroom.Read the directions and then complete the next page.
4RATE YOUR KNOWLEDGEUse the following descriptions to rate your understanding of the terms below:I don’t know how this term relates to differentiation.I know something about how this relates to differentiation, but don’t know how to implement it or to assess it on my own.I understand the meaning of the term as it relates to differentiation and can use it to coach and supervise on my own.*****************Learning Profile ____________ Differentiated Content_________Flexible Grouping __________ Differentiated Process__________Tiered Lessons ______________ Differentiated Product__________RAFT (strategy) ____________Respectful Tasks____________Quality Curriculum Design____________Shared Management________________Adapted from Teaching Reading in Mathematics, Barton & Jordan, McRel, 2001
6DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Basic) CONTENTNote TakingKey phrasesImportant wordsMain ideasPuzzling passagesSummariesPowerful passagesKey partsEtc.RESPONSESense MakingHow to use ideasWhy an idea is importantQuestionsMeaning of key words, passagesPredictionsReactionsComments on styleEtc.
7DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Advanced) CONTENTKey passagesKey vocabularyOrganizing conceptsKey principlesKey patternsRESPONSEWhy ideas are importantAuthor’sdevelopment of elementsHow parts and whole relateAssumptions of authorKey questionsANOTHER VOICETeacherAuthorExpert in fieldCharacterSatiristPolitical cartoonistEtc.MAX
8Round the Clock Learning Buddies MyAppointment ClockMake an appointment with 12 different people – one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks.Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to something that you willbring to class each day.
9Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.”Carol Ann Tomlinson
10Teachers need to match the curriculum to the learner and assess progress…. Teachers need to match the curriculum to the learner and assess progress. This responsibility is consistent with the first core proposition of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (1999) that states:“Teachers recognize individual differences in their students and adjust their practice accordingly.” Failure to do so results in inappropriate instruction and evaluation for those who lack prerequisite skills, as well as for those who clearly are beyond the grade level standards and need expanded opportunities to develop. Therefore, grading becomes not merely a calculation exercise but rather, a reflection of the teachers’ clinical judgment for what is appropriate for each student.Ring & Reetz * Middle School Journal * Nov * p. 12
11Current Research from Middle and High School Studies In a 5-year study of five middle schools, students achieved at a higher level when teachers differentiated instruction. The effects were compared with classrooms where teachers had not had any training in differentiating and were using “same size fits all” instruction. (C. Brighton, et al., 2002)A 3-year study of test results from students in a high school where teachers are applying principles of differentiation show positive achievement gains (Strickland & Tomlinson, In Preparation).
12Differentiating for Tweens Rick Wormelli, Educational Leadership, April 2006 Teaching for tweens requires special skills - - and the willingness to do whatever it takes to ensure student success.Teach to developmental needsTreat academic struggle as strengthProvide multiple pathways to the standardsGive formative feedbackDare to be unconventionalTeachers who differentiate instruction simply do what’s fair and developmentally appropriate for students when the “regular” instruction doesn’t meet their needs.
13Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS DifferentiationIs a teacher’s response to learner’s needsGuided by general principles of differentiationRespectful tasksFlexible groupingContinual assessmentTeachers Can Differentiate Through:EnvironmentContentProcessProductAccording to Students’ReadinessInterestLearning ProfileThrough a range of strategies such as:Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTSCompacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning Centers
14What’s the point of differentiating in these different ways? Learning ProfileReadinessInterestGrowthMotivationEfficiency
15What Differentiated Instruction… ISDifferentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative.Differentiated instruction provides MULTIPLE approaches to content, process, and product.Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED.Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction.Differentiated instruction is "ORGANIC".IS NOTIndividual instructionChaoticJust another way to provide homogenous instruction (You DO use flexible grouping instead)Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loadsMore work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students
16Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners.Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji(Snow, 1982)
17Differentiation begins with the teacher’s mindset that students of any age need active involvement with and support from adults who care, to help them construct a worthy life.Carol Tomlinson, 2005
18I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often, even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent.When you last saw me, you must have had some doubt about what I might do with my life. The interesting thing, though, is that if you did have doubts, you never let me know about them. You treated me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands. The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental to you. What mattered was what I could do.I didn’t get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of lugging around my disabilities.You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no belief in myself opened the door that led here. . .R.G. .
19Kathleen - Age 14 Push me! See how far I go! Work me ‘till I drop - - Then pick me up.Open a door,And make me run to it before it closes.Teach me so that I might learn,Then show me the Tunnel of Experience,And let me walk through it alone.Then, when near the end, I look back,And see another in the tunnel.I shall smile!
20Unlocking the Meaning of Differentiation AffirmationContributionPowerPurposeChallengeThe Student SeeksImportantFocusedEngagingDemandingScaffoldedCurriculum andInstruction arethe VehicleThe Teacher RespondsInvitationOpportunityInvestmentPersistenceReflectionCarol Tomlinson, 2002
21I’d like to be able to say that our job is just to get the kids to learn newthings, think better, and be “smarter”.But the bigger picture, learning isabout what we call “the three R’s”- -relationships, relevance, and rigor.You cannot have a relationship withor make things relevant for or expectrigor from a kid you don’t know.The BIG Picture by Dennis Littkky, ASCD, p. 39
22HIGH QUALITY TEACHINGWHERE WE TEACHWHO WE TEACHHOW WE TEACHWHAT WE TEACHIT’S ABOUT HAVING ALL THE PARTS IN PLACE…
24Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
253 CRITICAL ELEMENTS in a DI Classroom Flexible use of:TimeMaterialsGrouping
27A “Typical” Day in a D.I. Class predictable, not rigid, scheduleblocks of time for units of studyprocedures defined and in placestudents assuming responsibilityVaried grouping with different activitiesvoice and choice for studentsdaily/weekly goal setting and reflectionregular community gatherings(for fun and problem solving)
28Anchor Activities A task to which a student automatically moves when an assigned task is finished,TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES:Important—related to key knowledge, understanding,and skill,Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest,learning preference,Allow Choice—students can select from a range ofoptionsClear Routines and Expectations—students knowwhat they are to do, how to do it, how tokeep records, etc.Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the workas they move around the room. Students mayturn in work for feedback. Students may geta grade for working effectively, but seldom forthe work itself. The motivation is interestand/or improved achievement.
29Anchor Activities What Do I Do If I Finish Early? Play a math or language gameFind out how to say your spelling words in another languagePractice ACT / SAT cardsSolve a challenge puzzle with write it upPractice anything!Get a jump on homeworkUse your imagination and creativity to challenge yourself!Read – comics, letters, books, encyclopedia, poetry, etc.Write – a letter, poetry in your Writer’s Notebook, a story, a comic, etc.Practice your cursive or calligraphyKeyboardingHelp someone elseCreate math story problems or puzzlesWork on independent study of your choice
30Beginning Anchor Activities… Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class very carefully.Later, it can serve as a point of departure for other anchors.Explain the rationale.Let students know you intend the activities to be helpfuland/or interesting to them.Help them understand why it’s important for them to workproductively.Make sure directions are clear and accessible, materials readilyavailable, and working conditions support success.Think about starting with one or two anchor options and expanding theoptions as students become proficient with the first ones.Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and analyze the way theyare working with your students.Encourage your students to propose anchor options.Remember that anchor activities need to stem from and be part ofbuilding a positive community of learners.
31Writing Bingo Try for one or more BINGOs this month Writing Bingo Try for one or more BINGOs this month. Remember, you must have a real reason for the writing experience! If you mail or your product, get me to read it first and initial your box! Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work.RecipeThank you noteLetter to the editorDirections to one place to anotherRules for a gameInvitationrequest for informationLetter to a pen pal, friend, or relativeSkit or sceneInterviewNewspaper articleShort storyFREEYour choiceGrocery or shopping listSchedule for your workAdvertisementCartoon stripPoemInstructionsGreeting cardLetter to your teacherProposal to improve somethingJournal for a weekDesign for a web pageBook Think Aloud
32Anchor Activities Activity Description Sheet (1 of 4)Activity Description SheetPeriodically during Technology Education class, you and your classmates will findyourself completing projects at different rates. This staggered work time is under-standable and expected in Tech Ed, because the design process does not have aspecific time schedule; each person or group using the problem solving process willencounter different roadblocks and take different steps to get around them. It’s allpart of the experience.It is NOT acceptable, however for you to “do nothing” if you finish your projectbefore other students. There is much to learn in technology education; therefore,the following activities will allow you to extend your knowledge and expertisethrough an avenue of your choosing.If you complete a technology project before the deadline, you are expected toautomatically move to one of the following activities. YOU MUST COMPLETEAND SUBMIT AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ANCHOR ACTIVITIESBEFORE THE END OF THIS COURSE, although you may complete more -- orseveral interpretations of the same activity -- if you wish.
33Anchor Activity Options Anchor Activities(2 of 4)Anchor Activity Options1. Sketch and/or write about your idea for a NEW technological invention. It canbe realistic or “sky’s the limit” dreamy. Either way, you need to include thefollowing information:The invention’s purpose - the need or want it addressesThe target audienceHow it will help the lives of its usersAny negative effects it would have on people, the environment,other businesses, etc.2. Research the occupation of your choice to determine how it uses technologyand/or the problem solving process. Use the internet, and interview, the library“Careers” collection, etc. to conduct your research. You may sketch and/or writeup your findings. Either way, you should include the following informationThe occupation’s purpose and general descriptionHow it uses technology and/or the problem-solving processHow it impacts the lives of othersAny negative effects it has on people, the environment, other businesses, etc.
34Anchor Activity Options Anchor Activities(3 of 4)Anchor Activity Options3. Sketch and/or write about how you have seen technology and/or the problemsolving process at work in your world (for example, in the lives of your familyand friends, in the news, in television shows or movies, or in your other classes).Whichever setting you choose to discuss, be sure you include the following:The purpose of the technology or problem solving processA description of the technology or problem solving processHow it impacts the lives of its usersAny negative effects it may have on people, the environment, otherbusinesses, etc.4. Look through the books and magazines on the Technology Educationreference shelves and find your favorite example of technology (this maybe from the past or the present). Describe this find through sketching and/orwriting about it. Be sure to also include the following information.The invention’s purpose - the need or want it addressesThe target audienceHow it will help the lives of its usersAny negative effects it may have on people, the environment, otherbusinesses, etc.
35Anchor Activities Activity Description Sheet (4 of 4)Activity Description SheetPlease use the computers to type up your findings. All anchor activityproducts should meet the following criteria:Include all required informationShow evidence of thought and explorationBe of professional quality (neat, attractive, and error-free)NOTE: While you are only required to complete one activity, youare required to be working on one WHENEVER you complete aproject early. Those students who regularly complete projects earlymay be required to turn in additional anchor activities.Kristina Doubet - UVA
362) Materials variety Flexible use of: choice - interest/learning profilescaffoldingcompactinghomework
37Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you select high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.
38Providing support needed for a student to succeed in work slightly beyond his/her comfort zone. ScaffoldingFor example…Directions that give more structure – or lessTape recorders to help with reading or writing beyond the student’s graspIcons to help interpret printReteaching / extending teachingModelingClear criteria for successReading buddies (with appropriate directions)Double entry journals with appropriate challengeTeaching through multiple modesUse of manipulatives when neededGearing reading materials to student reading levelUse of study guidesUse of organizersNew American LectureTomlinson, 2000
39CompactingIdentify the learning objectives or standards ALL students must learn.Offer a pretest opportunity OR plan an alternate path through the content for those students who can learn the required material in less time than their age peers.Plan and offer meaningful curriculum extensions for kids who qualify.**Depth and ComplexityAmerican Wars instead of Civil WarBeverly Cleary books instead of RamonaDiffering perspectives, ideas across time**Orbitals and Independent studies.Eliminate all drill, practice, review, or preparation for students who have already mastered such things.Keep accurate records of students’ compacting activities: document mastery.Strategy: Compacting
41Flexible Grouping Should be purposeful: Implementation: Cautions: may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readinessmay be based on needs observed during learning timesgeared to accomplish curricular goals (K – U – D)Implementation:purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observationslist groups on an overhead or place in folders or mailboxes“on the fly” as invitational groupsCautions:avoid turning groups into tracking situationsprovide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groupspractice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the groupJudy Rex, 2003
43Pre-Assigned “Standing” Groups Text TeamsThink TanksSimilar ReadinessReading PairsMixed ReadinessWriting GeneratorGroups of 4 or 5Synthesis SquadsDip SticksSets of 4 with visual, performance, writing, metaphorical (etc.) preferencesGroups of six with varied profiles used by teacher to do “dip stick”, cross-section checks of progress, understandingTeacher TalkersGroups of 5-7 with similar learning needs with whom the teacher will meet to extend and support growthPeer PartnersStudent selectedGroups 3 or 4
44Assigning GroupsClothes pins with student’s names to assign them to a particular taskColor code children to certain groups (a transparency with students names in color works well)Table tents with numbers correlated to group lists on the overheadCubing allows you to assign groups by interest or readiness level
45TransitionsDirections for transitions need to be given with clarity and urgency.Time limit for transitionAddress the acceptable noise levelRehearsal
50-CHOICE- The Great Motivator! Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning profiles.Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos – NO taking the easy way out!)Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC . . .GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!
51How Do You Like to Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet. Yes No 2. I am able to ignore the noise ofother people talking while I am working. Yes No3. I like to work at a table or desk. Yes No4. I like to work on the floor. Yes No5. I work hard by myself. Yes No6. I work hard for my parents or teacher. Yes No7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, nomatter what. Yes No8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my workand do not finish it. Yes No9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like tohave exact steps on how to complete it. Yes No10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like tocreate my own steps on how to complete it. Yes No11. I like to work by myself. Yes No12. I like to work in pairs or in groups. Yes No13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work onan assignment. Yes No14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on15. I like to learn by moving and doing. Yes No16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk. Yes No
52What Lights You Up. Below is a list of topics What Lights You Up? Below is a list of topics. To help us determine your interests, circle the five that interest you the most. Then, prioritize your five topics on the spaces below. Place the one which interests you most on space #1, and so forth through your fifth selection. Make sure to put your name on the space provided.AdvertisingAnimalsArcheologyArchitectureArts/ArtistsAstronomyAuthorsBiologyBlack HistoryCareersCartooningCastles/KnightsCivil WarChemistryCommunicationComputer ProgrammingConservationCowboysCrime/LawDreamsDeathEcologyEconomicsEnergyElections/VotingEtymologyExperimentsExplorersLegends/MythsFamous PeopleForestryFossilsFuture StudiesGender IssuesGenealogyGeneticsGeology/Rocks/MineralsGeography/MappingHobbiesIce AgeIndiansInventionsKites/Hot Air BalloonLocal HistoryMagicMedicineMusicNutritionOceanographyOperaPhobiasPhotographyPiratesPlays/ActingPoetryPollutionPresidentsRobotsRocketrySenior CitizensSign LanguageStock MarketTransportationPuppetry/MimeWeatherName:________________________________ Selection #1_____________________________Selection #2___________________________ Selection #3_____________________________Selection #4___________________________ Selection #5_____________________________Created by Jeanne Purcell
53Moderately Interested My WayAn expression Style InventoryK.E. Kettle J.S. Renzull, M.G. RizzaUniversity of ConnecticutProducts provide students and professionals with a way to express what they have learned to an audience. This survey will help determine the kinds of products YOU are interested in creating.My Name is: ____________________________________________________Instructions:Read each statement and circle the number that shows to what extent YOU are interested in creating that type of product. (Do not worry if you are unsure of how to make the product).Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested1. Writing Stories123452. Discussing what I have learned3. Painting a picture4. Designing a computer software project5. Filming & editing a video6. Creating a company7. Helping in the community8. Acting in a play
54Moderately Interested Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested9. Building an invention1234510. Playing musical instrument11. Writing for a newspaper12. Discussing ideas13. Drawing pictures for a book14. Designing an interactive computer project15. Filming & editing a television show16. Operating a business17. Working to help others18. Acting out an event19. Building a project20. Playing in a band21. Writing for a magazine22. Talking about my project23. Making a clay sculpture of a character
55Moderately Interested Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested24. Designing information for the computer internet1234525. Filming & editing a movie26. Marketing a product27. Helping others by supporting a social cause28. Acting out a story29. Repairing a machine30. Composing music31. Writing an essay32. Discussing my research33. Painting a mural34. Designing a computer35. Recording & editing a radio show36. Marketing an idea37. Helping others by fundraising38. Performing a skit
56Moderately Interested Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested39. Constructing a working model.1234540. Performing music41. Writing a report42. Talking about my experiences43. Making a clay sculpture of a scene44. Designing a multi-media computer show45. Selecting slides and music for a slide show46. Managing investments47. Collecting clothing or food to help others48. Role-playing a character49. Assembling a kit50. Playing in an orchestraProductsWrittenOralArtisticComputerAudio/VisualCommercialServiceDramatizationManipulativeMusical1. ___2. ___3. ___4. ___5. ___6. ___7. ___8. ___9. ___10.___11. ___12. ___13. ___14. ___15. ___16. ___77. ___18. ___19. ___20. ___21. ___22. ___23. ___24. ___25. ___26. ___27. ___28. ___29. ___30 . ___31. ___32. ___33. ___34. ___35. ___36. ___37. ___38. ___39. ___40. ___41. ___42. ___43. ___44. ___45. ___46. ___47. ___48. ___49. ___50. ___Total_____Instructions: My Way …A ProfileWrite your score beside each number. Add each Row to determine your expression style profile.
57SIGN THE WALLBuild some new friendships. For each ”brick” below, see if you can find a classmate who fits the description. Then ask that person to sign the brick. More than one person may sign a brick. Use the bottom row to write other interesting things you discover about your classmates.I can write myName backwardsI read at least fourBooks this summerI dream in colorI just movedI can wiggleMy earsI have aStrange pet.I can rideA horse.I have a birthday onA holidayI’ve liven in anotherCountry.I’ve lived in another decadeI built aTree houseI can play aMusical instrumentI’m a whiz atNintendoI canTap-danceI’ve climbed aMountain.I can say ‘hello’ inSign language.I can jump offThe high dive.I likeSnakesI can whistleUsing my fingersI can do aCartwheelI’m a LeapYear babyI’ve tried skiing onSnow or water.I can blow hugeBubbles with gumI lick around ice creamCones, not up and downI knowKarate.I can ride aUnicycleI already have myHalloween costumeI’d ratherBe fishingII can useChopsticks.I share a birthdayWith a famous personI can juggle.
58What Do You Want to Learn About Rome? Name: _______________________These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome.We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1to 7. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite.____ geography____ government (laws)____ agriculture (foods they grew)____ architecture (buildings)____ music and art____ religion and sports____ roles of men, women, and childrenWhat Can You Tell Us About Rome?1. What country is Rome in? ______________2. What does the word civilization mean?__________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________.3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ____________4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ________________________5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? _________________________________________________________________________________________________
59Download the file entitled “Profile Assessments for Cards.” Sample assessments for determining a variety of learning profile factors may be downloaded at:Download the file entitled “Profile Assessments for Cards.”
60Differentiated by learning profile & interest Literacy Centers Mosaic of Thought (1997) Ellin Oliver Keene, Susan ZimmermannThe Theater Corner – dramatize imagesor scenes from textThe Book Talk Zone – small groupliterature discussionsThe Artist’s Studio – artistic expression ofimages from textThe Writer’s Den – written responses tobooksDifferentiated by learning profile & interest
61Differentiation By Interest Social Studies Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things -- read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc.As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related to culture, conflict change and interdependence.
62Differentiation By Interest Social Studies She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were:music reading food bookssports/recreation transportation travelmysteries people heroes/ villainscartoons families medicineteenagers humor clothing
63Differentiation By Interest Social Studies She then asked each student or pair of students to select a topic of real interest to them and explore it throughout the unit as a guided independent study. Their job was to see what their topic showed them about life in the Civil War in general - and about culture, conflict, change and interdependence during that time.
64Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (continued) Students had as supports for their work:a planning calendarcriteria for qualitycheck-in dates- options for expressing what they learned- data gathering matrix (optional)- class discussions on findings, progress, snags-mini-lessons on research (optional)
66When A Mind Is ForcedSome price, modest or substantial, must be paid any time a mind is forced or attempts to learn or perform something in a way for which it is not wired. This happens to all of us from time to time, but the outcome is tragic when the mismatching of a mind to a set of important tasks becomes a daily event and when that poor fit is not understood. This phenomenon takes place every day in schools everywhere.Mel Levine, A Mind at a Time (2002), pp. 23
67Is Anyone Listening?Minds seek and should find their best ways of functioning during their school years, a period during which brains give off little signals that reveal what they are and are not wired for. Is anyone listening?Mel Levine, A Mind at a Time (2002), pp. 19
68Differentiation Using LEARNING PROFILE Learning profile refers to how an individual learns best - most efficiently and effectively.Teachers and their students maydiffer in learning profile preferences.
71Activity 2. 5 – The Modality Preferences Instrument (HBL, p Activity 2.5 – The Modality Preferences Instrument (HBL, p. 23) Follow the directions below to get a score that will indicate your own modality (sense) preference(s). This instrument, keep in mind that sensory preferences are usually evident only during prolonged and complex learning tasks. Identifying Sensory Preferences Directions: For each item, circle “A” if you agree that the statement describes you most of the time. Circle “D” if you disagree that the statement describes you most of the time.I Prefer reading a story rather than listening to someone tell it A DI would rather watch television than listen to the radio. A DI remember names better than faces. A DI like classrooms with lots of posters and pictures around the room. A DThe appearance of my handwriting is important to me. A DI think more often in pictures A DI am distracted by visual disorder or movement. A DI have difficulty remembering directions that were told to me. A DI would rather watch athletic events than participate in them. A DI tend to organize my thoughts by writing them down. A DMy facial expression is a god indicator of my emotions. A DI tend to remember names better than faces. A DI would enjoy taking part in dramatic events like plays. A DI tend to sub vocalize and think in sounds. A DI am easily distracted by sounds A DI easily forget what I read unless I talk about it. A DI would rather listen to the radio than A DMy handwriting is not very good A DWhen faced with a problem , I tend to talk it through. A DI express my emotions verbally A DI would rather be in a group discussion then read about a topic. A D
72Interpreting the Instrument’s Score I prefer talking on the phone rather than writing a letter to someone. A DI would rather participate in athletic events than watch them A DI prefer going to museums where I can touch the exhibits A DMy handwriting deteriorates when the space becomes smaller A DMy mental pictures are usually accompanied by movement A DI like being outdoors and doing things like biking, camping, swimming, hiking etc. A DI remember best what was done rather then what was seen or talked about A DWhen faced with a problem, I often select the solution involving the greatest activity A DI like to make models or other hand crafted items A DI would rather do experiments rather then read about them A DMy body language is a good indicator of my emotions A DI have difficulty remembering verbal directions if I have not done the activity before. A DInterpreting the Instrument’s ScoreTotal the number of “A” responses in items _____This is your visual scoreTotal the number of “A” responses in items _____This is your auditory scoreTotal the number of “A” responses in items _____This is you tactile/kinesthetic scoreIf you scored a lot higher in any one area: This indicates that this modality is very probably your preference during a protracted and complex learning situation.If you scored a lot lower in any one area: This indicates that this modality is not likely to be your preference(s) in a learning situation.If you got similar scores in all three areas: This indicates that you can learn things in almost any way they are presented.
73Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Visual Learners: Given a point and slope, the students graph lines on graph paper. They should plot the given point in one color, use a second color to show the rise form the point, and use a third color to show the run form the point. They should then plot the resulting point in a fourth color. The students should repeat the same process to find a third point on the line. Finally, using a fifth color, they should sketch the line containing all three points. The students will then apply their understanding of the process using a problem such as the following: Josh buys his first pack of baseball cards for $3, the next two packs for $4 more, and the next three packs for $6 more. Show the line that predicts how much Josh will pay for nine packs altogether. The students in this group may work individually or in pairs.
74Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Kinesthetic Learners: On a large grid on the floor, one student stands at the original point. A second student walks the rise and run from the original point to the next point on the grid, counting aloud while doing so. Another student begins where the second students is standing and repeats the process to find a third point. The students repeat this process until all the students represent points on the line. They then create the line by holding string between them. The students will then apply this same process to a problem such as the one given to the visual learner group (see above). The students in this group should work in groups of five to six students.
75Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Auditory Learners: The students will practice graphing several lines given initial points and slopes. After practicing, they will create a news bulletin that explains the process and implications of this type of graphing and will share their bulletins with the class. The students in this group may work individually or in pairs.
76EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING TYPECHARACTERISTICSLIKES TOIS GOOD ATLEARNS BEST BYLINGUISTICLEARNER“The Word Player”Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talkingReadWriteTell storiesMemorizing names, places, dates and triviaSaying, hearing and seeing wordsLOGICAL/MathematicalLearner“The Questioner”Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner.Do experimentsFigure things outWork with numbersAsk questionsExplore patterns and relationshipsMathReasoningLogicProblem solvingCategorizingClassifyingWorking with abstract patterns/relationshipsSPATIAL LEARNER“The Visualizer”Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art.Draw, build, design and create thingsDaydreamLook at pictures/slidesWatch moviesPlay with machinesImagining thingsSensing changesMazes/puzzlesReading maps, chartsVisualizingDreamingUsing the mind’s eyeWorking with colors/picturesMUSICAL LEARNER“The Music Lover”Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythmSing, hum tunesListen to musicPlay an instrumentRespond to musicPicking up soundsRemembering melodiesNoticing pitches/ rhythmsKeeping timeRhythmMelodyMusic
77EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Cont’d TYPECHARACTERISTICSLIKES TOIS GOOD ATLEARNS BEST BYBODILY/KinestheticLearner“The Mover”Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesn’t read directions but just starts on a projectMove aroundTouch and talkUse body languagePhysical activities(Sports/dance/acting)craftsTouchingMovingInteracting with spaceProcessing knowledge through bodily sensationsINTERpersonal“The Socializer”Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community.Have lots of friendsTalk to peopleJoin groupsUnderstanding peopleLeading othersOrganizingCommunicatingManipulatingMediating conflictsSharingComparingRelatingCooperatinginterviewingINTRApersonal“The Individual”Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group.Work alonePursue owninterestsUnderstanding selfFocusing inward on feelings/dreamsPursuing interests/goalsBeing originalWorking alongIndividualized projectsSelf-paced instructionHaving own spaceNATURALIST“The Nature Lover”Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature.Physically experience natureDo observationsResponds to patterning natureExploring natural phenomenonSeeing connectionsSeeing patternsReflective ThinkingDoing observationsRecording events in NatureWorking in pairsDoing long term projects
78Self Assessment: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Where does your true intelligence (processing ability) lie? This quiz can help you determine where you stand. Read each statement. If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part jot down a “T”. If it doesn’t mark and “F”. If the statement is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank._____ I’d rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions._____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument._____ I can associate music with my moods._____ I can add or multiply quickly in my head._____ I like to work with calculators and computers._____ I pick up new dance steps quickly._____ It’s easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate._____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech, or sermon._____ I always know north from south no matter where I am._____ Life seems empty without music._____ I always understand the directions that comes with new gadgets or appliances._____ I like to work puzzles and play games._____ Learning to ride a bike (or skate) was easy._____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical._____ My sense of balance and coordination is good._____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others._____ I enjoy building models (or sculpting)._____ I am good at finding the the fine points of word meanings._____ I can look at an object one way and see it turned sideways or backwards just as easily._____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life._____ I like to work with numbers and figures._____ Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me._____ I like to hum, whistle, and sing in the shower or when I am alone._____ I’m good at athletics._____ I’d like to study the structure and logic or languages._____ I’m usually aware of the expressions on my face._____ I’m sensitive to the expressions on other people’s faces._____ I stay in touch with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them._____I am sensitive to the moods of others._____ I have a good sense of what others think of me.
79Linguistic Logical/Math. Musical Spatial Scoring SheetPlace a checkmark by each item, which you marked as "True." Add your totals. A total of (four in any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F through G a score of one or more means you have abilities in these areas as well.A B C DLinguistic Logical/Math. Musical Spatial7 ____ 4 ____ 2 ____ 1 ____8 ____ 5 ____ 3 ____ 9 ____14 ___ 12 ___ 10 ___ 11 ___18 ___ 16 ___ 20 ___ 19 ___25 ___ 21 ___ 23 ___ 22 ___E F GBody/Kinesthetic Intrapersonal Interpersonal6 ____ 26 ___ 27 ___13 ___ 28 ___ 29 ___15 ___ __17 ___24 ___
80The Road Not Taken 10th Grade English The task card reads:We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should:Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s going on with it and what it means.
81The Road Not Taken 10th Grade English Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month.Develop a soundscape which takes us along Frost’s “journey in the woods” using music, found sounds, sound effects, and appropriate mime, body sculpture or narration to help your audience understand the feelings which a “journeyer in the woods” would have as they come to straight places, landmarks, decision points, etc.Create an “overlay” of his life and the poem, using words and images in such a way that they illustrate the metaphorical relationships between the two.Transfer the key ideas in the poem to the life and experience of a noted person about whom we are all likely to know a bit – and about whom we are likely to be able to learn a bit more. Your “transfer” must be shared with the class in a way which is clear in regard to the person and the poem, and clarifying in regard to ways in which literature can help us understand ourselves.
82The Road Not Taken 10th Grade English Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you are working.As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work.
83Sternberg’s Three Intelligences CreativeAnalyticalPracticalWe all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others.We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students……but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.
84STERNBERG’S INTELLIGENCES ANALYTICALLinear – Schoolhouse Smart - SequentialPRACTICALStreetsmart – Contextual – Focus on UseCREATIVEInnovator – Outside the Box – What IfAn idea for assessing students according to Sternberg’s intelligences would be to five the following scenario:Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know?Do you want to know all the little details that go into it?Do you want to know how it is being used?Do you want to know only enough information to think of other things to do?Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question are the creative learners.
85Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences ANALYTICALLinear – Schoolhouse Smart - SequentialShow the parts of _________ and how they work.Explain why _______ works the way it does.Diagram how __________ affects __________________.Identify the key parts of _____________________.Present a step-by-step approach to _________________.PRACTICALStreetsmart – Contextual – Focus on UseDemonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work.Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____.Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used.Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem.CREATIVEInnovator – Outside the Box – What If - ImproverFind a new way to show _____________.Use unusual materials to explain ________________.Use humor to show ____________________.Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________.Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________.Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ____________.
86Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity.Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story ___Designing new things ___Taking things apart and fixing them ___Comparing and contrasting points of view ___Coming up with ideas ___Learning through hands-on activities ___Criticizing my own and other kids’ work ___Using my imagination ___Putting into practice things I learned ___Thinking clearly and analytically ___Thinking of alternative solutions ___Working with people in teams or groups ___Solving logical problems ___Noticing things others often ignore ___Resolving conflicts ___
87Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity.Evaluating my own and other’s points of view ___Thinking in pictures and images ___Advising friends on their problems ___Explaining difficult ideas or problems to others ___Supposing things were different ___Convincing someone to do something ___Making inferences and deriving conclusions ___Drawing ___Learning by interacting with others ___Sorting and classifying ___Inventing new words, games, approaches ___Applying my knowledge ___Using graphic organizers or images to organize your thoughts ___Composing ___30. Adapting to new situations ___
88Triarchic Theory of Intelligences – Key Robert Sternberg Transfer your answers from the survey to the key. The column with the most True responses is your dominant intelligence.Analytical Creative Practical1. ___ ___ ___4. ___ ___ ___7. ___ ___ ___10. ___ ___ ___13. ___ ___ ___16. ___ ___ ___19. ___ ___ ___22. ___ ___ ___25. ___ ___ ___28. ___ ___ ___Total Number of True:Analytical ____ Creative _____ Practical _____
89Sternberg Learning Profiles -Short Quiz 1 Tools for High Quality Differentiation, Cindy Strickland Imagine you are walking past a newsstand and notice the cover of a new magazine called Inventions Today. You are intrigued by the headline describing a new product, so you buy the magazine. What will you do next?Read the article carefully so that you can understand all of the details involved in designing the product.(analytical)Read the article to find out how the product is being used. (practical)Read the article and think of ways to alter or improve the product. (creative)
90Sternberg Learning Profiles -Short Quiz 2 Tools for High Quality Differentiation, Cindy Strickland Which of the following sets of verbs MOST appeals to you?Analyze, judge, critique, compare, contrast, evaluate diagram, identify, explain, present a step-by-step approach, assessInvent, discover, imagine, suppose, design, predict, find a new way, use unusual materials, promote, encourage, developImplement, apply, use, demonstrate, teach, put into practice, convince show how, employ, make practical(First set - analytical; second set - creative,third set - practical)
91Triarchic Theory Distance = rate x time Solve for d = r t (Analytical) Design your own formula for d = r t (Creative)Estimate the time it takes to fly from Charlottesville, Virginia to Madrid (Practical)Yale Summer Psychology Program
92Evaluating Plot Analytical Task Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteriaAnalytical TaskExperts suggest that an effective plot is: believable, has events that follow a logical and energizing sequence, has compelling characters and has a convincing resolution.Select a story that you believe does have an effective plot based on these three criteria as well as others you state. Provide specific support from the story for your positions.ORSelect a story you believe has an effective plot in spite of the fact that it does not meet these criteria. Establish the criteria you believe made the story’s plot effective. Make a case, using specific illustrations from the story, that “your” criteria describes an effective plot
93Evaluating Plot Practical Task Creative Task Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteriaPractical TaskA local TV station wants to air teen-produced digital videos based on well known works. Select and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure your storyboards at least have a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters and a convincing resolution. Note other criteria on which you feel the plot’s effectiveness should also be judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner based on these and other criteria you state.Creative TaskPropose an original story you fell has a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters, and a convincing resolution. You may write it, storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find a way to demonstrate that your story achieves these criteria as well as any others you note as important.
94Array Interaction Inventory Directions:Rank order the responses in rows below on a scale from 1 to 4 with 1 being “least like me” to 4 being “most like me”.After you have ranked each row, add down each column.The column(s) with the highest score(s) shows your primary Personal Objective(s) in your personality.In your normal day-to-day life, you tend to be:NurturingSensitiveCaringLogicalSystematicOrganizedSpontaneouscreativePlayfulQuietInsightfulreflectiveIn your normal day-to-day life, you tend to value:HarmonyRelationships are importantWorkTime schedules are importantStimulationHaving fun is importantReflectionHaving some time alone is importantIn most settings, you are usually:AuthenticCompassionateHarmoniousTraditionalResponsibleParentalActiveOpportunisticInventiveCompetentSeekingIn most situations, you could be described as:EmpatheticCommunicativeDevotedPracticalCompetitiveLoyalImpetuousImpactfulDaringConceptualKnowledgeableComposed
95Array Interaction Inventory, cont’d You approach most tasks in a(n) _________ manner:AffectionateInspirationalVivaciousConventionalOrderlyConcernedCourageousAdventurousImpulsiveRationalPhilosophicalComplexWhen things start to “not go your way” and you are tired and worn down, what might your responses be?Say “I’m sorry”Make mistakesFeel badlyOver-controlBecome criticalTake charge“It’s not my fault”ManipulateAct outWithdrawDon’t talkBecome indecisiveWhen you’ve “had a bad day” and you become frustrated, how might you respond?Over-pleaseCryFeel depressedBe perfectionisticVerbally attackOverworkBecome physicalBe irresponsibleDemand attentionDisengageDelayDaydreamAdd score:HarmonyProductionConnectionStatus Quo
96Personal Objectives/Personality Components Teacher and student personalities are a critical element in the classroom dynamic. The Array Model (Knaupp, 1995) identifies four personality components; however, one or two components(s) tend to greatly influence the way a person sees the world and responds to it. A person whose primary Personal Objective of Production is organized, logical and thinking-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Connection is enthusiastic, spontaneous and action-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Status Quo is insightful, reflective and observant. Figure 3.1 presents the Array model descriptors and offers specific Cooperative and Reluctant behaviors from each personal objective.Personal Objectives/Personality ComponentHARMONYPRODUCTIONCONNECTIONSTATUS QUOCOOPERATIVE(Positive Behavior)CaringSensitiveNurturingHarmonizingFeeling-orientedLogicalStructuredOrganizedSystematicThinking-orientedSpontaneousCreativePlayfulEnthusiasticAction-orientedQuietImaginativeInsightfulReflectiveInaction-orientedRELUCTANT(Negative Behavior)OveradaptiveOverpleasingMakes mistakesCries or gigglesSelf-defeatingOvercriticalOverworksPerfectionistVerbally attacksDemandingDisruptiveBlamesIrresponsibleDemands attentionDefiantDisengagingWithdrawnDelaysDespondentDaydreamsPSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDSFriendshipsSensory experienceTask completionTime scheduleContact with peopleFun activitiesAlone timeStabilityWAYS TO MEET NEEDSValue their feelingsComfortable work placePleasing learning environmentWork with a friend sharing timesValue their ideasIncentivesRewardsLeadership positionsSchedulesTo-do listsValue their activityHands-on activitiesGroup interactionGamesChange in routineValue their privacyIndependent activitiesSpecific directionsComputer activitiesRoutine tasks
98BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System: RAS = “Toggle Switch” Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time:HIGHMIDDLELOWHot (EEG)Mild (EEG)Cold (EEG – sleeplike)Limbic arousedCortical arousalBrain StemFlight / FightProblem SolvingSleep / Relaxation (depression)Out of ControlIn ControlOff DutyCarbohydratesProteinsCarbohydrates/DairyBurnoutAchievementDepressionExtreme ChallengeModerate ChallengeNo Challenge“Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard GardnerLearning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position
99everyone getting the same thing. Fairness is noteveryone getting the same thing.It is everyone gettingwhat they need.
101WHAT ZONE AM I IN? Too Easy On Target Too Hard I get it right away… I know some things… I don’t know where to start…I already know how… I have to think… I can’t figure it out…This is a cinch… I have to work… I’m spinning my wheels…I’m sure to get an A… I have to persist… I’m missing key skills…I’m coasting… I hit some walls… I fell frustrated…I feel relaxed… I’m on my toes… I feel angry…I’m bored… I have to re-group… This makes no sense…No big effort needed… I fell challenged… My effort doesn’t pay off…Effort leads to success…THIS is the place to be! THIS is the ACHIEVEMENT ZONE!
102Middle Schoolers Answer the Question, “What Does it Feel Like When Classes Move too Slowly?”I try my best to pay attention, but it can be really hard. I try to copydown absolutely everything so I can maybe learn something.I always play with my shoes.I read ahead in the book.I draw tanks and airplanes.I make up complicated math problems.I figure out a 20 factorial.I plan out my day.I color my nails with my pen.I plan my after-school activities.Sometimes I try to answer a question and explain things in a differentway so we can move the class forward, but it make teachersmad sometimes.One thing my sister taught me to do is to listen to music in my head,or to think back to a movie, to its funny parts.I write lyrics to songs in my head.When I had braces, I used to play with my braces, and I had bracesfor four years!
103Some Elementary Students Answer the Question, “What’s it Like When You Feel Lost in Class?”I feel scared. Sometimes I try to listen harderbut mostly it doesn’t work.I get mad.I want to go home and watch TV.After a while, I give up.I wish the teacher would know how I feel and would help me.I feel dumb.I don’t like the subject very much.I tell myself maybe I will get it tomorrow.I daydream.Sometimes I get in trouble.I play with my hair. My mom doesn’t like when I do that.I wish I was smart.
104A Few Routes to READINESS DIFFERENTIATION Varied texts by reading levelVaried supplementary materialsVaried scaffoldingreadingwritingresearchtechnologyTiered tasks and proceduresFlexible time useSmall group instructionHomework optionsTiered or scaffolded assemssmentCompactingMentorshipsNegotiated criteria for qualityVaried graphic organizers
105LESS-DEVELOPED READINESS LEVEL Students with less developed readiness mayneed:someone to help them identify and make up gaps in theirlearning so they can move ahead;more opportunities for direct instructional practice;activities or products that are more structured or moreconcrete with fewer steps, closer to their ownexperiences, and calling on simpler reading skills: ora more deliberate pace of learning.C.A. Tomlinson, 1999
108Developing a Tiered Activity 12Select the activity organizerconceptgeneralizationThink about your students/use assessmentsreadiness rangeinterestslearning profiletalentsEssential to buildinga framework ofunderstandingskillsreadingthinkinginformation3Create an activity that isinterestinghigh levelcauses students to usekey skill(s) to understanda key idea4Chart the complexity of the activityHigh skill/ComplexityLow skill/complexity5Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, inmaterials – basic to advancedform of expression – from familiar to unfamiliarfrom personal experience to removed from personal experienceequalizer6Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements
109Tiering a LessonWhat range of learning needs are you likely to address?What should students know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the lesson?Know:Understand:Be Able to Do:What’s your “starting point lesson?” How will you hook the students?What’s your first cloned version?What’s your second cloned version of this activity?What’s your third cloned version of this activity?
110The Equalizer Foundational Transformational Concrete Abstract 3. Simple Complex4. Single Facet Multiple Facets5. Small Leap Great Leap6. More Structured More Open7. Less Independence Greater Independence8. Slow QuickInformation, Ideas, Materials, ApplicationsRepresentations, Ideas, Applications, MaterialsResources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, GoalsDirections, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary ConnectionsApplication, Insight, TransferSolutions, Decisions, ApproachesPlanning, Designing, MonitoringPace of Study, Pace of Thought
111Thinking About The Equalizer Foundational TransformationalInformation, Ideas, Materials, Applications-close to text or experience-expert idea and skill tosimilar or familiar setting-use key idea or skill alone-fundamental skills andknowledge emphasized-fewer permutations of skillsand ideas-removed from text or experience-export idea or skill to unexpected orunfamiliar setting-use key idea or skill with unrelated idea orskill-use but move beyond fundamental skillsand knowledge-more permutations of skills and ideasFoundational to Transformational. When an idea is new to some students, or if it’s not in one of their stronger areas, they often need supporting information about the idea that is clear and plainly worded. Then they usually need time to practice applying the idea in a straightforward way. In these instances, the materials they use and the tasks they do should be foundational – that is, basic and presented in ways that help them build a solid foundation of understanding. At other times, when something is already clear to them or is in a strength area, they need to move along quickly. They need information that shows them intricacies about the idea. They need to stretch and bend the idea and see how it interacts with other ideas to create a new thought. Such conditions require materials and tasks that are more transformational.For example, one child may benefit from a more basic task of classifying animals by body covering, which another may need the more transformational task of predicting how changes in environment would likely affect the body covering of several animals. In a math class, one young learner may be ready for a basic application of the concept of fractions by cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given fraction. An appropriate challenge for another student may be the more transformational task of writing measures of music that represent certain fractions.
112Thinking About The Equalizer 2. Concrete AbstractRepresentations, Ideas, Applications, Materials-hold in hand or hands on-tangible-literal-physical manipulation-event based-event to principle-demonstrated and explained-hold in mind or minds on-intangible-symbolic or metaphorical-mental manipulation-idea based-principle without event-not demonstrated or explainedConcrete to Abstract. Students usually need to become familiar with the key information or material about an area of study before they can successfully look at its implications, meanings, or interrelationships. However, once they have grasped the information in a concrete way, it’s important that they move on to meanings and implications. Working with concrete information should open a door for meaningful abstraction later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot (more concrete) typically has to precede investigations of theme (more abstract). But ultimately, all students need to delve into the meanings of stories, not just the events. The issue here is readiness or timing.
113Thinking About The Equalizer 3. Simple ComplexResources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals-use idea or skill being taught-work with no one, or few abstractions-emphasizes appropriateness-requires relatively less originality-more common vocabulary-more accessible readability-combine idea or skill being taught with those previous taught-work with multiple abstractions-emphasizes elegance-requires relatively more originality-more advanced vocabulary- more advanced readabilitySimple to Complex. Sometimes students need to see only the big picture of a topic or area of study, just its “skeleton,” without many details. Even adults often find it helpful to read a children’s book on black holes, for example, before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking. When the big picture is needed, your students need resources, research, issues, problems, skills, and goals that help them achieve a framework of understanding with clarity. On the other hand, when the “skeleton” is clear to them, they’ll find it more stimulating to add “muscle, bone, and nerves,” moving from simple to complex. Some students may need to work more simply with one abstraction at a time; others may be able to handle the complexity of multiple abstractions.For example, some students may be ready to work with the theme in a story (a single abstraction), while other students look at inter-relationships between themes and symbols (multiple abstractions, or complexity).
114Thinking About The Equalizer 4. Single Facet Multiple FacetsDisciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of Development-fewer parts-fewer steps-fewer stages-more parts-more steps-more stagesSingle Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes students are at peak performance when working on problems, projects, or dilemmas that involve only a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be all that some students can handle to make a connection between what they studied in science today and what they studied last week. Those with greater understanding and facility in an area of study are ready for and more challenged by following complicated directions. They are more challenged by solving problems that are multifaceted or require great flexibility of approach, or by being asked to make connections between subjects that scarcely seemed related before.5. Small Leap Great LeapApplication, Insight, Transfer-few unknowns-relative comfort with most elements-less need to change familiar elements-requires less flexible thought-few gaps in required knowledge-more evolutionary-many unknowns-relative unfamiliarity with many elements-more need to change familiar elements-requires more flexible thought-significant gaps in required knowledge-more revolutionarySmall Leap to Great Leap. Note that this continuum does not provide the option of “no leap.” Students should always have to run ideas through their minds and figure out how to use them. Activities that call only for absorption and regurgitation are generally of little long-term use.But for some students, learning about how to measure area and then applying that learning by estimating and verifying the area of the hamster house compared to the teacher’s desk may be enough of a leap of application and transfer – at least in the beginning. Other students may be able to more from estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed to a building project and proportional cost implications of increasing the building area. In both cases, students make mental leaps from reading information on a page to using that information. The latter task calls for relatively greater leaps of application, insight, and transfer..
115Thinking About The Equalizer 6. More Structured More OpenSolutions, Decisions, Approaches-more directions or more precise directions-more modeling-relatively less student choice-fewer directions-less modeling-relatively more student choiceStructured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid out for them, where they don’t have too many decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or delineated routes. Being new to a computer or word processor often requires completing programmed and closed lessons that involve “right” answers to become knowledgeable -- and comfortable – with basic operation and keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of graphics to illustrate ideas in a formal presentation. Following a predetermined format for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab often makes more sense than improvisation.At other times, however, students are ready to explore the computer, craft their own essays designed to address a communication need, or create a chemistry lab that demonstrates principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most of us become confident enough to eventually “wing it.” But when modeling has served its purpose, it’s time to branch out and get creative.7. Clearly Defined Fuzzy ProblemsIn process, In Research, In Products-few unknowns-more algorithmic-narrower range of acceptable responses or approaches-only relevant data provided-problem specified-more unknowns-more heuristic-wider range of acceptable responses or approaches-extraneous data provided-problem unspecified or ambiguous
116Thinking About The Equalizer 8. Less Independence More IndependencePlanning, Designing, Monitoring-more teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on:problem identificationgoal settingestablishing timelinesfollowing timelinessecuring resourcesuse of resourcescriteria for successformulation of a productevaluation-more teacher scaffolding-learning the skills of independence-less teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on-less teacher scaffolding-demonstrating the skills of independenceDependent to Independent. A goal for all learners is independent study, thought, and production. But just as some students gain height more quickly than others, some will be ready for greater independence earlier than others. Their needs in developing independence generally fall into one of these four stages:Skill building, when students need to develop the ability to make simple choices, follow through with short-term tasks, and use directions appropriately.Structured independence, when students make choices from teacher-generated options, follow prescribed time lines, and engage in self-evaluation according to preset criteria to complete longer-term and more complex tasks.Shared independence, when students generate problems to be solved, design tasks, set time lines, and establish criteria for evaluation. The teacher helps “tighten” or focus the plans and monitors the production process.Self-guided independence, when students plan, execute, and seek help or feedback only when needed.By guiding students across this continuum at individually appropriate speeds, you and your students are less likely to become frustrated by tasks that require greater independence.
118Character MapCharacter Name____________How the character looks____________How the character thinks or acts____________Most important thing to know about the character___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
119Character Map Character Name____________ What the character says or does____________What the character really MEANS to say or do____________What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _____________________________________________________________________________________
120Character Map Character Name____________ Clues the author gives us about the character____________Why the author gives THESE clues____________The author’s bottom line about this character ______________________________________________________________________________________________________
125Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
126Two Views of Assessment -- Assessment is for:GatekeepingJudgingRight AnswersControlComparison to othersUse with single activitiesAssessment is for:NurturingGuidingSelf-ReflectionInformationComparison to taskUse over multiple activities
127Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.)Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.)Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.Assessments are part of “teaching for success.”Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth.Assessment MAY be differentiated.Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades.Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
128WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? READINESS LEARNING PROFILE INTEREST Content Areas of Strengthand WeaknessWork PreferencesSelf AwarenessInterest SurveysInterest CentersSelf-SelectionContentKnowledgeSkillsConcepts
129Ongoing Assessment Strategies Work alone or with a partner. Read over the examples in the next 14 slides.Make note of any questions you may have.How could you use these strategies to drive instruction?How will ongoing assessment help you teach for success?
131Pre-AssessmentWhat the student already knows about what is being plannedWhat standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understandsWhat further instruction and opportunities for mastery are neededWhat requires reteaching or enhancementWhat areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the studyHow to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group
135Assessment Strategies to Support Success 4. Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment)Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a Key understanding questionStudents read their question to groupScorecard Keeper records # of students for each question who are:Really surePretty sureFoggycluelessStudents scramble to groups with same question they have/prepare solid answerGo back to original groups, share answersRe-read questionsRe-do scoreboardReport before and after scoreboards
136Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Civil Rights. Write as much as you can. DefinitionInformationPatriotismExamplesNon-Examples
138Exit Cards List 3 things you learned today 2 things you’d like to learn more about1 question you still have
139EXIT CARDS Today you began to learn about hyperbole. List three things you learned.Write at least one question you have about this topic.
140EXIT CARDS We have begun a study of author’s craft. List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girl by Michael Dorris.
141EXIT CARDS On your exit card--- Explain the difference between simile andmetaphor. Give someexamples of each aspart of your explanation.
1423-2-1 Summarizer 3 revisions I can make to improve After reading over my rough draft---3 revisions I can make to improvemy draft.2 resources I can use to help improve1 thing I really like about my firstdraft.
144Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals.(Reeves 2000, 10)
145Four Criteria of Quality Feedback It must be timely.It must be specific.It must be understandable to the receiver.It must allow the student to act on the feedback (refine, revise, practice, and retry).Wiggins, 1998
146We know that more frequent feedback is associated with improved student work ethic, motivation, and performance.WILL WE CHANGETHE TIMING OFOUR FEEDBACK?Douglas B. ReevesAccountability for Learning
148Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.All students participate in respectful work.Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD148
149High quality curriculum and instruction: Is clearly focused on the essential understandings and skills of the discipline that a professional would value.Is mentally and affectively engaging to the learner.Is joyful – or at least satisfying.Provides choices.Is clear in expectations.Allows meaningful collaboration.Is focused on products (something students make or do) that matters to studentsConnects with students’ lives and world.Is fresh and surprising.,Seems real (is real) to the student.Is coherent (organized, unified, sensible) to the student.Is rich, deals with profound ideas.Stretches the student.Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting and important ways.Involves the student in setting goals for their learning and assessing progress toward those goals.Tomlinson ‘00149
150Designing effective instruction requires an answer to three basic questions: Where are you going with this instruction – what is the end goal?How do you plan to get to that end goal?How will you know when students have reached the planned goal?
151Planning a Focused Curriculum Means Clarity AboutWhat Students Should:KnowFacts (Columbus cam to the “New World”Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy)Concepts (exploration, change)Principles/Generalizations (Change can be both positive and negative. Exploration results in change. People’s perspectives affect how they respond to change).SkillsBasic (literacy, numeracy)Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning)Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies)Planning (goal setting; use of time)SocialProductionUnderstandBe Able to DoAs a Result of a Lesson, Lesson Sequence, Unit, and yearIn general, these are held steady as a core for nearly all learners in a differentiated classroom**Exception--linear skills and information which can be assessed for mastery in the sequence (e.g. spelling)
153What’s the point of differentiating in these different ways? Learning ProfileReadinessInterestGrowthMotivationEfficiency
154Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you have high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.
155RESPECTFUL TASKSRespectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike.A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently as they develop their understanding and skill.
158USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES. The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research:Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude.Lecturing, a common teaching strategy, is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presentedHands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement.Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics.Despite the research supporting hands-on activity, it is a fairly uncommon instructional approach.Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world.
159RAFT RAFT is an acronym that stands for Role of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object?Audience. Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object?Format. What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song?Topic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
161RAFT ACTIVITY ON FRACTIONS RoleAudienceFormatTopicFractionWhole NumberPetitionsTo be considered Part of the FamilyImproper FractionMixed NumbersReconciliation LetterWere More Alike than DifferentA Simplified FractionA Non-Simplified FractionPublic Service AnnouncementA Case for SimplicityGreatest Common FactorCommon FactorNursery RhymeI’m the Greatest!Equivalent FractionsNon EquivalentPersonal AdHow to Find Your Soul MateLeast Common FactorMultiple Sets of NumbersRecipeThe Smaller the BetterLike Denominators in an Additional ProblemUnlike Denominators in an Addition ProblemApplication formTo Become A Like DenominatorA Mixed Number that Needs to be Renamed to Subtract5th Grade Math StudentsRiddleWhat’s My New NameLike Denominators in a Subtraction ProblemUnlike Denominators in a Subtraction ProblemStory BoardHow to Become a Like DenominatorBakerDirectionsTo Double the RecipeEstimated SumFractions/Mixed NumbersAdvice ColumnTo Become Well Rounded
170Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract A Learning Contract has the followingcomponentsA Skills ComponentFocus is on skills-based tasksAssignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readinessStudents work at their own level and paceA content componentFocus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings)Requires sense making and productionAssignment is based on readiness or interestA Time LineTeacher sets completion date and check-in requirementsStudents select order of work (except for required meetings and homework)4. The AgreementThe teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their timeStudents agree to use the time responsiblyGuidelines for working are spelled outConsequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineatedSignatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreementDifferentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997
172Menu: ____________________ Menu PlannerMenu: ____________________Due: All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be completed by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may decide to do some of the dessert items as well.Main Dish (complete all)Side Dish (select ____)DessertWinning Strategies for Classroom Management
173Poetry Matters Book Project Main Dish: You must complete all of these tasks.1. Create a colorful and artistic cover for your poetry book.2. Include at least 3 samples of your own poetry.3. Include poems from at least 3 different authors you think are excellent examples of inner (heart map) and/or outer vision (imagery, similes, metaphors). They should be different forms and/or styles.4. Share at least one poem (your own or another author) with the class.5. Include your heart map.6. Create a list of wild, wonderful, and/or wacky words for writing. Put at least 2 on our word wall and place the list in your book.
174Side Dishes: Select at least 2 tasks from the following list. 1. Illustrate at least one of the poems in your collection.2. Use musical instruments to accompany a poem while sharing it.3. Do a dramatic interpretation of a poem.4. Write, revise, edit and illustrate at least 2 haiku poems.5. Write, revise, edit and illustrate at least 2 cinquian poems.6. Write, revise, edit and illustrate an alliterative poem.7. Write, revise, edit and illustrate or musically accompany a poemusing onomatopoeia.8. Create a list of poetic phrases from a variety of books. Notewhat book each one was selected from.
175Dessert: Choose as many as these as you would like to be an X Factor Learner! 1. Type your poems and import pictures to illustrate them.2. Illustrate all of your poems,.3. Collect metaphors and similes and create a way to display them.4. Research a known poet. Tell us about his/her life and style ofwriting. Also, let us know why you find this poet interesting.5. Learn about narrative poems and write at least one.6. Create a shape poem. Use color and illustration to present it.7. Create a Table of Contents for your book.8. Create a Poetry Glossary for your book.9. Create a poem for 2 voices and perform it.10. Choose 2 different poems to compare and contrast. Explainhow they are similar and different.
176to Differentiate Product Waysto Differentiate ProductChoices based on readiness, interest, and learning profileClear expectationsTimelinesAgreementsProduct GuidesRubricsEvaluation
178Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student: Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, cont’dDecide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote success:Brainstorming for ideasDeveloping rubrics/criteria for successTimelinesPlanning/goal-settingStoryboardingCritiquingRevising-editingDevelop a product assignment that clearly says to the student:You should show you understand and can do these thingsProceeding through these steps/stagesIn this formatAt this level of qualityDifferentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on:Student readinessStudent interestStudents learning profileCoach for success!It is your job, as teacher, to make explicitThat which you thought was implicitTomlinson, C.
181PRODUCT OPTIONS The Good Life.... Making Choices About Tobacco Use Use key facts from class and researchMake a complete caseProvide defensible evidence for the caseWeight varied viewpointsBe appropriate/useful for its target audienceGive evidence of revision & quality in content & presentationBe thought-provoking rather than predictableVisualOralComic book parody with smoking super/ heroes super/ heroinesStory boards for t.v. “ad” using few/no words to make the pointRadio-spot (public information with music timed, lead-in)T. Koppel C. Roberts with teen who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person with emphysemaWrittenKinestheticBrochure for pediatrian’s office – patients 9-16 as target audience – with graphicsResearch and write editorial that compares the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C. – submit for publicationPantomine a struggle of “will” regarding smoking—including a decision with rationaleAct out printed skit on pressures to smoke an reasons not to smoke
182Teacher Created Product Checklist StandardsYESNO1. Instruction provided prior to product assignment.2. Provide on-going support as needed throughout product assignment.3. A clear standard of high expectations is communicated.4. Clear concise directions are provided.5. A menu of product options supports varied learning styles.6. Timelines, rationale and parental support are communicated.7. Product challenges a full range of readiness levels.8. Product designed to expand on all key concepts.9. Product designed to expand on skills.10. Product designed to expand on principles11. Product assignment necessitates creativity.12. Product assignment supports creativity.13. Product facilitates students use of knowledge.14. Product facilitates students use of skills.15. Product uses timelines, check in dates or process logs.16. Product uses varied forms of expression and technology.17. Formative or Summative evaluation by peers.18. Formative or Summative evaluation by self.19. Formative or Summative evaluation by teacher.
183Unit Objectives As a result of this unit, the students will know: As a result of this unit, the students will understand that:As a result of this unit, the student will be able to:Instructional Strategies Used in this Unit
185Unit SequenceLESSON SEQUENCE AND DESCRIPTIONTEACHER MUSINGS
186Exit Ticket for Jigsaw Activity On the index card provided, write your name, grade level and content area. Under your name please list the strategies from most interested to least interested.Multiple IntelligenceTriarchic TheoryCubing/ThinkDOTSContractsRAFT
188Student Voice and Involvement Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH:HeinemannStudent Voice and InvolvementBalanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities:Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc.Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assessSome themes / inquiries are built from students’own questionsStudents assume responsibility and take rolesin decision making
190“I’VE COME TO A FRIGHTENING CONCLUSION THAT I AM THE DECISIVE ELEMENT IN THE CLASSROOM. IT’S MY PERSONAL APPROACH THAT CREATES THE CLIMATE. IT’S MY DAILY MOOD THAT MAKES THE WEATHER. AS A TEACHER, I HAVE A TREMENDOUS POWER TO MAKE A CHILD’S LIFE MISERABLE OR JOYOUS. I CAN BE A TOOL OF TORTURE OR AN INSTRUMENT OF INSPIRATION. I CAN HUMILIATE OR HUMOR, HURT OR HEAL. IN ALL SITUATIONS, IT IS MY RESPONSE THAT DECIDES WHETHER A CRISIS WILL BE ESCALATED OR DEESCALATED AND A CHILD HUMANIZED OR DEHUMANIZED.”Ginott
191Setting up a DI Classroom **Collaborative Front Loading** Procedures and routinesClassroom agreements/cuesClass meetingsHome Base seatingAnchor ActivitiesClock PartnersConflict ResolutionGoal Setting
193Organized Flexibility Procedures defined and practiced! Anchor activitiesWhite board messagesStackers, wall-folders, etc. by classSignalsName sticksQuestion chipsExpert “Yellow Pages”Task Cards, tape recorders, etc.Classroom supplies and arrangementTurn in foldersExit CardsCalendarsFlexible seating: practice changing groupings and home baseWhere to get notes, RICE (Recall, Imagine, Check, Expert of the Day), 3 before MeJudy Rex and Nanci Smith, 2002
195because the system works for them! Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the systembecause the system works for them!
19610 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction based on student readiness, interest and learning profile.Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you.Tine differentiated activities for student success.Use an “anchor activity” to free you up to focus your attention on your students.Create and deliver instructions carefully.
19710 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom Have a “home base” for students.Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group.Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible.Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes.Use flexible grouping.
198A Game Plan for Differentiation 1. Sharpen the curriculumFocus (K-U-D)HookRatchetTighten2. Assess the studentsPre-assessments for ReadinessInterest InventoriesLearning Preference SurveysAnecdotal Data
1993. Design instructionMap the content, process, and productWhole class, small group, individual (flexible grouping)4. Match tasks to learner needAdjust for Readiness, interest, learning profileVary strategiesAlign with KUD
2005. Bring the students on board Develop rationaleEstablish routines and proceduresFocus on shared decision-makingBuild autonomy6. Reflect and refineKeep the loop goingAdapted from C. Tomlinson
201Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep DifferentiationChoices of booksHomework optionsUse of reading buddiesVaried journal PromptsOrbitalsVaried pacing with anchor optionsStudent-teaching goal settingWork alone / togetherWhole-to-part and part-to-whole explorationsFlexible seatingVaried computer programsDesign-A-DayVaried Supplementary materialsOptions for varied modes of expressionVarying scaffolding on same organizerLet’s Make a Deal projectsComputer mentorsThink-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profileUse of collaboration, independence, and cooperationOpen-ended activitiesMini-workshops to reteach or extend skillsJigsawNegotiated CriteriaExplorations by interestsGames to practice mastery of informationMultiple levels of questionsHigh-Prep DifferentiationTiered activities and labsTiered productsIndependent studiesMultiple textsAlternative assessmentsLearning contracts4-MATMultiple-intelligence optionsCompactingSpelling by readinessEntry PointsVarying organizersLectures coupled with graphic organizersCommunity mentorshipsInterest groupsTiered centersInterest centersPersonal agendasLiterature CirclesStationsComplex InstructionGroup InvestigationTape-recorded materialsTeams, Games, and TournamentsChoice BoardsThink-Tac-ToeSimulationsProblem-Based LearningGraduated RubricsFlexible reading formatsStudent-centered writing formats
202OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By ReadinessTo Differentiate Instruction By InterestTo Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profileequalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc.add or remove scaffoldingvary difficulty level of text & supplementary materialsadjust task familiarityvary direct instruction by small groupadjust proximity of ideas to student experienceencourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areasgive choice of mode of expressing learninguse interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peersgive choice of tasks and products (including student designed options)give broad access to varied materials & technologiescreate an environment with flexible learning spaces and optionsallow working alone or working with peersuse part-to-whole and whole-to-part approachesVary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract)adjust for gender, culture, language differences.useful instructional strategies:- tiered activitiesTiered productscompactinglearning contractstiered tasks/alternative forms of assessmentinterest centersinterest groupsenrichment clustersgroup investigationchoice boardsMI optionsinternet mentorsmulti-ability cooperative tasksTriarchic options4-MATCA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
204Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Are you clear on what you want the student to:Know (facts, information)Understand (principles, generalizations, ideas)Be able to do as a result of the learning experience.When deciding on content do you consider:Alternate sources/resourcesVaried support systems (reading buddies, tape recordings, graphic organizers, study guides)Varied pacing plans
205Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Do you pre-assess student readiness or interest so you can prepare appropriate content and/or activity?When assigning students to groups, are you certain:Student assignments to groups vary from previous one?Students are encouraged to “work up”?Provisions are made (if appropriate) for students who prefer to work alone?Group-size matches student need?
206Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist As you create differentiated activities (process), are you certain:All of them call for high-level thinking?All of them appear equally interesting to learners?If readiness based, they vary along the continuum?If interest based, student have choices to make about how to apply skills and understandings or how to express them?Each activity is focused on one or few key concepts or generalizations?Student choice is provided within teacher-generated parameters?You have a plan for gathering ongoing assessment data?You have a plan for bringing closure and clarity to the task?
207Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist When creating assignments for differentiated products, are you certain:They vary along the continuum based on student readiness?They require all students to sue the key concepts, generalizations, ideas, and skills to solve problems, extend understandings, and create meaningful products?They provide student choice options within parameters necessary to demonstrate essential understandings and skills?Expectations are clear from the content of the product (when understandings and skills it must demonstrate, what sorts of resources must be used, etc.) and production requirements for the product (i.e. what constitutes and effective speech, essay, etc.)There are plans for formative evaluation and modification of the product?There are plans for summative evaluation by teacher, student, peers, and others based on product criteria?You have involved and informed parents as appropriate?
208Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Do you also consider:Use of instructional strategies such as interest groups, contracts, compacting, etc?Use of small groups for direct instruction (re-teaching, extension)?Meaningful tasks for reinforcements, extension, and exploration when students complete required work?
209When the school bell rings. . . . . . on day one and all our students are in their seats, we will hold the future of this nation and this world in our hands. Whatever we do will have lasting implications, not only on the lives of those students, but also on the lives of all those who they come in contact with.So then, the question that we should ask ourselves should not be, “How can I make this work?” the question must be, “How can I afford not to make this work?”One Day, All Children. . -Wendy Kopp, p.54
210Yes, but . . . I teach in a four wall box of drab proportions, But choose to make it a place that feels like home.I see too many students to know them as they need to be known,But refuse to let that render them faceless in my mind.I am overcome with the transmission of a canon I can scarcely recall myself,But will not represent learning as a burden to the young.I suffer from a poverty of time,And so will use what I have to best advantage those I teach.I am an echo of the way school has been since forever,But will not agree to perpetuate the echo another generation.I am told I am as good a teacher as the test scores I generate.But will not allow my students to see themselves as data.I work in isolation.And am all the more determined to connect my students to the world.I am small in the chain of power,But have the power to change young lives.There are many reasons to succumb,And thirty reasons five times a day to succeed.Most decisions about my job are removed from me,Except the ones that matter most.Carol Tomlinson
211Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video seriesBrandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.Gibbs, Jeanne (1995). Tribes: A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito, California: Center Source SystemsJensen, Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Keene, Ellin Oliver $ Zimmerman, Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: HeinemannLevine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon and Schuster.Marzano, Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Marzano, Robert J. & Pickering, Debra J. & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Reeves, Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning: How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Silver, Harvey & Strong, Richard W. & Perini, Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
212Sternberg, Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life.Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment, Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc.Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children.Stronge, James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms; A Professional Inquiry Kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. & Allan, Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. & Eidson, Caroline Cunningham (2003). Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Tomlinson, C. (2003). Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom: Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay ( Understanding By Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Winebrenner, S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom (revised, expanded, updated edition). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.