Presentation on theme: "Bell Work Define what Loyalty means to you. Who are you loyal to? Who are others loyal to? What does it mean if something you are loyal to is not the same."— Presentation transcript:
Bell Work Define what Loyalty means to you. Who are you loyal to? Who are others loyal to? What does it mean if something you are loyal to is not the same as someone else? Write 3-5 sentences.
Intro to Greek Tragedies and Antigone
Learning Objectives Identify characteristics of classical drama Analyze theme and conflict Analyze and evaluate style Research word definitions and connotations Build academic vocabulary Analyze Literature
Catastrophe A disastrous conclusion usually involving multiple deaths. If the tragic hero survives, he suffers complete ruin.
Chorus A masked group of actors who intermittently appear on stage to comment on the plot—usually through song. Choragus = chorus leader
Fate Meaning 1: Preordained destiny Meaning 2: The Fates, or Moirai, are the three goddesses of fate (particularly death and pain).
Protagonist, or central character (good guy) Usually fails or dies (with dignity) because of character flaw High rank or status Shows strength while facing fate Tragic Hero This is Zorro. He was an awesome hero from long ago. You’ve probably never heard of him because your generation has replaced real heroes with Barbies like Zac Efron and Channing Tatum.
Tragic Flaw Take a moment to brainstorm archetypal character flaws with a partner [I don’t get it either.]
Tragic Hero Qualities Hubris: arrogance Catharsis: a move from ignorance to knowledge Hamartia: weakness that causes downfall Nemesis: fate that cannot be escaped Hugh the Pirate
Classical Greek Drama Developed by the Greeks to analyze the human/diety relationship. Most modern religions: –God is the model for man Greek mythology: –Man is the model for the gods
Two Forms of Greek Drama Tragedy Human suffering Religious celebrations; solemn, poetic, philosophic Based on myth Imperfect hero confronted by a difficult moral choice or conflict Struggle usually ends in defeat and death; happy endings not unheard of. Comedy About human comedy Social commentary, farce and parody Contemporary Satire (brief comic parody of myth) New Comedy (a comedy of errors or situation comedy)
Tragedy Antigone Hamlet Romeo and Juliet A Midsummer Night’s Dream 10 Things I Hate About You Comedy
Drama through Festival Dionysian was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honor of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. Celebration of vines and fertility. Contests, dancing, and singing Performances from Choruses Possible for spectators to visit more than one festival; an excuse for Athenians to travel.
Ritual at Rural Dionysia (7th & 6th cent. B.C.) –Origins in orations or choral hymns to Dionysis during rural festivals –Chorus and Actors (“answerer” to chorus) –Religious celebration Performance at City Dionysia (5th & 4th C. B.C.) –Social-Religious Commentary & Entertainment
Zeus King of the Gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, thunder, and justice. Hera Queen of the Gods and of the heavens; goddess of women, marriage, and motherhood.
Demeter Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons. Poseidon Lord of the Sea; god of the seas, earthquakes, created horses.
Aphrodite Goddess of love, beauty, desire, and fertility Apollo The Sun God; god of light, healing, music, poetry, prophecy, archery and truth
Orchestra: “dancing space” used by chorus; often included an altar (thymele). Skene: “tent” or structure behind the stage, with doors and upper levels. Parodos: “passageways” by which the chorus and actors entered and existed the stage area. Theatron: “viewing-place” usually part of a hillside overlooking the orchestra.
Parts of a Greek Tragedy Simple Structure: Prologue spoken, chorus enters (singing and dancing) with additional scenes that alternate between spoken sections and song Prologue: Usually gives mythological background Parodos: Sung by the chorus; it enters dancing Episodes: This is the first of many "episodes” (literally “between odes”), when the characters and chorus talk and main action occurs. Ode: At the end of each episode, the actors leave the stage and the chorus dances and sings a choral ode summarizing the episode. The rest of the play is an alternation between episodes and odes, until the final scene. Exodos: Chorus exits singing a processional song which usually offers words of wisdom related to the play.
About Sophocles ( B.C.) A prominent citizen of Athens known for his musical, poetic and dramatic talents Wrote 127+ tragedies; only seven survive His works always contain a moral lesson—usually a caution against pride and religious indifference Most admired for his “Theban” plays—three tragedies about King Oedipus of Thebes and his family
Antigone Chronologically, it is the third of the three Theban plays but was written firstthree Theban plays First performed in 442 B.C. It is a story that pits the law of the gods- “unwritten law”-against the laws of humankind, family ties against civic duty, and man against woman.
Antigone Oedipus Rex Oedipus at Colonus
Antigone’s Family Tree
Laius, King of Thebes
Chains Oedipus on the mountain to die. Found by King of Corinth. As a teenager, his approached by a shephard who warns him of a strange fate to befall him. Decides to travel to Thebes to escape his fate. On the journey, his chariot meets another. Road rage. Kills the owner. Travels on. Thebes falls under plague of Sphinx.
Sphinx gives approaching Oedipus a riddle. Once solved correctly, he wins the throne and a wife. Jacosta and Oedipus have 4 children (these are the main characters of Antigone): –Etecoles –Polyneices –Antigone –Ismene
Oedipus sends Creon (Jacosta’s brother) to Tireseas (the oracle) to determine how they can end the play that is destroying the city. Tireseas says they must find Laius’ murderer. Oedipus summons the oracle, but Tireseas refuses to speak to him. Oedipus mocks the prophet. Tireseas vaguely hints at a dramatic incestuous history. Oedipus confides in Jacosta.
Jacosta laughs off the prophesy saying her first son had died. Her first husband was murdered at a crossroads. The prophesy clicks. Oedipus suddenly understands. Messenger enters and says Oedipus’ father is dead. (His adopted father that he doesn’t know is his adopted father.) He rejoices! Yay! The prophesy is wrong!
A shepard shows up and confirms the prophesy. Just kidding! That stuff DID happen! Jacosta kills herself. Oedipus blinds himself. Antigone remains loyal to father until he dies. In the meantime, TWO sons (Eteocles and Polynices) are alive to inherit the throne. The solution: they’ll take turns in four-year increments –What could go wrong?
Interesting stuff aside… You NEED to know: Eteocles didn’t want to give up the throne. Polynices gathered an army and killed him. Polynices was killed. Creon, the brother in law, assumes power. Creon refuses a proper burial for Polynices. A burial refusal is equivalent to eternal damnation, embarrassment, and humiliation.
Antigone: Summary of the Prologue Creon has decided that only Eteocles will get a burial. Creon’s reign is new: he’s still forging his reputation. Antigone believes it is her sacred duty to bury her brother and asks Ismene to help. Ismene refuses, fearing repercussions from disobeying the king’s command.