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Microbial Source Tracking Techniques: Lake Michigan Beaches Case Studies Erika Jensen, M.S. Great Lakes WATER Institute April 14, 2005.

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Presentation on theme: "Microbial Source Tracking Techniques: Lake Michigan Beaches Case Studies Erika Jensen, M.S. Great Lakes WATER Institute April 14, 2005."— Presentation transcript:

1 Microbial Source Tracking Techniques: Lake Michigan Beaches Case Studies Erika Jensen, M.S. Great Lakes WATER Institute April 14, 2005

2 Potential Sources of E. coli CSOs, SSOs, and septic systems Urban and agricultural runoff Waterfowl, domestic pets, and wildlife Sand, algae, and interstitial waters 240,000 CFU/100 ml368,000,000 CFU/g feces 250, ,000 CFU/100 ml 10, ,000 CFU/100 ml Beach closure 235 CFU/100ml

3 GLWI Research Areas Fate and transport of bacteria Milwaukee Harbor, stormwater, Lake Michigan Sources of pollution Milwaukee Harbor, stormwater, Lake Michigan Door, Manitowoc, Milwaukee, & Racine County Beaches Pathogen occurrence Bradford Beach, Racine, Milwaukee Harbor Evaluation of BMPs South Shore beach, green roofs and rain gardens

4 Approach to Microbial Source Tracking 1.Gather the experts and share knowledge 2.In depth spatial surveys 3. Targeted sampling to observe dynamics; modeling 4. Apply source tracking approaches: Human vs. non-human? Are specific groups of animals contributing? Does sand or Cladophora act as a reservoir? 5. Manage and evaluate the problem

5 900 sq mi watershed 410 miles of streams 1.3 million people Urban, industrial, agricultural land uses Milwaukee River Basin

6 Bacterial Surveys Spatial & Temporal South Shore Beach Study: 2001 to present Menomonee River Study: 2002 Fate and Transport Study: 2002 to present Manitowoc & Door County Beach Surveys: Bradford Beach Study: 2004 to present

7 South Shore Beach

8 Spatial surveys CSO - 36 hrs, SE wind Rain, N windNo rain – SE Wind CSO - 45 hrs, SE wind 2001

9 rivers Dry weather (baseflow)Wet weather (stormflow)

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11 South Shore Beach

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13 E. Coli Level Comparisons: Current & Proposed Beach Sites

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15 Menomonee River Study 2002 Determine river E. coli levels during baseflow and stormflow Determine E. coli levels of inline stormwater entering river Characterize “genetic profile” of E. coli in stormwater

16 Menomonee River Survey Suburban, suburban industrial Natural bed Urban, Concrete bed Urban, Rehabilitated bed Urban, industrial Natural bed

17 E. Coli Data Menomonee River Survey

18 Fate & Transport 2003 Spatial Survey

19 Fate & Transport CSO Event May,

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21 Hydrodynamic Model Hydrodynamics Hydrodynamics - Transport - Mixing - Dilution Bacterial counts Bacterial counts

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24 Die-off is a 2 nd order function Die off in Lake Michigan is 90% in 6-8 hours Bacterial Die off in Lake Michigan

25 Bradford Beach in Milwaukee

26 Pre-rain :44Post-rain :20 E. coli Survival & Persistence in the Environment

27 E. Coli in Sand Range 8-39,000 E. coli/100 g

28 E. Coli Levels at Bradford Beach

29 1 2 3 Clonal Populations Suggest Growth E. Coli from Beach Sand

30 Bacteroides spp. Case Studies Stormwater Beach water Agricultural Runoff Combined Sewer Overflows

31 DescriptionE. coli CFU/100ml Bacteroides spp. % Pos. Human % Pos. Cow % Pos. Beach Water – Forested Area Beach Water – Resort Area Beach Water – Agricultural land Urban Beach – No outfalls Urban Beach – with Outfalls , Parking Lot Runoff ,

32 Spatial surveys provide the most useful data Identify hot spots or areas of concern Implement targeted sampling surveys to observe site specific dynamics Apply source tracking approaches: Human vs. non-human? Are specific hosts contributing? Are there environmental reservoirs? Manage and evaluate the problem Summary

33 Researchers Annette Daniels Alissa Salmore Caitlin Scopel Michelle Luebke Pat Bower Ola Olapade Students Magnolia Tulod Josh Harris Elissa Lewis Emerson Lee Jennifer Lee Andrew Holland Becky Kirby Hilary Street Ben Weston Morgan Depas Meredith Van Dyke Graduate Students Marcia Silva Sachie Owaga Heidi Pirkov Liang Peng Sukpreet Kaur Great Lakes WATER Institute P.I., Dr. Sandra McLellan Funding kindly provided by Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewage District Wisconsin DNR National Institute of Health NOAA Sea Grant SC Johnson Wisconsin Coastal Management Program


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