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NNMREC Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Outcomes of a Scientific Workshop Brian Polagye University of Washington Northwest National Marine Renewable.

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Presentation on theme: "NNMREC Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Outcomes of a Scientific Workshop Brian Polagye University of Washington Northwest National Marine Renewable."— Presentation transcript:

1 NNMREC Environmental Effects of Tidal Energy Outcomes of a Scientific Workshop Brian Polagye University of Washington Northwest National Marine Renewable Energy Center PICES 2010 October 26, 2010

2 NNMREC  Environmental Effects  Workshop Overview  Challenges  Recommendations

3 NNMREC Tidal Energy Devices

4 NNMREC “Typical” Sites and Devices 2-4 m/s m Foundation Drive Train Rotor  5-20 m  rpm Gearbox-Generator Direct Drive Generator Pile Gravity Base

5 NNMREC Environmental Stressors Device presence: Dynamic effects Device presence: Static effects Electromagnetic effects Acoustic effects Chemical effects Energy removal Cumulative Effects

6 NNMREC Environmental Receptors Near-field environment Far-field environment Ecosystem Interactions Benthic habitat Pelagic habitat Marine mammals Fish (migratory and resident) Seabirds Invertebrates

7 NNMREC Environmental Assessment Framework Boehlert, G. and Gill, A. Environmental and Ecological Effects of Ocean Renewable Energy Development, Oceanography, 2010 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Type of Marine Renewable Energy Stressors Receptors Level 6 Environmental Effect (frequency and duration) Environmental Impact (type and severity) Cumulative Effects (scales and context)

8 NNMREC  Environmental Effects  Workshop Overview  Challenges  Recommendations

9 NNMREC Need for Workshop  Major interest in developing hydrokinetic energy in the U.S.  Environmental compatibility of technology stated without proof.  Environmental uncertainties present a major barrier to projects getting in the water at any scale.

10 NNMREC Technology Scope Tidal Hydrokinetics Tidal Barrage River Hydrokinetics

11 NNMREC Geographic Scope Coastal Maine Puget Sound Southeast Alaska Cook Inlet Aleutian Islands

12 NNMREC Session Chairs Discussion 4 hours Receptors 2.5 hours Stressors 1.5 hours Wrap Up 1.5 hours Plenary Sessions 4 hours Stressors 2.5 hours Workshop Structure Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Participant Feedback: Another day would have been useful

13 NNMREC Workshop Participants US West Coast (CA, OR, WA, AK) US East Coast Europe Canada Universities Agencies/NGOs Research Labs Industry  Specific technical or scientific expertise  Representative distribution of affiliation  Interest greatly exceeded capacity

14 NNMREC Relative Significance and Uncertainty Physical environment: Near-field Physical environment: Far-field Habitat and Invertebrates Fish: migratory Fish: resident Marine Mammals and Seabirds Ecosystem Interactions Stressor element #1 Stressor element #2 … Color denotes significance Environmental receptor Stressor element Low Medium High Unknown Not Applicable Symbol denotes uncertainty ? Low Medium High Unknown

15 NNMREC Presence of Devices – Static Effects Physical environment: Near-field Physical environment: Far-field Habitat & Invertebrates Fish: migratory Fish: resident Marine Mammals & Seabirds Ecosystem Interactions Structure below water surface Structure above water surface Disturbances from installation of device Disturbances from installation of power cable Disturbances from removal of device Disturbances from removal of power cable Maintenance Pilot Scale

16 NNMREC Presence of Devices – Static Effects Commercial Scale Physical environment: Near-field Physical environment: Far-field Habitat & Invertebrates Fish: migratory Fish: resident Marine Mammals & Seabirds Ecosystem Interactions Structure below water surface Structure above water surface Disturbances from installation of device Disturbances from installation of power cable Disturbances from removal of device Disturbances from removal of power cable Maintenance

17 NNMREC Identification of Priority Interactions  Selection Criteria —High potential significance —High uncertainty  Summarize Key Information —Description —Gaps in Understanding —Monitoring Approaches —Mitigation Measures (stressor only)

18 NNMREC Workshop Report  Will be published as NOAA Tech Memo  Draft out for review to participants by end of week  Details of breakout sections  Challenges indentified  Recommendations

19 NNMREC  Environmental Effects  Workshop Overview  Challenges  Recommendations

20 NNMREC Project Environmental Data are Scarce Single device 5 m diameter Installation effects only CleanCurrent Single device 2 x 16 m diameter Acoustic effects Marine mammal behavior Seabird behavior Benthic habitat MCT Single device 6 m diameter Acoustic effects Fish behavior Benthic habitat Open Hydro Array 5 m diameter Fish behavior Seabird behavior Benthic habitat Verdant Power Single device 3m diameter* Acoustic effects Marine mammal behavior Fish behavior ORPC

21 NNMREC Information Needs at Pilot Scale StressorPriority AreaBefore PilotDuring Pilot Presence of devices: static effects Effects of static structures on benthic ecosystems Characterize benthic habitat. Characterize species presence/absence and behavior. Disruptions to benthic habitat installation/recovery. Rate at which structures are colonized. Fish and marine mammal interactions with modified benthic ecosystems. Presence of devices: dynamic effects Potential for direct interactions of marine species with turbine rotor Characterize movements of marine mammals, fish, and seabirds at temporal and spatial scales required to assess potential for direct interactions. Types of interactions and at what frequency they occur.

22 NNMREC Information Needs at Pilot Scale StressorPriority AreaBefore PilotDuring Pilot Chemical effectsApproaches to preventing biofouling are poorly defined Assess potential impacts of anti-fouling biocides. Fate of chronically released biocides. Acoustic effectsBehavioral responses to increases in broad band noise Behavioral response of species to acoustic signals. Measurements of sound pressure levels from device operation. Electromagnetic effects Electromagnetic fields from operating and idle devices Laboratory studies of electric and magnetic fields. Models of electric and magnetic fields from proposed devices. Measurements of magnetic fields from energized cables and operating devices.

23 NNMREC Challenges to “Deploy and Monitor”  Monitoring technologies are underdeveloped —Existing methods focused on population effects —Existing methods may not function in tidal energy environments  Difficulty of predicting, detecting, and attributing changes to tidal energy devices  Legal protections or ethical considerations prohibit studies of some interactions  Some important effects can only be measured at commercial scale

24 NNMREC  Environmental Effects  Workshop Overview  Challenges  Recommendations

25 NNMREC Preliminary Research Prioritization  Marine mammal- device interactions —Blade strike —Acoustic effects  Fish-device interactions  Environmental tipping points for energy removal 7 receptors x ≈6 elements x 7 stressors x ≈ 6 elements ≈ 1700 potential interactions

26 NNMREC Pilot Projects are Required  Recognized need by participants of all affiliation  Must be well-monitored  Prioritize objectives  Use common protocols Courtesy of Marine Current Turbines

27 NNMREC Develop Assessment Capabilities  Close monitoring instrumentation gaps —Detect, classify, and identify marine organisms at a variety of scales —Real-time monitoring for decision making  General monitoring protocols —Objective of data collection —Type of data to be collected —Mechanisms for data collection  Numerical models —Turbine scale: hydrodynamics, fish interactions —Regional scale: tipping points

28 NNMREC Mitigate Impacts when Possible StressorPriority AreaRecommended Mitigation Presence of devices: static effects Effects of static structure on benthic ecosystems Minimize anchor sizes. Minimize number of moorings and slack lines. Streamline support structures. Presence of devices: dynamic effects Potential for direct interactions of marine species with turbine rotor Increase visibility of rotors to fish. Acoustic avoidance measures. Shock absorbers on leading edges of blades. Temporary device shutdown. Electromagnetic effects Behavioral disruption from electric and magnetic fields Bury power cables. Twist cores for AC cables. Run DC cables of opposing polarity in close proximity. Cumulative effects Effects on large, mobile species Limit number of devices at a given location until effects of operation are sufficiently understood.

29 NNMREC Collaboration is Essential  Information needs to be shared between projects —IEA-OES Annex IV —Significant intellectual property concerns  Hydrokinetic industry needs to engage with the oceanographic community —Leverage active areas of research  Expand opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration

30 NNMREC Acknowledgements  Workshop organizing committee —Andrea Copping, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory —Keith Kirkendall, NOAA Fisheries —George Boehlert, Oregon State University —Michelle Wainstein, University of Washington —Sue Walker, NOAA Fisheries —Brie Van Cleve, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory  Workshop sponsors —NOAA Fisheries —US Department of Energy  Workshop participants, particularly session chairs and note takers


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