Presentation on theme: "® Nanci Smith, Judy Rex, Differentiated Instruction The Journey to Best Practice February 14 -15, 2008 -------------------------------------------------------------------"— Presentation transcript:
® Nanci Smith, Judy Rex, Differentiated Instruction The Journey to Best Practice February , North Carolina Department of Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina Onsite Professional Development
Good Morning! Please find a seat and then do the following anchor activities: Read and complete “Rate Your Knowledge” on page 1 of your packet. Now think about the various students you have had in your classroom. Read the directions and then complete the next page.
RATE YOUR KNOWLEDGE Use the following descriptions to rate your understanding of the terms below: 1.I don’t know how this term relates to differentiation. 2.I know something about how this relates to differentiation, but don’t know how to implement it or to assess it on my own. 3.I understand the meaning of the term as it relates to differentiation and can use it to coach and supervise on my own. ***************** Learning Profile ____________Differentiated Content_________ Flexible Grouping __________Differentiated Process__________ Tiered Lessons ______________Differentiated Product__________ RAFT (strategy) ____________ Respectful Tasks____________ Quality Curriculum Design____________ Shared Management________________ Adapted from Teaching Reading in Mathematics, Barton & Jordan, McRel, 2001
DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Basic) CONTENT Note Taking Key phrases Important words Main ideas Puzzling passages Summaries Powerful passages Key parts Etc. RESPONSE Sense Making How to use ideas Why an idea is important Questions Meaning of key words, passages Predictions Reactions Comments on style Etc.
DOUBLE ENTRY JOURNAL (Advanced) ANOTHER VOICE Teacher Author Expert in field Character Satirist Political cartoonist Etc. RESPONSE Why ideas are important Author’s development of elements How parts and whole relate Assumptions of author Key questions CONTENT Key passages Key vocabulary Organizing concepts Key principles Key patterns MAX
My Appointment Clock Round the Clock Learning Buddies Make an appointment with 12 different people – one for each hour on the clock. Be sure you both record the appointment on your clocks. Only make the appointment if there is an open slot at that hour on both of your clocks. Tape this paper inside a notebook, or to something that you will bring to class each day.
Differentiated Instruction Defined “Differentiated instruction is a teaching philosophy based on the premise that teachers should adapt instruction to student differences. Rather than marching students through the curriculum lockstep, teachers should modify their instruction to meet students’ varying readiness levels, learning preferences, and interests. Therefore, the teacher proactively plans a variety of ways to ‘get at’ and express learning.” Carol Ann Tomlinson
Teachers need to match the curriculum to the learner and assess progress…. Teachers need to match the curriculum to the learner and assess progress. This responsibility is consistent with the first core proposition of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (1999) that states: “Teachers recognize individual differences in their students and adjust their practice accordingly.” Failure to do so results in inappropriate instruction and evaluation for those who lack prerequisite skills, as well as for those who clearly are beyond the grade level standards and need expanded opportunities to develop. Therefore, grading becomes not merely a calculation exercise but rather, a reflection of the teachers’ clinical judgment for what is appropriate for each student. Ring & Reetz * Middle School Journal * Nov * p. 12
Current Research from Middle and High School Studies In a 5-year study of five middle schools, students achieved at a higher level when teachers differentiated instruction. The effects were compared with classrooms where teachers had not had any training in differentiating and were using “same size fits all” instruction. (C. Brighton, et al., 2002) A 3-year study of test results from students in a high school where teachers are applying principles of differentiation show positive achievement gains (Strickland & Tomlinson, In Preparation).
Differentiating for Tweens Rick Wormelli, Educational Leadership, April 2006 Teaching for tweens requires special skills - - and the willingness to do whatever it takes to ensure student success. Teach to developmental needs Treat academic struggle as strength Provide multiple pathways to the standards Give formative feedback Dare to be unconventional Teachers who differentiate instruction simply do what’s fair and developmentally appropriate for students when the “regular” instruction doesn’t meet their needs.
Differentiation Is a teacher’s response to learner’s needs Guided by general principles of differentiation Respectful tasks Flexible groupingContinual assessment Teachers Can Differentiate Through: Content Process Product Environment According to Students’ ReadinessInterestLearning Profile Through a range of strategies such as: Multiple intelligences…Jigsaw…4MAT…Graphic Organizers…RAFTS Compacting…Tiered assignments…Leveled texts…Complex Instruction… Learning Centers
What’s the point of differentiating in these different ways? Readiness Growth Interest Learning Profile Motivation Efficiency
What Differentiated Instruction… IS Differentiated instruction is more QUALITATIVE than quantitative. Differentiated instruction provides MULTIPLE approaches to content, process, and product. Differentiated instruction is STUDENT CENTERED. Differentiated instruction is a BLEND of whole class, group, and individual instruction. Differentiated instruction is "ORGANIC". IS NOT Individual instruction Chaotic Just another way to provide homogenous instruction (You DO use flexible grouping instead) Just modifying grading systems and reducing work loads More work for the "good" students and less and different for the "poor" students
The success of education depends on adapting teaching to individual differences among learners. Yuezheng, in fourth century B.C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji (Snow, 1982)
Differentiation begins with the teacher’s mindset that students of any age need active involvement with and support from adults who care, to help them construct a worthy life. Carol Tomlinson, 2005
I know it’s been a long time since you heard from me. I wanted to let you know what I am doing now and that I think of you often, even though I have not been a particularly faithful correspondent. When you last saw me, you must have had some doubt about what I might do with my life. The interesting thing, though, is that if you did have doubts, you never let me know about them. You treated me as though I had all the possibilities in the world in my hands. The fact that I could not pass a vocabulary test seemed incidental to you. What mattered was what I could do. I didn’t get that at the time. I was too exhausted from years of lugging around my disabilities. You need to know that I will be receiving a Masters Degree in just a few days. My mom asked who I wanted to know about that from back home. You need to know. Your belief in me when I had no belief in myself opened the door that led here... R.G..
Kathleen - Age 14 Push me! See how far I go! Work me ‘till I drop - - Then pick me up. Open a door, And make me run to it before it closes. Teach me so that I might learn, Then show me the Tunnel of Experience, And let me walk through it alone. Then, when near the end, I look back, And see another in the tunnel. I shall smile!
Affirmation Contribution Power Purpose Challenge Invitation Opportunity Investment Persistence Reflection Important Focused Engaging Demanding Scaffolded The Student Seeks The Teacher Responds Curriculum and Instruction are the Vehicle Carol Tomlinson, 2002
I’d like to be able to say that our job is just to get the kids to learn new things, think better, and be “smarter”. But the bigger picture, learning is about what we call “the three R’s”- - relationships, relevance, and rigor. You cannot have a relationship with or make things relevant for or expect rigor from a kid you don’t know. The BIG Picture by Dennis Littkky, ASCD, p. 39
HIGH QUALITY TEACHING WHO WE TEACH WHERE WE TEACH WHAT WE TEACH HOW WE TEACH IT’S ABOUT HAVING ALL THE PARTS IN PLACE…
Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom.Flexibility is the hallmark of a differentiated classroom. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
3 CRITICAL ELEMENTS in a DI Classroom 1)Time 2)Materials 3)Grouping
A “ Typical ” Day in a D.I. Class predictable, not rigid, schedule blocks of time for units of study procedures defined and in place students assuming responsibility Varied grouping with different activities voice and choice for students daily/weekly goal setting and reflection regular community gatherings (for fun and problem solving)
Anchor Activities A task to which a student automatically moves when an assigned task is finished, TRAITS OF EFFECTIVE ANCHOR ACTIVITIES: Important—related to key knowledge, understanding, and skill, Interesting—appeals to student curiosity, interest, learning preference, Allow Choice—students can select from a range of options Clear Routines and Expectations—students know what they are to do, how to do it, how to keep records, etc. Seldom Graded—teachers should examine the work as they move around the room. Students may turn in work for feedback. Students may get a grade for working effectively, but seldom for the work itself. The motivation is interest and/or improved achievement.
Anchor Activities What Do I Do If I Finish Early? Read – comics, letters, books, encyclopedia, poetry, etc. Write – a letter, poetry in your Writer’s Notebook, a story, a comic, etc. Practice your cursive or calligraphy Keyboarding Help someone else Create math story problems or puzzles Work on independent study of your choice Play a math or language game Find out how to say your spelling words in another language Practice ACT / SAT cards Solve a challenge puzzle with write it up Practice anything! Get a jump on homework Use your imagination and creativity to challenge yourself!
Beginning Anchor Activities… Teach one key anchor activity to the whole class very carefully. Later, it can serve as a point of departure for other anchors. Explain the rationale. Let students know you intend the activities to be helpful and/or interesting to them. Help them understand why it’s important for them to work productively. Make sure directions are clear and accessible, materials readily available, and working conditions support success. Think about starting with one or two anchor options and expanding the options as students become proficient with the first ones. Monitor student effectiveness with anchors and analyze the way they are working with your students. Encourage your students to propose anchor options. Remember that anchor activities need to stem from and be part of building a positive community of learners.
Writing Bingo Try for one or more BINGOs this month. Remember, you must have a real reason for the writing experience! If you mail or your product, get me to read it first and initial your box! Be sure to use your writing goals and our class rubric to guide your work. RecipeThank you note Letter to the editor Directions to one place to another Rules for a game Invitation request for information Letter to a pen pal, friend, or relative Skit or sceneInterview Newspaper article Short storyFREE Your choice Grocery or shopping list Schedule for your work AdvertisementCartoon stripPoemInstructionsGreeting card Letter to your teacher Proposal to improve something Journal for a week Design for a web page Book Think Aloud
(1 of 4) Activity Description Sheet Periodically during Technology Education class, you and your classmates will find yourself completing projects at different rates. This staggered work time is under- standable and expected in Tech Ed, because the design process does not have a specific time schedule; each person or group using the problem solving process will encounter different roadblocks and take different steps to get around them. It’s all part of the experience. It is NOT acceptable, however for you to “do nothing” if you finish your project before other students. There is much to learn in technology education; therefore, the following activities will allow you to extend your knowledge and expertise through an avenue of your choosing. If you complete a technology project before the deadline, you are expected to automatically move to one of the following activities. YOU MUST COMPLETE AND SUBMIT AT LEAST ONE OF THE FOLLOWING ANCHOR ACTIVITIES BEFORE THE END OF THIS COURSE, although you may complete more -- or several interpretations of the same activity -- if you wish.
Anchor Activity Options 1. Sketch and/or write about your idea for a NEW technological invention. It can be realistic or “sky’s the limit” dreamy. Either way, you need to include the following information: (2 of 4) The invention’s purpose - the need or want it addresses The target audience How it will help the lives of its users Any negative effects it would have on people, the environment, other businesses, etc. 2. Research the occupation of your choice to determine how it uses technology and/or the problem solving process. Use the internet, and interview, the library “Careers” collection, etc. to conduct your research. You may sketch and/or write up your findings. Either way, you should include the following information The occupation’s purpose and general description How it uses technology and/or the problem-solving process How it impacts the lives of others Any negative effects it has on people, the environment, other businesses, etc.
Anchor Activity Options (3 of 4) 3. Sketch and/or write about how you have seen technology and/or the problem solving process at work in your world (for example, in the lives of your family and friends, in the news, in television shows or movies, or in your other classes). Whichever setting you choose to discuss, be sure you include the following: The purpose of the technology or problem solving process A description of the technology or problem solving process How it impacts the lives of its users Any negative effects it may have on people, the environment, other businesses, etc. 4. Look through the books and magazines on the Technology Education reference shelves and find your favorite example of technology (this may be from the past or the present). Describe this find through sketching and/or writing about it. Be sure to also include the following information. The invention’s purpose - the need or want it addresses The target audience How it will help the lives of its users Any negative effects it may have on people, the environment, other businesses, etc.
(4 of 4) Activity Description Sheet Please use the computers to type up your findings. All anchor activity products should meet the following criteria: Include all required information Show evidence of thought and exploration Be of professional quality (neat, attractive, and error-free) NOTE: While you are only required to complete one activity, you are required to be working on one WHENEVER you complete a project early. Those students who regularly complete projects early may be required to turn in additional anchor activities. Kristina Doubet - UVA
Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you select high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.
Providing support needed for a student to succeed in work slightly beyond his/her comfort zone. For example… Directions that give more structure – or less Tape recorders to help with reading or writing beyond the student’s grasp Icons to help interpret print Reteaching / extending teaching Modeling Clear criteria for success Reading buddies (with appropriate directions) Double entry journals with appropriate challenge Teaching through multiple modes Use of manipulatives when needed Gearing reading materials to student reading level Use of study guides Use of organizers New American Lecture Tomlinson, 2000
1.Identify the learning objectives or standards ALL students must learn. 2.Offer a pretest opportunity OR plan an alternate path through the content for those students who can learn the required material in less time than their age peers. 3.Plan and offer meaningful curriculum extensions for kids who qualify. **Depth and Complexity American Wars instead of Civil War Beverly Cleary books instead of Ramona Differing perspectives, ideas across time **Orbitals and Independent studies. 4.Eliminate all drill, practice, review, or preparation for students who have already mastered such things. 5.Keep accurate records of students’ compacting activities: document mastery. Compacting Strategy: Compacting
Flexible Grouping Should be purposeful: may be based on student interest, learning profile and/or readiness may be based on needs observed during learning times geared to accomplish curricular goals (K – U – D) Implementation: purposefully plan using information collected – interest surveys, learning profile inventories, exit cards, quick writes, observations list groups on an overhead or place in folders or mailboxes “ on the fly ” as invitational groups Cautions: avoid turning groups into tracking situations provide opportunities for students to work within a variety of groups practice moving into group situations and assuming roles within the group Judy Rex, 2003
Pre-Assigned “Standing” Groups Text Teams Synthesis Squads Teacher Talkers Think Tanks Dip Sticks Peer Partners Similar Readiness Reading Pairs Mixed Readiness Writing Generator Groups of 4 or 5 Sets of 4 with visual, performance, writing, metaphorical (etc.) preferences Groups of six with varied profiles used by teacher to do “dip stick”, cross- section checks of progress, understanding Groups of 5-7 with similar learning needs with whom the teacher will meet to extend and support growth Student selected Groups 3 or 4
Assigning Groups Clothes pins with student’s names to assign them to a particular task Color code children to certain groups (a transparency with students names in color works well) Table tents with numbers correlated to group lists on the overhead Cubing allows you to assign groups by interest or readiness level
Transitions Directions for transitions need to be given with clarity and urgency. –Time limit for transition –Address the acceptable noise level –Rehearsal
If you want to build a ship, don’t drum up people to collect wood and assign them tasks, but rather teach them to long for the immensity of the sea. Antoine de Saint-Expuery
- CHOICE- The Great Motivator! Requires children to be aware of their own readiness, interests, and learning profiles. Students have choices provided by the teacher. (YOU are still in charge of crafting challenging opportunities for all kiddos – NO taking the easy way out!) Use choice across the curriculum: writing topics, content writing prompts, self-selected reading, contract menus, math problems, spelling words, product and assessment options, seating, group arrangement, ETC... GUARANTEES BUY-IN AND ENTHUSIASM FOR LEARNING!
How Do You Like to Learn? 1. I study best when it is quiet.Yes No 2. I am able to ignore the noise of other people talking while I am working.Yes No 3. I like to work at a table or desk.Yes No 4. I like to work on the floor.Yes No 5. I work hard by myself.Yes No 6. I work hard for my parents or teacher.Yes No 7. I will work on an assignment until it is completed, no matter what.Yes No 8. Sometimes I get frustrated with my work and do not finish it.Yes No 9. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to have exact steps on how to complete it.Yes No 10. When my teacher gives an assignment, I like to create my own steps on how to complete it.Yes No 11. I like to work by myself.Yes No 12. I like to work in pairs or in groups.Yes No 13. I like to have unlimited amount of time to work on an assignment.Yes No 14. I like to have a certain amount of time to work on an assignment.Yes No 15. I like to learn by moving and doing.Yes No 16. I like to learn while sitting at my desk.Yes No
What Lights You Up? Below is a list of topics. To help us determine your interests, circle the five that interest you the most. Then, prioritize your five topics on the spaces below. Place the one which interests you most on space #1, and so forth through your fifth selection. Make sure to put your name on the space provided. Advertising Animals Archeology Architecture Arts/Artists Astronomy Authors Biology Black History Careers Cartooning Castles/Knights Civil War Chemistry Communication Computer Programming Conservation Cowboys Crime/Law Dreams Death Ecology Economics Energy Elections/Voting Etymology Experiments Explorers Legends/Myths Famous People Forestry Fossils Future Studies Gender Issues Genealogy Genetics Geology/Rocks/Minerals Geography/Mapping Hobbies Ice Age Indians Inventions Kites/Hot Air Balloon Local History Magic Medicine Music Nutrition Oceanography Opera Phobias Photography Pirates Plays/Acting Poetry Pollution Presidents Robots Rocketry Senior Citizens Sign Language Stock Market Transportation Puppetry/Mime Weather Name:________________________________ Selection #1_____________________________ Selection #2___________________________ Selection #3_____________________________ Selection #4___________________________ Selection #5_____________________________ Created by Jeanne Purcell
My Way An expression Style Inventory K.E. Kettle J.S. Renzull, M.G. Rizza University of Connecticut Products provide students and professionals with a way to express what they have learned to an audience. This survey will help determine the kinds of products YOU are interested in creating. My Name is: ____________________________________________________ Instructions: Read each statement and circle the number that shows to what extent YOU are interested in creating that type of product. (Do not worry if you are unsure of how to make the product). Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested 1. Writing Stories Discussing what I have learned Painting a picture Designing a computer software project Filming & editing a video Creating a company Helping in the community Acting in a play12345
Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested 9. Building an invention Playing musical instrument Writing for a newspaper Discussing ideas Drawing pictures for a book Designing an interactive computer project Filming & editing a television show Operating a business Working to help others Acting out an event Building a project Playing in a band Writing for a magazine Talking about my project Making a clay sculpture of a character 12345
Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested 24. Designing information for the computer internet Filming & editing a movie Marketing a product Helping others by supporting a social cause Acting out a story Repairing a machine Composing music Writing an essay Discussing my research Painting a mural Designing a computer Recording & editing a radio show Marketing an idea Helping others by fundraising Performing a skit12345
Not At All InterestedOf Little InterestModerately InterestedInterestedVery Interested 39. Constructing a working model Performing music Writing a report Talking about my experiences Making a clay sculpture of a scene Designing a multi- media computer show Selecting slides and music for a slide show Managing investments Collecting clothing or food to help others Role-playing a character Assembling a kit Playing in an orchestra Products Written Oral Artistic Computer Audio/Visual Commercial Service Dramatization Manipulative Musical 1. ___ 2. ___ 3. ___ 4. ___ 5. ___ 6. ___ 7. ___ 8. ___ 9. ___ 10.___ 11. ___ 12. ___ 13. ___ 14. ___ 15. ___ 16. ___ 77. ___ 18. ___ 19. ___ 20. ___ 21. ___ 22. ___ 23. ___ 24. ___ 25. ___ 26. ___ 27. ___ 28. ___ 29. ___ 30. ___ 31. ___ 32. ___ 33. ___ 34. ___ 35. ___ 36. ___ 37. ___ 38. ___ 39. ___ 40. ___ 41. ___ 42. ___ 43. ___ 44. ___ 45. ___ 46. ___ 47. ___ 48. ___ 49. ___ 50. ___ Total _____ Instructions: My Way …A Profile Write your score beside each number. Add each Row to determine your expression style profile.
SIGN THE WALL Build some new friendships. For each ”brick” below, see if you can find a classmate who fits the description. Then ask that person to sign the brick. More than one person may sign a brick. Use the bottom row to write other interesting things you discover about your classmates. I can write my Name backwards I read at least four Books this summer I dream in color I just movedI can wiggle My ears I have a Strange pet. I can ride A horse. I have a birthday on A holiday I’ve liven in another Country. I’ve lived in another decade I built a Tree house I can play a Musical instrument I’m a whiz at Nintendo I can Tap-dance I’ve climbed a Mountain. I can say ‘hello’ in Sign language. I can jump off The high dive. I like Snakes I can whistle Using my fingers I can do a Cartwheel I’m a Leap Year baby I’ve tried skiing on Snow or water. I can blow huge Bubbles with gum I lick around ice cream Cones, not up and down I know Karate. I can ride a Unicycle I already have my Halloween costume I’d rather Be fishing II can use Chopsticks. I share a birthday With a famous person I can juggle.
What Do You Want to Learn About Rome? Name: _______________________ These are some of the topics we will be studying in our unit on Ancient Rome. We want to know what you want to learn about. Number your choices from 1 to 7. Make sure that 1 is your favorite and 8 is your least favorite. ____ geography ____ government (laws) ____ agriculture (foods they grew) ____ architecture (buildings) ____ music and art ____ religion and sports ____ roles of men, women, and children What Can You Tell Us About Rome? 1. What country is Rome in? ______________ 2. What does the word civilization mean?__________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________. 3. Can you give us some examples of different civilizations? ____________ ______________________________________________________. 4. Can you name any famous Roman people? ________________________ ______________________________________________________. 5. Many things in our country and culture came from the Romans. Can you think of any? ___________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________.
Assessments Sample assessments for determining a variety of learning profile factors may be downloaded at: Download the file entitled “Profile Assessments for Cards.”
Literacy Centers Mosaic of Thought (1997) Ellin Oliver Keene, Susan Zimmermann The Theater Corner – dramatize images or scenes from text The Book Talk Zone – small group literature discussions The Artist’s Studio – artistic expression of images from text The Writer’s Den – written responses to books Differentiated by learning profile & interest
Differentiation By Interest Social Studies Mrs. Schlim and her students were studying the Civil War. During the unit, they did many things -- read and discussed the text, looked at many primary documents (including letters from soldiers), had guest speakers, visited a battlefield, etc. As the unit began, Mrs. Schlim reminded her students that they would be looking for examples and principles related to culture, conflict change and interdependence.
Differentiation By Interest Social Studies She asked her students to list topics they liked thinking and learning about in their own world. Among those listed were: music reading food books sports/recreation transportation travel mysteries people heroes/ villains cartoons families medicine teenagers humor clothing
Differentiation By Interest Social Studies She then asked each student or pair of students to select a topic of real interest to them and explore it throughout the unit as a guided independent study. Their job was to see what their topic showed them about life in the Civil War in general - and about culture, conflict, change and interdependence during that time.
Differentiation By Interest Social Studies (continued) Students had as supports for their work: -a planning calendar -criteria for quality -check-in dates - options for expressing what they learned - data gathering matrix (optional) - class discussions on findings, progress, snags -mini-lessons on research (optional)
When A Mind Is Forced Some price, modest or substantial, must be paid any time a mind is forced or attempts to learn or perform something in a way for which it is not wired. This happens to all of us from time to time, but the outcome is tragic when the mismatching of a mind to a set of important tasks becomes a daily event and when that poor fit is not understood. This phenomenon takes place every day in schools everywhere. Mel Levine, A Mind at a Time (2002), pp. 23
Is Anyone Listening? Minds seek and should find their best ways of functioning during their school years, a period during which brains give off little signals that reveal what they are and are not wired for. Is anyone listening? Mel Levine, A Mind at a Time (2002), pp. 19
Differentiation Using LEARNING PROFILE Learning profile refers to how an individual learns best - most efficiently and effectively. Teachers and their students may differ in learning profile preferences.
Activity 2.5 – The Modality Preferences Instrument (HBL, p. 23) Follow the directions below to get a score that will indicate your own modality (sense) preference(s). This instrument, keep in mind that sensory preferences are usually evident only during prolonged and complex learning tasks. Identifying Sensory Preferences Directions: For each item, circle “A” if you agree that the statement describes you most of the time. Circle “D” if you disagree that the statement describes you most of the time. 1.I Prefer reading a story rather than listening to someone tell it. A D 2.I would rather watch television than listen to the radio. A D 3.I remember names better than faces.A D 4.I like classrooms with lots of posters and pictures around the room. A D 5.The appearance of my handwriting is important to me. A D 6.I think more often in pictures. A D 7.I am distracted by visual disorder or movement. A D 8.I have difficulty remembering directions that were told to me. A D 9.I would rather watch athletic events than participate in them. A D 10.I tend to organize my thoughts by writing them down. A D 11.My facial expression is a god indicator of my emotions. A D 12.I tend to remember names better than faces. A D 13.I would enjoy taking part in dramatic events like plays. A D 14.I tend to sub vocalize and think in sounds.A D 15.I am easily distracted by sounds. A D 16.I easily forget what I read unless I talk about it. A D 17.I would rather listen to the radio than A D 18.My handwriting is not very good. A D 19.When faced with a problem, I tend to talk it through.A D 20.I express my emotions verbally. A D 21.I would rather be in a group discussion then read about a topic. A D
22.I prefer talking on the phone rather than writing a letter to someone. A D 23.I would rather participate in athletic events than watch them. A D 24.I prefer going to museums where I can touch the exhibits. A D 25.My handwriting deteriorates when the space becomes smaller. A D 26.My mental pictures are usually accompanied by movement. A D 27.I like being outdoors and doing things like biking, camping, swimming, hiking etc. A D 28.I remember best what was done rather then what was seen or talked about. A D 29.When faced with a problem, I often select the solution involving the greatest activity. A D 30.I like to make models or other hand crafted items. A D 31.I would rather do experiments rather then read about them. A D 32.My body language is a good indicator of my emotions. A D 33.I have difficulty remembering verbal directions if I have not done the activity before. A D Interpreting the Instrument’s Score Total the number of “A” responses in items 1-11 _____ This is your visual score Total the number of “A” responses in items 12-22_____ This is your auditory score Total the number of “A” responses in items 23-33_____ This is you tactile/kinesthetic score If you scored a lot higher in any one area: This indicates that this modality is very probably your preference during a protracted and complex learning situation. If you scored a lot lower in any one area: This indicates that this modality is not likely to be your preference(s) in a learning situation. If you got similar scores in all three areas: This indicates that you can learn things in almost any way they are presented.
Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Visual Learners: Given a point and slope, the students graph lines on graph paper. They should plot the given point in one color, use a second color to show the rise form the point, and use a third color to show the run form the point. They should then plot the resulting point in a fourth color. The students should repeat the same process to find a third point on the line. Finally, using a fifth color, they should sketch the line containing all three points. The students will then apply their understanding of the process using a problem such as the following: Josh buys his first pack of baseball cards for $3, the next two packs for $4 more, and the next three packs for $6 more. Show the line that predicts how much Josh will pay for nine packs altogether. The students in this group may work individually or in pairs.
Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Kinesthetic Learners: On a large grid on the floor, one student stands at the original point. A second student walks the rise and run from the original point to the next point on the grid, counting aloud while doing so. Another student begins where the second students is standing and repeats the process to find a third point. The students repeat this process until all the students represent points on the line. They then create the line by holding string between them. The students will then apply this same process to a problem such as the one given to the visual learner group (see above). The students in this group should work in groups of five to six students.
Graphing with a Point and Slope Modality Auditory Learners: The students will practice graphing several lines given initial points and slopes. After practicing, they will create a news bulletin that explains the process and implications of this type of graphing and will share their bulletins with the class. The students in this group may work individually or in pairs.
EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TOIS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY LINGUISTIC LEARNER “The Word Player” Learns through the manipulation of words. Loves to read and write in order to explain themselves. They also tend to enjoy talking Read Write Tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates and trivia Saying, hearing and seeing words LOGICAL/ Mathematical Learner “The Questioner” Looks for patterns when solving problems. Creates a set of standards and follows them when researching in a sequential manner. Do experiments Figure things out Work with numbers Ask questions Explore patterns and relationships Math Reasoning Logic Problem solving Categorizing Classifying Working with abstract patterns/relationships SPATIAL LEARNER “The Visualizer” Learns through pictures, charts, graphs, diagrams, and art. Draw, build, design and create things Daydream Look at pictures/slides Watch movies Play with machines Imagining things Sensing changes Mazes/puzzles Reading maps, charts Visualizing Dreaming Using the mind’s eye Working with colors/pictures MUSICAL LEARNER “The Music Lover” Learning is often easier for these students when set to music or rhythm Sing, hum tunes Listen to music Play an instrument Respond to music Picking up sounds Remembering melodies Noticing pitches/ rhythms Keeping time Rhythm Melody Music
EIGHT STYLES OF LEARNING, Cont’d TYPE CHARACTERISTICS LIKES TOIS GOOD AT LEARNS BEST BY BODILY/ Kinesthetic Learner “The Mover” Eager to solve problems physically. Often doesn’t read directions but just starts on a project Move around Touch and talk Use body language Physical activities (Sports/dance/ acting) crafts Touching Moving Interacting with space Processing knowledge through bodily sensations INTERpersonal Learner “The Socializer” Likes group work and working cooperatively to solve problems. Has an interest in their community. Have lots of friends Talk to people Join groups Understanding people Leading others Organizing Communicating Manipulating Mediating conflicts Sharing Comparing Relating Cooperating interviewing INTRApersonal Learner “The Individual” Enjoys the opportunity to reflect and work independently. Often quiet and would rather work on his/her own than in a group. Work alone Pursue own interests Understanding self Focusing inward on feelings/dreams Pursuing interests/ goals Being original Working along Individualized projects Self-paced instruction Having own space NATURALIST “The Nature Lover” Enjoys relating things to their environment. Have a strong connection to nature. Physically experience nature Do observations Responds to patterning nature Exploring natural phenomenon Seeing connections Seeing patterns Reflective Thinking Doing observations Recording events in Nature Working in pairs Doing long term projects
Self Assessment: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Where does your true intelligence (processing ability) lie? This quiz can help you determine where you stand. Read each statement. If it expresses some characteristic of yours and sounds true for the most part jot down a “T”. If it doesn’t mark and “F”. If the statement is sometimes true, sometimes false, leave it blank. 1._____ I’d rather draw a map than give someone verbal directions. 2._____ I can play (or used to play) a musical instrument. 3._____ I can associate music with my moods. 4._____ I can add or multiply quickly in my head. 5._____ I like to work with calculators and computers. 6._____ I pick up new dance steps quickly. 7._____ It’s easy for me to say what I think in an argument or debate. 8._____ I enjoy a good lecture, speech, or sermon. 9._____ I always know north from south no matter where I am. 10._____ Life seems empty without music. 11._____ I always understand the directions that comes with new gadgets or appliances. 12._____ I like to work puzzles and play games. 13._____ Learning to ride a bike (or skate) was easy. 14._____ I am irritated when I hear an argument or statement that sounds illogical. 15._____ My sense of balance and coordination is good. 16._____ I often see patterns and relationships between numbers faster and easier than others. 17._____ I enjoy building models (or sculpting). 18._____ I am good at finding the the fine points of word meanings. 19._____ I can look at an object one way and see it turned sideways or backwards just as easily. 20._____ I often connect a piece of music with some event in my life. 21._____ I like to work with numbers and figures. 22._____ Just looking at shapes of buildings and structures is pleasurable to me. 23._____ I like to hum, whistle, and sing in the shower or when I am alone. 24._____ I’m good at athletics. 25._____ I’d like to study the structure and logic or languages. 26._____ I’m usually aware of the expressions on my face. 27._____ I’m sensitive to the expressions on other people’s faces. 28._____ I stay in touch with my moods. I have no trouble identifying them. 29._____I am sensitive to the moods of others. 30._____ I have a good sense of what others think of me.
Scoring Sheet Place a checkmark by each item, which you marked as "True." Add your totals. A total of (four in any of the categories A through E indicates strong ability. In categories F through G a score of one or more means you have abilities in these areas as well. ABCD LinguisticLogical/Math.MusicalSpatial 7 ____4 ____2 ____1 ____ 8 ____5 ____3 ____9 ____ 14 ___12 ___10 ___11 ___ 18 ___16 ___20 ___19 ___ 25 ___21 ___23 ___22 ___ EFG Body/KinestheticIntrapersonalInterpersonal 6 ____26 ___27 ___ 13 ___28 ___29 ___ 15 ___30 __ 17 ___ 24 ___
The Road Not Taken 10 th Grade English The task card reads: We have been working with how writers’ lives (and ours) are like metaphors which they (we) create through actions an deeds—including writing. Robert Frost wrote a poem called “The Road Not Taken.” Your task is to analyze the poem as a metaphor for Frost’s life. To do that, you should: Find the poem, read it, interpret it, and reach consensus on what’s going on with it and what it means.
The Road Not Taken 10 th Grade English Research Frost’s life, making a “stepping stones” diagram of his life, similar to the ones you created for your own life earlier this month. Develop a soundscape which takes us along Frost’s “journey in the woods” using music, found sounds, sound effects, and appropriate mime, body sculpture or narration to help your audience understand the feelings which a “journeyer in the woods” would have as they come to straight places, landmarks, decision points, etc. Create an “overlay” of his life and the poem, using words and images in such a way that they illustrate the metaphorical relationships between the two. Transfer the key ideas in the poem to the life and experience of a noted person about whom we are all likely to know a bit – and about whom we are likely to be able to learn a bit more. Your “transfer” must be shared with the class in a way which is clear in regard to the person and the poem, and clarifying in regard to ways in which literature can help us understand ourselves.
The Road Not Taken 10 th Grade English Be certain that your final products demonstrate your understanding of metaphor, the relationship between varied art forms in communicating human meaning, and details of the people and poem with whom/which you are working. As usual, you should appoint a group leader and materials monitor. Determine the best roles for each person in your group to play in completing your task. Develop a written work plan, including a timeline and group conference times. In the end, be ready to share the rubric by which your group’s work should be assessed (including required elements as well as your own sense of what else constitutes an appropriate product.) You may have up to 30 minutes to make your presentation(s) – plus a ten minute question exchange with others in the class who view your work.
Sternberg’s Three Intelligences CreativeAnalytical Practical We all have some of each of these intelligences, but are usually stronger in one or two areas than in others. We should strive to develop as fully each of these intelligences in students… …but also recognize where students’ strengths lie and teach through those intelligences as often as possible, particularly when introducing new ideas.
STERNBERG’S INTELLIGENCES ANALYTICAL PRACTICAL CREATIVE Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential Streetsmart – Contextual – Focus on Use Innovator – Outside the Box – What If An idea for assessing students according to Sternberg’s intelligences would be to five the following scenario: Imagine you are driving with your parents and they are listening to the radio. An interesting piece comes on about something you do not know. As you listen, you get more and more interested. What do you want to know? Do you want to know all the little details that go into it? Do you want to know how it is being used? Do you want to know only enough information to think of other things to do? Students who choose the first question fall into the analytic intelligence, the second corresponds to practical and those who choose the final question are the creative learners.
Linear – Schoolhouse Smart - Sequential ANALYTICAL Thinking About the Sternberg Intelligences Show the parts of _________ and how they work. Explain why _______ works the way it does. Diagram how __________ affects __________________. Identify the key parts of _____________________. Present a step-by-step approach to _________________. Streetsmart – Contextual – Focus on Use PRACTICAL Demonstrate how someone uses ________ in their life or work. Show how we could apply _____ to solve this real life problem ____. Based on your own experience, explain how _____ can be used. Here’s a problem at school, ________. Using your knowledge of ______________, develop a plan to address the problem. CREATIVEInnovator – Outside the Box – What If - Improver Find a new way to show _____________. Use unusual materials to explain ________________. Use humor to show ____________________. Explain (show) a new and better way to ____________. Make connections between _____ and _____ to help us understand ____________. Become a ____ and use your “new” perspectives to help us think about ____________.
Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity. 1.Analyzing characters when I’m reading or listening to a story ___ 2.Designing new things___ 3.Taking things apart and fixing them___ 4.Comparing and contrasting points of view___ 5.Coming up with ideas___ 6.Learning through hands-on activities___ 7.Criticizing my own and other kids’ work___ 8.Using my imagination___ 9.Putting into practice things I learned___ 10.Thinking clearly and analytically___ 11.Thinking of alternative solutions___ 12.Working with people in teams or groups___ 13.Solving logical problems ___ 14.Noticing things others often ignore ___ 15.Resolving conflicts ___
Triarchic Theory of Intelligences Robert Sternberg Mark each sentence T if you like to do the activity and F if you do not like to do the activity. 16.Evaluating my own and other’s points of view___ 17.Thinking in pictures and images___ 18.Advising friends on their problems___ 19.Explaining difficult ideas or problems to others___ 20.Supposing things were different___ 21.Convincing someone to do something___ 22.Making inferences and deriving conclusions___ 23.Drawing___ 24.Learning by interacting with others___ 25.Sorting and classifying___ 26.Inventing new words, games, approaches___ 27.Applying my knowledge___ 28.Using graphic organizers or images to organize your thoughts___ 29.Composing___ 30.Adapting to new situations___
Triarchic Theory of Intelligences – Key Robert Sternberg Transfer your answers from the survey to the key. The column with the most True responses is your dominant intelligence. AnalyticalCreativePractical 1. ___2. ___3. ___ 4. ___5. ___6. ___ 7. ___8. ___9. ___ 10. ___11. ___12. ___ 13. ___14. ___15. ___ 16. ___17. ___18. ___ 19. ___20. ___21. ___ 22. ___23. ___24. ___ 25. ___26. ___27. ___ 28. ___29. ___30. ___ Total Number of True: Analytical ____Creative _____Practical _____
Sternberg Learning Profiles - Short Quiz 1 Tools for High Quality Differentiation, Cindy Strickland Imagine you are walking past a newsstand and notice the cover of a new magazine called Inventions Today. You are intrigued by the headline describing a new product, so you buy the magazine. What will you do next? Read the article carefully so that you can understand all of the details involved in designing the product. (analytical) Read the article to find out how the product is being used. (practical) Read the article and think of ways to alter or improve the product. (creative)
Sternberg Learning Profiles - Short Quiz 2 Tools for High Quality Differentiation, Cindy Strickland Which of the following sets of verbs MOST appeals to you? Analyze, judge, critique, compare, contrast, evaluate diagram, identify, explain, present a step-by-step approach, assess Invent, discover, imagine, suppose, design, predict, find a new way, use unusual materials, promote, encourage, develop Implement, apply, use, demonstrate, teach, put into practice, convince show how, employ, make practical (First set - analytical; second set - creative, third set - practical)
Triarchic Theory Distance = rate x time 1.Solve for d = r t (Analytical) 2.Design your own formula for d = r t (Creative) 3.Estimate the time it takes to fly from Charlottesville, Virginia to Madrid (Practical) Yale Summer Psychology Program
Evaluating Plot Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteria Analytical Task Experts suggest that an effective plot is: believable, has events that follow a logical and energizing sequence, has compelling characters and has a convincing resolution. Select a story that you believe does have an effective plot based on these three criteria as well as others you state. Provide specific support from the story for your positions. OR Select a story you believe has an effective plot in spite of the fact that it does not meet these criteria. Establish the criteria you believe made the story’s plot effective. Make a case, using specific illustrations from the story, that “your” criteria describes an effective plot
Practical Task A local TV station wants to air teen-produced digital videos based on well known works. Select and storyboard you choice for a video. Be sure your storyboards at least have a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters and a convincing resolution. Note other criteria on which you feel the plot’s effectiveness should also be judged. Make a case that your choice is a winner based on these and other criteria you state. Creative Task Propose an original story you fell has a clear and believable plot structure, a logical sequence of events, compelling characters, and a convincing resolution. You may write it, storyboard it, or make a flow chart of it. Find a way to demonstrate that your story achieves these criteria as well as any others you note as important. Evaluating Plot Standard: Students will evaluate the quality of plot based on clear criteria
Array Interaction Inventory Directions: Rank order the responses in rows below on a scale from 1 to 4 with 1 being “least like me” to 4 being “most like me”. After you have ranked each row, add down each column. The column(s) with the highest score(s) shows your primary Personal Objective(s) in your personality. In your normal day-to-day life, you tend to be: Nurturing Sensitive Caring Logical Systematic Organized Spontaneous creative Playful Quiet Insightful reflective In your normal day-to-day life, you tend to value: Harmony Relationships are important Work Time schedules are important Stimulation Having fun is important Reflection Having some time alone is important In most settings, you are usually: Authentic Compassionate Harmonious Traditional Responsible Parental Active Opportunistic Spontaneous Inventive Competent Seeking In most situations, you could be described as: Empathetic Communicative Devoted Practical Competitive Loyal Impetuous Impactful Daring Conceptual Knowledgeable Composed
You approach most tasks in a(n) _________ manner: Affectionate Inspirational Vivacious Conventional Orderly Concerned Courageous Adventurous Impulsive Rational Philosophical Complex When things start to “not go your way” and you are tired and worn down, what might your responses be? Say “I’m sorry” Make mistakes Feel badly Over-control Become critical Take charge “It’s not my fault” Manipulate Act out Withdraw Don’t talk Become indecisive When you’ve “had a bad day” and you become frustrated, how might you respond? Over-please Cry Feel depressed Be perfectionistic Verbally attack Overwork Become physical Be irresponsible Demand attention Disengage Delay Daydream Add score: HarmonyProductionConnectionStatus Quo Array Interaction Inventory, cont’d
Personal Objectives/Personality Components Teacher and student personalities are a critical element in the classroom dynamic. The Array Model (Knaupp, 1995) identifies four personality components; however, one or two components(s) tend to greatly influence the way a person sees the world and responds to it. A person whose primary Personal Objective of Production is organized, logical and thinking-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Connection is enthusiastic, spontaneous and action-oriented. A person whose primary Personal Objective is Status Quo is insightful, reflective and observant. Figure 3.1 presents the Array model descriptors and offers specific Cooperative and Reluctant behaviors from each personal objective. Personal Objectives/Personality Component HARMONYPRODUCTIONCONNECTIONSTATUS QUO COOPERATIVE (Positive Behavior) Caring Sensitive Nurturing Harmonizing Feeling-oriented Logical Structured Organized Systematic Thinking-oriented Spontaneous Creative Playful Enthusiastic Action-oriented Quiet Imaginative Insightful Reflective Inaction-oriented RELUCTANT (Negative Behavior) Overadaptive Overpleasing Makes mistakes Cries or giggles Self-defeating Overcritical Overworks Perfectionist Verbally attacks Demanding Disruptive Blames Irresponsible Demands attention Defiant Disengaging Withdrawn Delays Despondent Daydreams PSYCHOLOGICAL NEEDS Friendships Sensory experience Task completion Time schedule Contact with people Fun activities Alone time Stability WAYS TO MEET NEEDS Value their feelings Comfortable work place Pleasing learning environment Work with a friend sharing times Value their ideas Incentives Rewards Leadership positions Schedules To-do lists Value their activity Hands-on activities Group interaction Games Change in routine Value their privacy Alone time Independent activities Specific directions Computer activities Routine tasks
BRAIN RESEARCH Reticular Activating System: RAS = “Toggle Switch” HIGHMIDDLELOW Hot (EEG)Mild (EEG)Cold (EEG – sleeplike) Limbic arousedCortical arousalBrain Stem Flight / FightProblem SolvingSleep / Relaxation (depression) Out of ControlIn ControlOff Duty CarbohydratesProteinsCarbohydrates/Dairy BurnoutAchievementDepression Extreme ChallengeModerate ChallengeNo Challenge Only one of these three states is activated (aroused) at a time: “Certain motivational states which interfere with learning condition are especially dangerous: anxiety and boredom. Anxiety occurs primarily when teachers expect too much from students; boredom occurs when teachers expect too little.” – Howard Gardner Learning only happens when the toggle switch is in the middle position
Fairness is not everyone getting the same thing. It is everyone getting what they need.
WHAT ZONE AM I IN? Too EasyOn Target Too Hard I get it right away… I know some things…I don’t know where to start… I already know how…I have to think…I can’t figure it out… This is a cinch…I have to work…I’m spinning my wheels… I’m sure to get an A…I have to persist…I’m missing key skills… I’m coasting…I hit some walls…I fell frustrated… I feel relaxed…I’m on my toes…I feel angry… I’m bored…I have to re-group…This makes no sense… No big effort needed…I fell challenged…My effort doesn’t pay off… Effort leads to success… THIS is the place to be! THIS is the ACHIEVEMENT ZONE!
Middle Schoolers Answer the Question, “What Does it Feel Like When Classes Move too Slowly?” I try my best to pay attention, but it can be really hard. I try to copy down absolutely everything so I can maybe learn something. I always play with my shoes. I read ahead in the book. I draw tanks and airplanes. I make up complicated math problems. I figure out a 20 factorial. I plan out my day. I color my nails with my pen. I plan my after-school activities. Sometimes I try to answer a question and explain things in a different way so we can move the class forward, but it make teachers mad sometimes. One thing my sister taught me to do is to listen to music in my head, or to think back to a movie, to its funny parts. I write lyrics to songs in my head. When I had braces, I used to play with my braces, and I had braces for four years!
Some Elementary Students Answer the Question, “What’s it Like When You Feel Lost in Class?” I feel scared. Sometimes I try to listen harder but mostly it doesn’t work. I get mad. I want to go home and watch TV. After a while, I give up. I wish the teacher would know how I feel and would help me. I feel dumb. I don’t like the subject very much. I tell myself maybe I will get it tomorrow. I daydream. Sometimes I get in trouble. I play with my hair. My mom doesn’t like when I do that. I wish I was smart.
A Few Routes to READINESS DIFFERENTIATION Varied texts by reading level Varied supplementary materials Varied scaffolding reading writing research technology Tiered tasks and procedures Flexible time use Small group instruction Homework options Tiered or scaffolded assemssment Compacting Mentorships Negotiated criteria for quality Varied graphic organizers
LESS-DEVELOPED READINESS LEVEL Students with less developed readiness may need: - someone to help them identify and make up gaps in their learning so they can move ahead; - more opportunities for direct instructional practice; - activities or products that are more structured or more concrete with fewer steps, closer to their own experiences, and calling on simpler reading skills: or - a more deliberate pace of learning. C.A. Tomlinson, 1999
Developing a Tiered Activity Select the activity organizer concept generalization Essential to building a framework of understanding Think about your students/use assessments readiness range interests learning profile talents skills reading thinking information Create an activity that is interesting high level causes students to use key skill(s) to understand a key idea Chart the complexity of the activity High skill/ Complexity Low skill/ complexity Clone the activity along the ladder as needed to ensure challenge and success for your students, in materials – basic to advanced form of expression – from familiar to unfamiliar from personal experience to removed from personal experience equalizer Match task to student based on student profile and task requirements
Tiering a Lesson What range of learning needs are you likely to address? What should students know, understand, and be able to do as a result of the lesson? Know: Understand: Be Able to Do: What’s your “starting point lesson?” How will you hook the students? What’s your first cloned version?What’s your second cloned version of this activity? What’s your third cloned version of this activity?
Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals Directions, Problems, Application, Solutions, Approaches, Disciplinary Connections Application, Insight, Transfer Solutions, Decisions, Approaches Planning, Designing, Monitoring Pace of Study, Pace of Thought The Equalizer 1.FoundationalTransformational 2.ConcreteAbstract 3.SimpleComplex 4.Single FacetMultiple Facets 5.Small LeapGreat Leap 6.More StructuredMore Open 7.Less IndependenceGreater Independence 8.SlowQuick
1.FoundationalTransformational Information, Ideas, Materials, Applications -close to text or experience -expert idea and skill to similar or familiar setting -use key idea or skill alone -fundamental skills and knowledge emphasized -fewer permutations of skills and ideas -removed from text or experience -export idea or skill to unexpected or unfamiliar setting -use key idea or skill with unrelated idea or skill -use but move beyond fundamental skills and knowledge -more permutations of skills and ideas Foundational to Transformational. When an idea is new to some students, or if it’s not in one of their stronger areas, they often need supporting information about the idea that is clear and plainly worded. Then they usually need time to practice applying the idea in a straightforward way. In these instances, the materials they use and the tasks they do should be foundational – that is, basic and presented in ways that help them build a solid foundation of understanding. At other times, when something is already clear to them or is in a strength area, they need to move along quickly. They need information that shows them intricacies about the idea. They need to stretch and bend the idea and see how it interacts with other ideas to create a new thought. Such conditions require materials and tasks that are more transformational. For example, one child may benefit from a more basic task of classifying animals by body covering, which another may need the more transformational task of predicting how changes in environment would likely affect the body covering of several animals. In a math class, one young learner may be ready for a basic application of the concept of fractions by cutting fruit and placing it to reflect a given fraction. An appropriate challenge for another student may be the more transformational task of writing measures of music that represent certain fractions.
2. ConcreteAbstract Representations, Ideas, Applications, Materials -hold in hand or hands on -tangible -literal -physical manipulation -event based -event to principle -demonstrated and explained -hold in mind or minds on -intangible -symbolic or metaphorical -mental manipulation -idea based -principle without event -not demonstrated or explained Concrete to Abstract. Students usually need to become familiar with the key information or material about an area of study before they can successfully look at its implications, meanings, or interrelationships. However, once they have grasped the information in a concrete way, it’s important that they move on to meanings and implications. Working with concrete information should open a door for meaningful abstraction later on. For example, grasping the idea of plot (more concrete) typically has to precede investigations of theme (more abstract). But ultimately, all students need to delve into the meanings of stories, not just the events. The issue here is readiness or timing.
3. SimpleComplex Resources, Research, Issues, Problems, Skills, Goals -use idea or skill being taught -work with no one, or few abstractions -emphasizes appropriateness -requires relatively less originality -more common vocabulary -more accessible readability -combine idea or skill being taught with those previous taught -work with multiple abstractions -emphasizes elegance -requires relatively more originality -more advanced vocabulary - more advanced readability Simple to Complex. Sometimes students need to see only the big picture of a topic or area of study, just its “skeleton,” without many details. Even adults often find it helpful to read a children’s book on black holes, for example, before they tackle the work of Stephen Hawking. When the big picture is needed, your students need resources, research, issues, problems, skills, and goals that help them achieve a framework of understanding with clarity. On the other hand, when the “skeleton” is clear to them, they’ll find it more stimulating to add “muscle, bone, and nerves,” moving from simple to complex. Some students may need to work more simply with one abstraction at a time; others may be able to handle the complexity of multiple abstractions. For example, some students may be ready to work with the theme in a story (a single abstraction), while other students look at inter-relationships between themes and symbols (multiple abstractions, or complexity).
4.Single FacetMultiple Facets Disciplinary Connection, Direction, Stages of Development -fewer parts -fewer steps -fewer stages -more parts -more steps -more stages Single Facet to Multiple Facets. Sometimes students are at peak performance when working on problems, projects, or dilemmas that involve only a few steps or solutions to complete. It may be all that some students can handle to make a connection between what they studied in science today and what they studied last week. Those with greater understanding and facility in an area of study are ready for and more challenged by following complicated directions. They are more challenged by solving problems that are multifaceted or require great flexibility of approach, or by being asked to make connections between subjects that scarcely seemed related before. 5.Small LeapGreat Leap Application, Insight, Transfer -few unknowns -relative comfort with most elements -less need to change familiar elements -requires less flexible thought -few gaps in required knowledge -more evolutionary -many unknowns -relative unfamiliarity with many elements -more need to change familiar elements -requires more flexible thought -significant gaps in required knowledge -more revolutionary Small Leap to Great Leap. Note that this continuum does not provide the option of “no leap.” Students should always have to run ideas through their minds and figure out how to use them. Activities that call only for absorption and regurgitation are generally of little long-term use. But for some students, learning about how to measure area and then applying that learning by estimating and verifying the area of the hamster house compared to the teacher’s desk may be enough of a leap of application and transfer – at least in the beginning. Other students may be able to more from estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed to a building project and proportional cost implications of increasing the building area. In both cases, students make mental leaps from reading information on a page to using that information. The latter task calls for relatively greater leaps of application, insight, and transfer..
6.More StructuredMore Open Solutions, Decisions, Approaches -more directions or more precise directions -more modeling -relatively less student choice -fewer directions -less modeling -relatively more student choice Structured to Open-Ended. Sometimes students need to complete tasks that are fairly well laid out for them, where they don’t have too many decisions to make. Novice drivers begin by managing the car on prescribed driving ranges or delineated routes. Being new to a computer or word processor often requires completing programmed and closed lessons that involve “right” answers to become knowledgeable -- and comfortable – with basic operation and keyboarding before moving on to more advanced and open-ended tasks such as selecting varied uses of graphics to illustrate ideas in a formal presentation. Following a predetermined format for a writing assignment or a chemistry lab often makes more sense than improvisation. At other times, however, students are ready to explore the computer, craft their own essays designed to address a communication need, or create a chemistry lab that demonstrates principles of their choosing. Modeling helps most of us become confident enough to eventually “wing it.” But when modeling has served its purpose, it’s time to branch out and get creative. 7.Clearly Defined Fuzzy Problems In process, In Research, In Products -few unknowns -more algorithmic -narrower range of acceptable responses or approaches -only relevant data provided -problem specified -more unknowns -more heuristic -wider range of acceptable responses or approaches -extraneous data provided -problem unspecified or ambiguous
8.Less IndependenceMore Independence Planning, Designing, Monitoring -more teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on: problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation -more teacher scaffolding -learning the skills of independence -less teacher or adult guidance and monitoring on problem identification goal setting establishing timelines following timelines securing resources use of resources criteria for success formulation of a product evaluation -less teacher scaffolding -demonstrating the skills of independence Dependent to Independent. A goal for all learners is independent study, thought, and production. But just as some students gain height more quickly than others, some will be ready for greater independence earlier than others. Their needs in developing independence generally fall into one of these four stages: 1.Skill building, when students need to develop the ability to make simple choices, follow through with short- term tasks, and use directions appropriately. 2.Structured independence, when students make choices from teacher-generated options, follow prescribed time lines, and engage in self-evaluation according to preset criteria to complete longer-term and more complex tasks. 3.Shared independence, when students generate problems to be solved, design tasks, set time lines, and establish criteria for evaluation. The teacher helps “tighten” or focus the plans and monitors the production process. 4.Self-guided independence, when students plan, execute, and seek help or feedback only when needed. By guiding students across this continuum at individually appropriate speeds, you and your students are less likely to become frustrated by tasks that require greater independence.
Character Map Character Name____________ How the character looks ____________ How the character thinks or acts ____________ Most important thing to know about the character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________
Character Map Character Name____________ What the character says or does ____________ What the character really MEANS to say or do ____________ What the character would mostly like us to know about him or her _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ________________
Character Map Character Name____________ Clues the author gives us about the character ____________ Why the author gives THESE clues ____________ The author’s bottom line about this character _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ __________
Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success.Goals of a differentiated classroom are maximum growth and individual success. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
Two Views of Assessment -- Assessment is for: Gatekeeping Judging Right Answers Control Comparison to others Use with single activities Assessment is for: Nurturing Guiding Self-Reflection Information Comparison to task Use over multiple activities
Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom Assessment drives instruction. (Assessment information helps the teacher map next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole.) Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, throughout the unit and as the unit ends. (Pre-assessment, formative and summative assessment are regular parts of the teaching/learning cycle.) Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile. Assessments are part of “teaching for success.” Assessment information helps students chart and contribute to their own growth. Assessment MAY be differentiated. Assessment information is more useful to the teacher than grades. Assessment is more focused on personal growth than on peer competition.
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? Skills Concepts READINESS INTEREST LEARNING PROFILE Content Knowledge Interest Surveys Interest Centers Self-Selection Areas of Strength and Weakness Work Preferences Self Awareness
Ongoing Assessment Strategies Work alone or with a partner. Read over the examples in the next 14 slides. Make note of any questions you may have. How could you use these strategies to drive instruction? How will ongoing assessment help you teach for success?
Pre-Assessment What the student already knows about what is being planned What standards, objectives, concepts & skills the individual student understands What further instruction and opportunities for mastery are needed What requires reteaching or enhancement What areas of interests and feelings are in the different areas of the study How to set up flexible groups: Whole, individual, partner, or small group
4.Jigsaw Check: (Review/Assessment) Teacher assigns students to groups of 5-6 Teacher gives each student a question card, posing a Key understanding question Students read their question to group Scorecard Keeper records # of students for each question who are: Really sure Pretty sure Foggy clueless Students scramble to groups with same question they have/prepare solid answer Go back to original groups, share answers Re-read questions Re-do scoreboard Report before and after scoreboards Assessment Strategies to Support Success
Directions: Complete the chart to show what you know about Civil Rights. Write as much as you can. DefinitionInformation ExamplesNon-Examples Patriotism
Exit Cards List 3 things you learned today 2 things you’d like to learn more about 1 question you still have
EXIT CARDS Today you began to learn about hyperbole. List three things you learned. Write at least one question you have about this topic.
EXIT CARDS We have begun a study of author’s craft. List and identify three examples of figurative language used in the novel Morning Girl by Michael Dorris.
EXIT CARDS On your exit card--- Explain the difference between simile and metaphor. Give some examples of each as part of your explanation.
3-2-1 Summarizer After reading over my rough draft--- 3 revisions I can make to improve my draft. 2 resources I can use to help improve my draft. 1 thing I really like about my first draft.
________’s Exit Card 3 2 1
Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals. (Reeves 2000, 10)
Four Criteria of Quality Feedback 1.It must be timely. 2.It must be specific. 3.It must be understandable to the receiver. 4.It must allow the student to act on the feedback (refine, revise, practice, and retry). Wiggins, 1998
We know that more frequent feedback is associated with improved student work ethic, motivation, and performance. WILL WE CHANGE THE TIMING OF OUR FEEDBACK? Douglas B. Reeves Accountability for Learning
for Interest – Readiness – Learning Profile by Self – Peers - Teachers
Key Principles of a Differentiated Classroom The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. All students participate in respectful work.All students participate in respectful work. The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter.The teacher is clear about what matters in subject matter. All students participate in respectful work.All students participate in respectful work. Source: Tomlinson, C. (2000). Differentiating Instruction for Academic Diversity. San Antonio, TX: ASCD
High quality curriculum and instruction: Is clearly focused on the essential understandings and skills of the discipline that a professional would value. Is mentally and affectively engaging to the learner. Is joyful – or at least satisfying. Provides choices. Is clear in expectations. Allows meaningful collaboration. Is focused on products (something students make or do) that matters to students Connects with students’ lives and world. Is fresh and surprising., Seems real (is real) to the student. Is coherent (organized, unified, sensible) to the student. Is rich, deals with profound ideas. Stretches the student. Calls on students to use what they learn in interesting and important ways. Involves the student in setting goals for their learning and assessing progress toward those goals. Tomlinson ‘00
Designing effective instruction requires an answer to three basic questions: Where are you going with this instruction – what is the end goal? How do you plan to get to that end goal? How will you know when students have reached the planned goal?
Planning a Focused Curriculum Facts (Columbus cam to the “New World” Vocabulary (voyage, scurvy) Concepts (exploration, change) Principles/Generalizations (Change can be both positive and negative. Exploration results in change. People’s perspectives affect how they respond to change). Skills Basic (literacy, numeracy) Thinking (analysis, evidence of reasoning, questioning) Of the Discipline (graphing/math/social studies) Planning (goal setting; use of time) Social Production Means Clarity About What Students Should: Know Understand Be Able to Do As a Result of a Lesson, Lesson Sequence, Unit, and year In general, these are held steady as a core for nearly all learners in a differentiated classroom* *Exception--linear skills and information which can be assessed for mastery in the sequence (e.g. spelling)
What’s the point of differentiating in these different ways? Readiness Growth Interest Learning Profile Motivation Efficiency
Think of DIFFERENTIATION as the lens you look through when using any materials, programs or instructional strategies. If you have high quality curriculum and materials, then it isn’t so much WHAT you use as it is HOW you use it to meet the varying readiness, interests and learning profiles of your students.
RESPECTFUL TASKS Respectful tasks recognize student learning differences. The teacher continually tries to understand what individual students need to learn most effectively. A respectful task honors both the commonalities and differences of students, but not by treating them all alike. A respectful task offers all students the opportunity to explore essential understandings and skills at degrees of difficulty that escalate consistently as they develop their understanding and skill.
USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES. The following findings related to instructional strategies are supported by the existing research: Techniques and instructional strategies have nearly as much influence on student learning as student aptitude. Lecturing, a common teaching strategy, is an effort to quickly cover the material: however, it often overloads and over-whelms students with data, making it likely that they will confuse the facts presented Hands-on learning, especially in science, has a positive effect on student achievement. Teachers who use hands-on learning strategies have students who out-perform their peers on the National Assessment of Educational progress (NAEP) in the areas of science and mathematics. Despite the research supporting hands-on activity, it is a fairly uncommon instructional approach. Students have higher achievement rates when the focus of instruction is on meaningful conceptualization, especially when it emphasizes their own knowledge of the world.
RAFT RAFT is an acronym that stands for R ole of the student. What is the student’s role: reporter, observer, eyewitness, object? A udience. Who will be addressed by this raft: the teacher, other students, a parent, people in the community, an editor, another object? F ormat. What is the best way to present this information: in a letter, an article, a report, a poem, a monologue, a picture, a song? T opic. Who or what is the subject of this writing: a famous mathematician, a prehistoric cave dweller, a reaction to a specific event?
RAFT ACTIVITY ON FRACTIONS RoleAudienceFormatTopic FractionWhole NumberPetitionsTo be considered Part of the Family Improper FractionMixed NumbersReconciliation LetterWere More Alike than Different A Simplified FractionA Non-Simplified FractionPublic Service Announcement A Case for Simplicity Greatest Common FactorCommon FactorNursery RhymeI’m the Greatest! Equivalent FractionsNon EquivalentPersonal AdHow to Find Your Soul Mate Least Common FactorMultiple Sets of NumbersRecipeThe Smaller the Better Like Denominators in an Additional Problem Unlike Denominators in an Addition Problem Application formTo Become A Like Denominator A Mixed Number that Needs to be Renamed to Subtract 5 th Grade Math StudentsRiddleWhat’s My New Name Like Denominators in a Subtraction Problem Unlike Denominators in a Subtraction Problem Story BoardHow to Become a Like Denominator FractionBakerDirectionsTo Double the Recipe Estimated SumFractions/Mixed NumbersAdvice ColumnTo Become Well Rounded
Designing a Differentiated Learning Contract A Learning Contract has the following components 1.A Skills Component Focus is on skills-based tasks Assignments are based on pre-assessment of students’ readiness Students work at their own level and pace 2.A content component Focus is on applying, extending, or enriching key content (ideas, understandings) Requires sense making and production Assignment is based on readiness or interest 3.A Time Line Teacher sets completion date and check-in requirements Students select order of work (except for required meetings and homework) The Agreement 4. The Agreement The teacher agrees to let students have freedom to plan their time Students agree to use the time responsibly Guidelines for working are spelled out Consequences for ineffective use of freedom are delineated Signatures of the teacher, student and parent (if appropriate) are placed on the agreement Differentiating Instruction: Facilitator’s Guide, ASCD, 1997
Menu Planner Menu: ____________________ Due: All items in the main dish and the specified number of side dishes must be completed by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may decide to do some of the dessert items as well Main Dish (complete all) Side Dish (select ____) Dessert Winning Strategies for Classroom Management
Poetry Matters Book Project Main Dish: You must complete all of these tasks. 1. Create a colorful and artistic cover for your poetry book. 2. Include at least 3 samples of your own poetry. 3. Include poems from at least 3 different authors you think are excellent examples of inner (heart map) and/or outer vision (imagery, similes, metaphors). They should be different forms and/or styles. 4. Share at least one poem (your own or another author) with the class. 5. Include your heart map. 6. Create a list of wild, wonderful, and/or wacky words for writing. Put at least 2 on our word wall and place the list in your book.
Side Dishes: Select at least 2 tasks from the following list. 1. Illustrate at least one of the poems in your collection. 2. Use musical instruments to accompany a poem while sharing it. 3. Do a dramatic interpretation of a poem. 4. Write, revise, edit and illustrate at least 2 haiku poems. 5. Write, revise, edit and illustrate at least 2 cinquian poems. 6. Write, revise, edit and illustrate an alliterative poem. 7. Write, revise, edit and illustrate or musically accompany a poem using onomatopoeia. 8. Create a list of poetic phrases from a variety of books. Note what book each one was selected from.
Dessert: Choose as many as these as you would like to be an X Factor Learner! 1. Type your poems and import pictures to illustrate them. 2. Illustrate all of your poems,. 3. Collect metaphors and similes and create a way to display them. 4. Research a known poet. Tell us about his/her life and style of writing. Also, let us know why you find this poet interesting. 5. Learn about narrative poems and write at least one. 6. Create a shape poem. Use color and illustration to present it. 7. Create a Table of Contents for your book. 8. Create a Poetry Glossary for your book. 9. Create a poem for 2 voices and perform it. 10. Choose 2 different poems to compare and contrast. Explain how they are similar and different.
to Differentiate Product Choices based on readiness, interest, and learning profile Clear expectations Timelines Agreements Product Guides Rubrics Evaluation
4.Decide on scaffolding you may need to build in order to promote success : Brainstorming for ideas Developing rubrics/criteria for success Timelines Planning/goal-setting Storyboarding Critiquing Revising-editing 5.Develop a product assignment that clearly says to the student : You should show you understand and can do these things Proceeding through these steps/stages In this format At this level of quality 6.Differentiate or modify versions of the assignments based on : Student readiness Student interest Students learning profile 7.Coach for success! Creating a Powerful Product Assignment, cont’d It is your job, as teacher, to make explicit That which you thought was implicit Tomlinson, C.
Map Diagram Sculpture Discussion Demonstration Poem Profile Chart Play Dance Campaign Cassette Quiz Show Banner Brochure Debate Flow Chart Puppet Show Tour Lecture Editorial Painting Costume Placement Blueprint Catalogue Dialogue Newspaper Scrapbook Lecture Questionnaire Flag Scrapbook Graph Debate Museum Learning Center Advertisement Book List Calendar Coloring Book Game Research Project TV Show Song Dictionary Film Collection Trial Machine Book Mural Award Recipe Test Puzzle Model Timeline Toy Article Diary Poster Magazine Computer Program Photographs Terrarium Petition Drive Teaching Lesson Prototype Speech Club Cartoon Biography Review Invention
PRODUCT OPTIONS The Good Life.... Making Choices About Tobacco Use Use key facts from class and research Make a complete case Provide defensible evidence for the case Weight varied viewpoints Be appropriate/useful for its target audience Give evidence of revision & quality in content & presentation Be thought-provoking rather than predictable Visual Oral Story boards for t.v. “ad” using few/no words to make the point Comic book parody with smoking super/ heroes super/ heroines Radio-spot (public information with music timed, lead-in) T. Koppel C. Roberts with teen who smokes, tobacco farmer, tobacco CEO, person with emphysema Written Kinesthetic Brochure for pediatrian’s office – patients 9-16 as target audience – with graphics Research and write editorial that compares the relative costs and benefits of tobacco to N.C. – submit for publication Pantomine a struggle of “will” regarding smoking—including a decision with rationale Act out printed skit on pressures to smoke an reasons not to smoke
Teacher Created Product Checklist StandardsYESNO 1. Instruction provided prior to product assignment. 2. Provide on-going support as needed throughout product assignment. 3. A clear standard of high expectations is communicated. 4. Clear concise directions are provided. 5. A menu of product options supports varied learning styles. 6. Timelines, rationale and parental support are communicated. 7. Product challenges a full range of readiness levels. 8. Product designed to expand on all key concepts. 9. Product designed to expand on skills. 10. Product designed to expand on principles 11. Product assignment necessitates creativity. 12. Product assignment supports creativity. 13. Product facilitates students use of knowledge. 14. Product facilitates students use of skills. 15. Product uses timelines, check in dates or process logs. 16. Product uses varied forms of expression and technology. 17. Formative or Summative evaluation by peers. 18. Formative or Summative evaluation by self. 19. Formative or Summative evaluation by teacher.
Unit Objectives As a result of this unit, the students will know: As a result of this unit, the students will understand that: As a result of this unit, the student will be able to: Instructional Strategies Used in this Unit
Unit Outline LessonWhole ClassDifferentiated
Unit Sequence LESSON SEQUENCE AND DESCRIPTIONTEACHER MUSINGS
Exit Ticket for Jigsaw Activity On the index card provided, write your name, grade level and content area. Under your name please list the strategies from most interested to least interested. Multiple Intelligence Triarchic Theory Cubing/ThinkDOTS Contracts RAFT
Best Practices for Standards-based Instruction Best Practice, New Standards for Teaching and Learning in America’s Schools Zemelman, S., Daniels, H. & Hyde, A. (1998). Portsmouth, NH:Heinemann Student Voice and Involvement Balanced with teacher-chosen and teacher-directed activities: Students often select inquiry topics, books, writing topics, etc. Students maintain their own records, set goals, and self-assess Some themes / inquiries are built from students’ own questions Students assume responsibility and take roles in decision making
“ I’VE COME TO A FRIGHTENING CONCLUSION THAT I AM THE DECISIVE ELEMENT IN THE CLASSROOM. IT’S MY PERSONAL APPROACH THAT CREATES THE CLIMATE. IT’S MY DAILY MOOD THAT MAKES THE WEATHER. AS A TEACHER, I HAVE A TREMENDOUS POWER TO MAKE A CHILD’S LIFE MISERABLE OR JOYOUS. I CAN BE A TOOL OF TORTURE OR AN INSTRUMENT OF INSPIRATION. I CAN HUMILIATE OR HUMOR, HURT OR HEAL. IN ALL SITUATIONS, IT IS MY RESPONSE THAT DECIDES WHETHER A CRISIS WILL BE ESCALATED OR DEESCALATED AND A CHILD HUMANIZED OR DEHUMANIZED.” Ginott
Setting up a DI Classroom **Collaborative Front Loading** Procedures and routines Classroom agreements/cues Class meetings Home Base seating Anchor Activities Clock Partners Conflict Resolution Goal Setting
Organized Flexibility Procedures defined and practiced! Anchor activities White board messages Stackers, wall-folders, etc. by class Signals Name sticks Question chips Expert “Yellow Pages” Task Cards, tape recorders, etc. Classroom supplies and arrangement Turn in folders Exit Cards Calendars Flexible seating: practice changing groupings and home base Where to get notes, RICE (Recall, Imagine, Check, Expert of the Day), 3 before Me Judy Rex and Nanci Smith, 2002
Students in a differentiated classroom do not need to work the system..... because the system works for them!
10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom 1.Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction based on student readiness, interest and learning profile. 2.Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you. 3.Tine differentiated activities for student success. 4.Use an “anchor activity” to free you up to focus your attention on your students. 5.Create and deliver instructions carefully.
10 Strategies for Managing a Differentiated Classroom 6.Have a “home base” for students. 7.Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group. 8.Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible. 9.Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes. 10.Use flexible grouping.
A Game Plan for Differentiation 1. Sharpen the curriculum Focus (K-U-D) Hook Ratchet Tighten 2. Assess the students Pre-assessments for Readiness Interest Inventories Learning Preference Surveys Anecdotal Data
3. Design instruction Map the content, process, and product Whole class, small group, individual (flexible grouping) 4. Match tasks to learner need Adjust for Readiness, interest, learning profile Vary strategies Align with KUD
5. Bring the students on board 6. Reflect and refine Keep the loop going Develop rationale Establish routines and procedures Focus on shared decision-making Build autonomy Adapted from C. Tomlinson
Begin Slowly – Just Begin! Low-Prep Differentiation Choices of books Homework options Use of reading buddies Varied journal Prompts Orbitals Varied pacing with anchor options Student-teaching goal setting Work alone / together Whole-to-part and part-to-whole explorations Flexible seating Varied computer programs Design-A-Day Varied Supplementary materials Options for varied modes of expression Varying scaffolding on same organizer Let’s Make a Deal projects Computer mentors Think-Pair-Share by readiness, interest, learning profile Use of collaboration, independence, and cooperation Open-ended activities Mini-workshops to reteach or extend skills Jigsaw Negotiated Criteria Explorations by interests Games to practice mastery of information Multiple levels of questions High-Prep Differentiation Tiered activities and labs Tiered products Independent studies Multiple texts Alternative assessments Learning contracts 4-MAT Multiple-intelligence options Compacting Spelling by readiness Entry Points Varying organizers Lectures coupled with graphic organizers Community mentorships Interest groups Tiered centers Interest centers Personal agendas Literature Circles Stations Complex Instruction Group Investigation Tape-recorded materials Teams, Games, and Tournaments Choice Boards Think-Tac-Toe Simulations Problem-Based Learning Graduated Rubrics Flexible reading formats Student-centered writing formats
OPTIONS FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF INSTRUCTION To Differentiate Instruction By Readiness To Differentiate Instruction By Interest To Differentiate Instruction by Learning Profile ٭ equalizer adjustments (complexity, open-endedness, etc. ٭ add or remove scaffolding ٭ vary difficulty level of text & supplementary materials ٭ adjust task familiarity ٭ vary direct instruction by small group ٭ adjust proximity of ideas to student experience ٭ encourage application of broad concepts & principles to student interest areas ٭ give choice of mode of expressing learning ٭ use interest-based mentoring of adults or more expert-like peers ٭ give choice of tasks and products (including student designed options) ٭ give broad access to varied materials & technologies ٭ create an environment with flexible learning spaces and options ٭ allow working alone or working with peers ٭ use part-to-whole and whole-to-part approaches ٭ Vary teacher mode of presentation (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, concrete, abstract) ٭ adjust for gender, culture, language differences. useful instructional strategies: - tiered activities - Tiered products - compacting - learning contracts - tiered tasks/alternative forms of assessment useful instructional strategies: - interest centers - interest groups - enrichment clusters - group investigation - choice boards - MI options - internet mentors useful instructional strategies: - multi-ability cooperative tasks - MI options - Triarchic options - 4-MAT CA Tomlinson, UVa ‘97
Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Are you clear on what you want the student to: –Know (facts, information) –Understand (principles, generalizations, ideas) –Be able to do as a result of the learning experience. When deciding on content do you consider: –Alternate sources/resources –Varied support systems (reading buddies, tape recordings, graphic organizers, study guides) –Varied pacing plans
Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Do you pre-assess student readiness or interest so you can prepare appropriate content and/or activity? When assigning students to groups, are you certain: –Student assignments to groups vary from previous one? –Students are encouraged to “work up”? –Provisions are made (if appropriate) for students who prefer to work alone? –Group-size matches student need?
Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist As you create differentiated activities (process), are you certain: –All of them call for high-level thinking? –All of them appear equally interesting to learners? –If readiness based, they vary along the continuum? –If interest based, student have choices to make about how to apply skills and understandings or how to express them? –Each activity is focused on one or few key concepts or generalizations? –Student choice is provided within teacher-generated parameters? –You have a plan for gathering ongoing assessment data? –You have a plan for bringing closure and clarity to the task?
Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist When creating assignments for differentiated products, are you certain: –They vary along the continuum based on student readiness? –They require all students to sue the key concepts, generalizations, ideas, and skills to solve problems, extend understandings, and create meaningful products? –They provide student choice options within parameters necessary to demonstrate essential understandings and skills? –Expectations are clear from the content of the product (when understandings and skills it must demonstrate, what sorts of resources must be used, etc.) and production requirements for the product (i.e. what constitutes and effective speech, essay, etc.) –There are plans for formative evaluation and modification of the product? –There are plans for summative evaluation by teacher, student, peers, and others based on product criteria? –You have involved and informed parents as appropriate?
Are You Differentiating Instruction? A Checklist Do you also consider: –Use of instructional strategies such as interest groups, contracts, compacting, etc? –Use of small groups for direct instruction (re- teaching, extension)? –Meaningful tasks for reinforcements, extension, and exploration when students complete required work?
When the school bell rings on day one and all our students are in their seats, we will hold the future of this nation and this world in our hands. Whatever we do will have lasting implications, not only on the lives of those students, but also on the lives of all those who they come in contact with. So then, the question that we should ask ourselves should not be, “How can I make this work?” the question must be, “How can I afford not to make this work?” One Day, All Children.. -Wendy Kopp, p.54
Yes, but... I teach in a four wall box of drab proportions, But choose to make it a place that feels like home. I see too many students to know them as they need to be known, But refuse to let that render them faceless in my mind. I am overcome with the transmission of a canon I can scarcely recall myself, But will not represent learning as a burden to the young. I suffer from a poverty of time, And so will use what I have to best advantage those I teach. I am an echo of the way school has been since forever, But will not agree to perpetuate the echo another generation. I am told I am as good a teacher as the test scores I generate. But will not allow my students to see themselves as data. I work in isolation. And am all the more determined to connect my students to the world. I am small in the chain of power, But have the power to change young lives. There are many reasons to succumb, And thirty reasons five times a day to succeed. Most decisions about my job are removed from me, Except the ones that matter most. Carol Tomlinson
Suggested Resources Related to Differentiated Instruction ASCD.org, Educational Leadership magazine, ASCD video series Brandt, Ron (1998) Powerful Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Cummings, Carol (2000). Winning Strategies for Classroom Management. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Erickson, H. Lynn (1998). Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction: Teaching Beyond the Facts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Erickson, H. Lynn (2001). Stirring the Head, Heart, and Soul, Second Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc. Gibbs, Jeanne (1995). Tribes: A New Way of Learning and Being Together. Sausalito, California: Center Source Systems Jensen, Eric (1998). Teaching With the Brain in Mind. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Keene, Ellin Oliver $ Zimmerman, Susan (1997). Mosaic of Thought: Teaching Comprehension in a Reader's Workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Levine, Mel (2002). A Mind at a Time. New York: Simon and Schuster. Marzano, Robert J. (2000). Transforming Classroom Grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Marzano, Robert J. & Pickering, Debra J. & Pollock, Jane E. (2001). Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Reeves, Douglas B. (2004). Accountability for Learning: How Teachers and Leaders Can Take Charge. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Silver, Harvey & Strong, Richard W. & Perini, Matthew J. (2000). So Each May Learn: Integrating Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Sternberg, Robert. (1998). Successful Intelligence: How Practical and Creative Intelligence Determine Success in Life. Stiggins, Richard J. (1997). Student-Centered Classroom Assessment, Second Edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Strachota, B. (1996). On Their Side: Helping Children Take Charge of Their Learning. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Society for Children. Stronge, James H. (2002) Qualities of Effective Teachers, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1996). Differentiating Instruction for Mixed Ability Classrooms; A Professional Inquiry Kit. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (1999). The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. & Allan, Susan D. (2000). Leadership for Differentiating Schools and Classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. & Eidson, Caroline Cunningham (2003). Differentiation in Practice: A Resource Guide for Differentiating Curriculum, Grades 5-9. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson, C. (2003). Fulfilling the Promise of the Differentiated Classroom: Strategies and Tools for Responsive Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Wiggins, Grant & McTighe, Jay (1998. Understanding By Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Winebrenner, S. (2001). Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom (revised, expanded, updated edition). Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit. Winebrenner, S. (1996). Teaching Kids With Learning Difficulties in the Regular Classroom. Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.