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Radio Telemetry Studies of Adult Salmonids and Pacific Lamprey in the Columbia Basin Chris Caudill University of Idaho Fish Ecology Research Lab Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Radio Telemetry Studies of Adult Salmonids and Pacific Lamprey in the Columbia Basin Chris Caudill University of Idaho Fish Ecology Research Lab Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radio Telemetry Studies of Adult Salmonids and Pacific Lamprey in the Columbia Basin Chris Caudill University of Idaho Fish Ecology Research Lab Department of Fish and Wildlife Sciences Moscow, Idaho

2 Radio Telemetry Studies of Adult Salmonids and Pacific Lamprey in the Columbia Basin Chris Peery, Ted Bjornn, Matt Keefer, Charles Boggs, Bill Daigle, Tami Clabough, Megan Heinrich, Mike Jepson, Steve Lee, George Naughton, Rudy Ringe, Ken Tolotti, Lowell Struenberg, Mary Moser, Ben Ho, Brian McIlraith, Dan Joosten, Karen Johnson, Ryan Mann, Eric Johnson, Mark Morasch, Travis Dick, Rose Poulin Brian Burke, … Chris Peery, Ted Bjornn, Matt Keefer, Charles Boggs, Bill Daigle, Tami Clabough, Megan Heinrich, Mike Jepson, Steve Lee, George Naughton, Rudy Ringe, Ken Tolotti, Lowell Struenberg, Mary Moser, Ben Ho, Brian McIlraith, Dan Joosten, Karen Johnson, Ryan Mann, Eric Johnson, Mark Morasch, Travis Dick, Rose Poulin Brian Burke, …

3 Talk outline Radio telemetry background: RT in the multi- scale toolbox Specific case studies – General approach – Adult salmonids – Adult Pacific lamprey

4 Spatial Scale of Investigation Short scale/local (specific structures, behavior; 1-10 m spatial scales) – Optical video – DIDSON Video – PIT evaluation (specific antennas) – Acoustic telemetry w/ 3D receiver array Meso-scale (fishways, habitat use, individual dams; 10m - km spatial scales) – Radio or Acoustic – (PIT) Large-scale evaluations (escapement, distribution, straying, etc s km) – Radio or Acoustic – (PIT)

5 Active Transmitting Tags HabitatRadio TelemetryAcoustic Telemetry ShallowExcellent (km’s)Poor to Good (meters to 100s m) Deep (>10 m)PoorGood (~ km) SalinePoorGood TurbulentGoodFair to Poor Large Mainstem RiversPoor to Excellent (Fish depth)Good to Excellent TailraceV. goodFair SpillwayV. goodFair to Poor (Entrained air) FishwaysExcellent“Poor” ReservoirsPoor to Excellent (Fish depth)Good to Excellent TributariesExcellentFair to Poor (Entrained air) FactorRadio TelemetryAcoustic Telemetry Tag lifedays to years Cost per tag$ External antennaYesNo

6 Tag effects Corbett et al NAJFM

7 Tag effects Corbett et al. (2012). Tagged spring Chinook salmon in upper Yakima River (Roza Dam, Yakima rkm 208; Columbia rkm 745), held in raceways.

8 Willamette Valley Fall Creek (Columbia R. rkm 503) YearGroup# released# recovered % recovered %PSM 2008PIT PIT Double PIT Double PIT Double Unmarked Table 7. Final estimated fates of Chinook salmon that were PIT-tagged or double-tagged (PIT and radio-tagged) in Fall Creek, Double-tagged fish were only included in the PIT-tagged numbers if the whole carcass was recovered, and not just the radio tag in Double-tagged and radio-tagged fish were enumerated separately in From Naughton et al

9 Columbia River tag effects Mainstem unaccounted for losses ~ 12% ~ upper limit -unreported harvest -death (including tag effects) -tag failure / loss -does not account for delayed effects in tribs (Keefer et al. 2005) Known tag loss ~ % (Keefer et al. 2004) Travel rates similar between RT and unhandled PIT tagged adults (Matter and Sanford 2003). Keefer et al. 2005

10 Radio Telemetry Summary Medium to large spatial scales Tracking individuals through acoustically noisy environments (e.g., spillways, fishways) Single receiver gates External antenna Tag life ~ battery size ~ tag size ~ tag effect Spatial resolution to ~ 10 m Tag effects important in some systems, particularly when tagging late in migration

11 Case Examples: Adult salmonids General approach Local scale questions – Behavior – Evaluations of fishway improvements – Temperature effects – Spawning success in tributaries Reach scale questions – Run-timing – Conversion rates – Temperature effects – Post-project passage migration – Transport and straying

12 Telemetry Approaches

13 Bonneville Dam Chinook Salmon Tagging 2010 Tagging early in run, in contrast to Corbett et al. 2012

14 Monitoring arrays 4 Lower Columbia dams 4 Lower Snake dams Priest Rapids, Wanapum

15 Monitoring arrays 4 Lower Columbia dams 4 Lower Snake dams Priest Rapids, Wanapum Major tributaries ≥ 147 Receiver Sites / yr Mobile Tracking Multi-antenna rec’vs at dams Single antenna rec’vs at other sites

16 Bonneville Dam Chinook Salmon Tagging Proportional tagging useful for expansions, sampling all stocks

17 Radio-tagged Adult Salmon & Steelhead Bonneville Dam Spring Chinook Summer Chinook Fall ChinookSteelheadSockeyeTotal —765—1, , ,032——1, ,1171,160—3, ,151—3, ,0661,273—3, —2, —1, —143605—— ——— ——— ——— ———600 Total 7,3323,0706,1396, ,384

18 Bonneville DamHD PITRadioTotal 1997 — — — — — — — ,000— — , Total 4,5881,5036,091 Pacific Lamprey Sample sizes driven by balance of precision needed for question(s), costs, and potential negative impacts on resource.

19 Data Management and Availability Generates very large datasets (millions of records) Data processing, filtering, and coding of behaviors (SQL server, custom scripts) Long term database stored at UI and NMFS Challenging to convert to a (useful) open source database – Code definitions and interpretations of detections – Interannual comparisons complicated by changes in site locations, etc. – Most use of coded database by researchers

20 Local scale questions Do modifications negatively affect adult salmonid passage? – Dam structures – Dam operations (tailrace conditions, fishway operations), or – Fishway improvements

21 Monitoring modifications and improvements (Local to Mesoscale)

22 Monitoring modifications and improvements for Pacific lamprey LPS Variable width weir

23 Manipulated Spill at Bonneville Dam

24 BON PH2 LFS

25 Example Passage Metrics Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) Design PASSAGE RATE/NUMBERS 1) Entrance Efficiency = the proportion of fish entering of those that approached (Entrances/approaches) 2) Exit Ratio = the proportion of fish exiting to the tailrace of those that entered (Exits/entrances) PASS BEHAVIOR (DELAYS ~ energetic cost; sea lion predation) 3) Entrance Time = Time from first fishway approach to first entrance 4) Entrance to Base of Ladder = Passage time from first entrance to the transition pool 5) Extended passage time = Percentage of adults with passage time > 1 hour

26 Spring Chinook Salmon CI Entrance Metrics Spring ChinookRange ( ) Metric nEstimate n 1 Entrance efficiency Exit ratio Median approach to entry8542 min min 4 Median entry to ladder7813 min min 5 Approach-entry > 1 h8536% % 6 Entry-ladder > 1 h781% %

27 Cascades Island vs. Bradford Island Spring Chinook Conclusion: Short-term effect in year after installation, diminished in second year (“seasoning” effect?)

28 What is the thermal experience of adults How does temperature affect behavior? – Behavioral thermoregulation at tributaries – At dams? Temperature and survival – Climate change? Temperature and energetics and prespawn mortality Temperature effects: Individual to Population Scale Linking environmental experience to movement

29 Steelhead body temperatures reflect extensive holding in cool- water tributaries with large diel fluctuations in temperature Behavioral thermoregulation and flexible migration rate Increased vulnerability to fisheries take in tributaries (High et al. 2006).

30 Summer Stratification and Ladder Temperatures Dam TailraceForebay Fishway Exit Temperature Junction Pool Temperature

31 Seasonal Patterns of Δ T

32 Ladder Passage Time A B BA A B A AA Different letters indicate contrast P < A B B

33 Population Effects: Sockeye Salmon 1997 Late Entry Early Entry

34 Willamette Valley PSM Keefer et al Environmental Factors Energetic Status/Timing Condition/ Disease Status PSM

35 Adult salmonid reach-scale questions: Run-timing Escapement rates Post-project passage migration success Delayed effects of transport on migration success, behavior and straying

36 Chinook salmon migration timing and stock composition Keefer et al (NAJFM) Jepson et al (NAJFM) Back assignment of unmarked adults using final locations Date at Bonneville Dam

37 Escapement data Fisheries in lower reservoirs Increase for upstream Reaches Esc 1 uncorrected for fisheries take Esc 2 Fisheries take in tribs considered successful Esc 3 All fisheries take considered successful Keefer et al. 2005

38 Across scales: Delayed effects Spring Chinook at Bonneville Dam 2002 Caudill et al. 2007

39 Dam Passage Time & Fate

40 Mechanism remain uninvestigated

41 Barging and straying Does barging juveniles affect adult behavior? HOME ?

42 Juvenile migration “route” and adult migration Spawning Marine Growth Sequential imprinting during juvenile outmigration Adults use reverse sequence Barge In-river

43 Metrics Migration timing and rate Route, especially fallback Fate – Successful (reached spawning trib) – Unaccounted – Fisheries returns (reward program) Known-source groups: – Stray? – Barged as juveniles or in-river outmigration?

44 Barging and straying Keefer et al (EA)

45 Barging and straying “Early right turn” suggests effect of barging on the recall rate or timing of imprinted cues near tributary-mainstem confluence

46 Figure 14. Examples of the proportions of adult strays that spawn with a local recipient population (strays/(strays+natives) as estimated using four recipient population sizes (four panels: 500, 1,000, 5,000, or 10,000 fish), a range of donor population size (0-200,000), and three donor stray rates: 1% (solid line), 3% (dotted line), and 5% (dashed line). Small recipient populations can be numerically dominated by strays when the donor population is large, even when stray rates are low. (Note: same as Figure 1). From Keefer and Caudill Why it matters: Straying effects on small wild populations

47 Adult Pacific lamprey General passage behavior and patterns – Dam passage – Hydrosystem passage Local-scale evaluations – Identifying bottlenecks – Evaluating structural and operational modifications Tag effects Cautionary note

48 Modifications for Pacific lamprey Velocity

49 HDX only: from release All radios: from release Relatively consistent patterns among years Upstream escapement: among-year comparison

50 BON TDA JDA MCN PRD John Day R Deschutes R Klickitat R 3% Tributaries = 13% IHD 31% Main stem sites = 87% Reservoirs= 41% Tailrace and fishway= 46% 5% 2% 1% 15% 14% 1% Distribution: 185 radio-tagged lampreys that passed BON Last detections: 2009

51 Escapement: Release to Bonneville exit (2009) Weighted regressions r 2 = 0.47 r 2 = 0.08 r 2 = 0.54 Small n Upstream escapement: size effects by tag type Similar results in Radio tag effect across size classes Radio tag effect depends

52 Tag effect depends on relative tag size

53 “Motivation” and interpreting results Current evidence suggests adult lamprey home at very coarse scales or not at all (use other cues for breeding site selection) Challenging to interpret “failed” passage attempts – Successful downstream spawning? Using multiple lines of inquiry (including multiple tag types)

54 How to prioritize improvements at a dam? Keefer et al 2012

55 Or across all dams

56 Prioritization among dams:

57 Spatial Scale of Investigation Short scale/local (specific structures, behavior; 1-10 m spatial scales) – Optical video – DIDSON Video – PIT evaluation (specific antennas) – Acoustic telemetry w/ 3D receiver array Meso-scale (fishways, habitat use, individual dams; m spatial scales) – Radio or Acoustic – PIT Large-scale evaluations (escapement, distribution, straying, etc s km) – Radio or Acoustic – PIT

58 Telemetry tool box “…if you have a hammer, every problem looks like a nail”

59 Telemetry tool box “…if you have a hammer, every problem looks like a nail”

60

61 Selected References Close, D. A., M. S. Fitzpatrick, C. M. Lorion, H. W. Li and C. B. Schreck Effects of intraperitoneally implanted radio transmitters on the swimming performance and physiology of Pacific lamprey. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23(4): Keefer, M. L., C. A. Peery, R. R. Ringe and I. C. Bjornn Regurgitation rates of intragastric radio transmitters by adult Chinook salmon and steelhead during upstream migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 24(1): Matter, A. L. and B. P. Sandford A comparison of migration rates of radio- and PIT-tagged adult Snake River chinook salmon through the Columbia River hydropower system. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 23: Moser, M. L., D. A. Ogden and B. P. Sandford Effects of surgically implanted transmitters on anguilliform fishes: lessons from lamprey. Journal of Fish Biology 71(6): Caudill, C. C., W. R. Daigle, M. L. Keefer, C. T. Boggs, M. A. Jepson, B. J. Burke, R. W. Zabel, T. C. Bjornn and C. A. Peery Slow dam passage in adult Columbia River salmonids associated with unsuccessful migration: delayed negative effects of passage obstacles or condition-dependent mortality? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64(7): High, B., C. A. Peery and D. H. Bennett Temporary staging of Columbia River summer steelhead in coolwater areas and its effect on migration rates. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 135(2): Keefer, M. L., C. C. Caudill, C. A. Peery and S. R. Lee Transporting Juvenile salmonids around dams impairs adult migration. Ecological Applications 18(8): Keefer, M. L., C. A. Peery, W. R. Daigle, M. A. Jepson, S. R. Lee, C. T. Boggs, K. R. Tolotti and B. J. Burke Escapement, harvest, and unknown loss of radio-tagged adult salmonids in the Columbia River - Snake River hydrosystem. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(4): Keefer, M. L., G. A. Taylor, D. F. Garletts, G. A. Gauthier, T. M. Pierce and C. C. Caudill Prespawn mortality in adult spring Chinook salmon outplanted above barrier dams. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 19(3): Naughton, G. P., C. C. Caudill, M. L. Keefer, T. C. Bjornn, L. C. Stuehrenberg and C. A. Peery Late-season mortality during migration of radio- tagged adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in the Columbia River. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 62(1):


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