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 Rome had many of the most beautiful monuments and buildings in the world  It contained more goods and marketplaces than any other city  The empire.

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Presentation on theme: " Rome had many of the most beautiful monuments and buildings in the world  It contained more goods and marketplaces than any other city  The empire."— Presentation transcript:

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3  Rome had many of the most beautiful monuments and buildings in the world  It contained more goods and marketplaces than any other city  The empire was very large, and people brought goods from all over to sell in Rome  Rome was very busy!

4  Over 1 million people lived in Rome during Augustus’ rule  As a result, Rome was noisy and overcrowded

5  Being a Roman citizen was a matter of great pride – people wanted to live in Rome  In the republic and early years of the empire, only residents of Rome were citizens  Every 5 years, Roman men registered for the census  Census: the official count of people living in Rome  Men had to declare all family members, slaves, and wealth on their census form  Registering was the only way to be counted a citizen  If a man did not register, he could lose his property or be sold into slavery  Women, children, slaves, and freed slaves were not citizens

6  As the empire expanded, people beyond Rome gained citizenship  Residents of Rome took pride in their monuments, buildings, and city, and looked down on those outside the city  Rome had a vibrant social scene, with many banquets and gatherings

7  Roman society had a small number of rich people  In contrast, there were many poor people and slaves  There was a huge gap between the poor and the wealthy  Most Romans had few luxuries  Many poor Romans were unemployed  They depended on handouts from the government to support them

8  The rich people had elegant homes in the city, and large country homes called “villas”  Wealthy people had great feasts and showed off their wealth  They had entertainers come to perform at the feasts

9  On the other hand, most people in Rome lived in poorly built and rundown houses  They had no running water, toilets, or proper kitchens  They lived in tall apartment buildings with many steps to walk up and down  Human waste and garbage was carried downstairs or dumped from windows  They were made of wood, so fires were frequent  A large fire in 64 A.D. destroyed much of Rome Roman “insula,” or apartment building

10  The poor needed grain and wheat to survive  Bread was made from grain and wheat  When grain and wheat harvests were bad or shipments were late, the poor people rioted  In order to prevent riots, the emperors provided free grain at the Colosseum  Roman emperors also held shows at the Colosseum or other arenas  The arenas were called “circuses,” and the show itself could also be called a “circus”

11  Circuses could be very violent – the Romans loved brutal forms of entertainment  Humans vs. humans  Humans vs. animals  Animals vs. animals  Criminals were executed publicly for everyone to see  Clowns would entertain people (if the audience had enough bloodshed for the day)

12  Gladiator: someone who fought to the death for entertainment purposes  Most gladiators were slaves captured in battle  Some were free men and women who enjoyed the fame and fortune received from their success  The gladiator match lasted until one gladiator was dead, dying, or wounded  Wounded gladiators would either be killed or, if the crowd thought they had fought bravely, allowed to live  Crowds waved handkerchiefs to spare the loser, and thumbs down meant death

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14  Despite their enjoyment of brutal sports, Romans had strong family values  Roman government provided support to families, especially to the upper classes  Fathers of large families received land from the government  This was meant to encourage wealthy families to have children and continue the family name  There were no government benefits for unmarried men and couples with no children

15  Head of a Roman household called paterfamilias – Latin for “father of the family”  The family included everyone below the paterfamilias  The Paterfamilias could be the father, grandfather, or great- grandfather of the household  Three generations often lived under one roof  The Paterfamilias had absolute power in the household – he owned everything in it – women, children, slaves, furniture – and this was Roman law!  Early on, the paterfamilias could sell a son or daughter into slavery, although later, this was outlawed  Wealthy families controlled as many as hundreds of slaves  Slaves did all the work for the family, even raising children  Poor families did not own slaves

16  Women’s roles:  When a woman got married, she left the house of her father to live in her husband’s house  She would take her place under the paterfamilias of the house, whether it was her husband or an older member of the family  In some cases, women got married just to produce children for her husband’s family  The amount of freedom a woman had depended on her husband’s wealth and social status  Wealthy women had a lot of independence and influenced their families  Some women became doctors and became involved in business  Lower-class women became cooks, hairdressers, entertainers, and dressmakers

17  Slavery was common in Rome  Almost every wealthy family had slaves  One-third of Italy’s population were slaves  Household slaves were generally taken care of very well  Most were not paid or given monetary tips, but families would generally treat them well  They sometimes became part of the family  Farm slaves and slaves who worked in mines led hard lives  Sometimes they worked and slept chained together like prisoners, and worked in terrible conditions  Many of these slaves also were forced to fight as gladiators  Some slaves were able to buy freedom through the tips or wages they received  Slaves who were skilled gladiators could become rich and famous

18  Before we leave class today, answer the following questions (at least 2 sentences each):  Why was being a citizen so important to the Romans?  Being a citizen can be compared to the importance of being part of a group. What groups are you a “citizen” of? Why are they important to you?

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20  Rome was a proud and busy city  Filled w/beautiful buildings (such as Pantheon and Colosseum)  Busy marketplaces filled with people  Merchants brought goods from all over to sell in Rome

21  Over 1 million people lived in Rome during Augustus’ rule  As a result, Rome was noisy and overcrowded

22  Being a Roman citizen was a matter of great pride – people wanted to live in Rome  In order to be counted as a citizen, men had to register for the census every 5 years  Census: the official count of people living in Rome  Men had to declare all family members, slaves, and wealth on their census form  Women, children, slaves, and freed slaves were not citizens

23  Roman society had a small number of rich people  In contrast, there were many poor people and slaves  There was a huge gap between the poor and the wealthy  Many poor Romans were unemployed, depending on support from the government  In order to prevent riots, the emperors provided free grain at the Colosseum

24  The rich people had elegant homes in the city, and large country homes called “villas”  They showed off their wealth

25  On the other hand, most people in Rome lived in poorly built and rundown houses  They had no running water, toilets, or proper kitchens  They lived in tall apartment buildings with many steps to walk up and down  Human waste and garbage was carried downstairs or dumped from windows  They were made of wood, so fires were frequent  A large fire in 64 A.D. destroyed much of Rome because of all the wood apartments Roman “insula,” or apartment building

26  The shows at the Colosseum were known as “circuses”  Circuses could be very violent – the Romans loved brutal forms of entertainment  Humans vs. humans, humans vs. animals, animals vs. animals  Criminals were executed publicly for everyone to see  Gladiator: someone who fought to the death for entertainment  Most gladiators were slaves captured in battle, some were free men and women who enjoyed the competition and fame

27  Despite their enjoyment of brutal sports, Romans had strong family values  Head of a Roman household called paterfamilias – Latin for “father of the family”  The Paterfamilias had absolute power in the household – he owned everything in it – women, children, slaves, furniture – and this was Roman law!  Everyone respected the older members of the family  Wealthy families controlled many slaves  Slaves did all the work for the wealthy family, even raising children  Poor families did not own slaves

28  Women’s roles:  Marriage was very important to women  Leaving her father to live in her new husband’s home was a big deal, since family was so important to the Romans  The amount of freedom a woman had depended on her husband’s wealth and social status  Wealthy women had a lot of independence and influenced their families  Some women became doctors and became involved in business  Lower-class women became cooks, hairdressers, entertainers, and dressmakers

29  Slavery was common in Rome  Almost every wealthy family had slaves  One-third of Italy’s population were slaves  Household slaves were generally taken care of very well  Most were not paid or given money as tips, but families would generally treat them well  They sometimes became part of the family (like Greek household slaves)  Farm slaves and slaves who worked in mines had hard lives  Sometimes they worked and slept chained together like prisoners, and worked in terrible conditions  Many of these slaves also were forced to fight as gladiators  Some slaves were able to buy freedom through the tips or wages they received  Slaves who were skilled gladiators could become rich and famous

30  Before we leave class today, answer the following questions (at least 2 sentences each):  Why was being a citizen so important to the Romans?  Being a citizen can be compared to the importance of being part of a group. What groups are you a “citizen” of? Why are they important to you?

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33  We are studying Christianity in class for educational purposes only. Many people in America are Christian, so please make sure that any questions you ask are appropriate and not potentially offensive. We are studying Christianity, just as we would study about traditional Greek or Roman religions, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, or Islam.

34  Jesus Christ founded Christianity during the Roman Empire

35  Jesus grew up in the town of Nazareth (in modern day Israel)  Jesus’ disciples, or followers, told stories of his life found in the Bible  4 disciples – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, each wrote a story, known as a Gospel - in the Bible about Jesus

36  The teachings of Jesus became known as Christianity  Jesus’ teachings:  There is only one true God  God is loving and forgiving  People must love God and neighbor  People who followed these teachings would live forever  Jesus’ followers believed he was the messiah, or savior  Jesus’ teachings scared some people  Romans did not want to believe that God was more powerful than the emperor  Jesus was put to death

37  Paul became one of the most devoted followers of Jesus  He wrote many epistles, or letters, to help turn Christianity into an organized religion  Many of these epistles were included in the Bible

38  Roman government feared Christianity and viewed Christians as enemies of the empire  Christians refused to worship the Roman gods and the Romans believed that they did not show proper respect to the emperor  Emperor Nero began to persecute the Christians  Persecute: to treat in a cruel and unjust way  They were arrested, killed, forced to fight in the Colosseum  Paul was imprisoned and killed

39  Despite persecution, Christianity spread throughout the empire  People appreciated its message of love, forgiveness, and a better life  Christians provided help for people in the community  The Gospels were written so ordinary people could understand them  By 300 A.D., one in ten Romans had become Christian

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41  We are studying Christianity in class for educational purposes only. Many people in America are Christian, so please make sure that any questions you ask are appropriate and not potentially offensive. We are studying Christianity, just as we would study about traditional Greek or Roman religions, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, or Islam.

42  Jesus Christ founded Christianity  Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire  At first, it was usually only the poor and slaves who followed Christianity, but later, it became more popular

43  Romans conquered the Jewish homeland of Judaea in 63 B.C.  Romans respected the Jews’ right to worship their God, but Jews did not like Roman rule  The Jews believed that a messiah, or savior, would come to bring justice and freedom from the Romans  Romans punished Jews for opposing their rule

44  Jesus was born in the Judaean town of Bethlehem and grew up in Nazareth  Stories about Jesus are found in the New Testament of the Bible  Jesus’ disciples, or followers, told stories of his life  4 disciples – Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, each wrote a story, known as a Gospel - in the Bible about Jesus

45  Jesus began teaching when he was about 30 years old  The teachings of Jesus became known as Christianity  People who began to follow Jesus became known as Christians  Jesus’ teachings:  There is only one true God  God is loving and forgiving  People must love God and neighbor  People who followed these teachings would live forever  Jesus’ followers believed he was the messiah

46  Jesus’ teachings scared some people  Romans did not want to believe that God was more powerful than the emperor  Romans feared a revolution by the Christians (a move to overthrow the government), so they sentenced Jesus to death

47  Greek word for “messiah” was “christos”  Jesus became known as “Christ” (Chosen one)  Paul became one of the most devoted followers of Jesus  He wrote many epistles, or letters, to help turn Christianity into an organized religion  Many of these epistles were included in the Bible

48  Christianity began to spread throughout the Roman world  Many poor people and people in cities followed Christianity  By 100 A.D., many Christians gathered for worship across the Roman Empire  Anyone who did not share Christians’ beliefs became known as a “pagan”

49  Over time, Christianity began to change little by little, and the beliefs began to mix with other beliefs  Some Christians practiced two “rites,” or holy acts  Baptism – a believer was dipped in water to wash away sin  Baptism converted the person to Christianity  Christians also practiced the Eucharist  Sharing of bread and wine in a sacred meal in memory of Jesus’ last supper

50  Roman government feared Christianity and viewed Christians as enemies of the empire  Christians refused to worship the Roman gods and the Romans believed that they did not show proper respect to the emperor  Emperor Nero began to persecute the Christians  Fire in 64 A.D. burned much of Rome, and Christians were blamed  They were arrested, killed, forced to fight in the Colosseum  Paul was imprisoned and killed

51  Romans persecuted Christians for 250 years  Persecute – to treat in a cruel and unjust way  It became a crime simply to be a Christian  The punishment was death

52  Despite persecution, Christianity spread throughout the empire  People appreciated its message of love, forgiveness, and a better life  Christians provided help for people in the community  Jesus was viewed as an ordinary, humble man, and not an arrogant, power-hungry hero from myths  The Gospels were written so ordinary people could understand them

53  Emperor Diocletian outlawed Christian services, imprisoned Christian priests, and put Christians to death  Many Romans began to see that Christians were good people, and took their side – Diocletian’s actions backfired  Others viewed Christians as martyrs  Martyr – someone who dies for a cause  By 300 A.D., one in ten Romans had become Christian

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55  After death of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire started to decline  His son, Commodus, was a poor emperor  Ruled from A.D., took power at 18 years of age  Made poor choices and allowed senate’s power to be taken away  He bribed the army to support him  He took part in the gladiator games because of his love of killing  Assassinated in 192 A.D.

56  Many corrupt rulers followed Commodus  Often stole money from the government’s treasury  Government and economy became weak  New rulers would take power violently  Between A.D., Rome had 29 emperors  Most assassinated

57  Mercenaries – foreign soldiers who are paid for military service  Romans would hire mercenaries to be in the army  Mercenaries motivated by money, not loyalty to Rome  They often even switched sides if it would benefit them

58  The Roman Empire had grown too large  Empire spread itself too thin, and enemies attacked from all angles  Too much time was spent defending empire rather than strengthening their authority

59  Rome stopped conquering new lands, so new sources of wealth were no longer available  The empire struggled to pay its army  Taxes were raised  People suffered from severe unemployment  Not much food available  The price of food went up  To pay for food, government produced more coins  Resulted in inflation – an economic situation in which more money circulates, but the money has less value

60  Diocletian (remember him? The persecutor of Christians) tried to strengthen Rome  He enlarged the army  He built new forts at the borders  He improved the tax system  He even divided the empire into eastern and western sections, making it easier to rule  Diocletian ruled until 305 A.D.

61  The Roman Empire was now split, to make it easier to rule  Constantine became emperor of the Western Roman Empire  Licinius became emperor in the Eastern Roman Empire

62  Why the need for a split?

63  During the transition from Diocletian to Constantine, Rome changed into a Christian Empire  In 313, Constantine and Licinius proclaimed freedom of worship throughout Roman Empire  Christians would be able to worship openly  Constantine’s most important contribution: making Christianity the official religion of Rome St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome

64  Licinius agreed to freedom of religion, but he actually still allowed persecution of Christians  Constantine was angry about the persecution of Christians  He fought Licinius and won, taking control of the Eastern Roman Empire as well  Constantine saw his victory as a blessing from the Christian God

65  Constantine worked to strengthen Christian church  He built St. Peter’s Cathedral and paid for the construction of churches  He mixed Christianity with other “pagan” religions  Pros: This attracted more people to the church, including former “pagans”  Cons: The message of Christianity became influenced by outsiders and was changed

66  Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium (in modern day Turkey)  He made Byzantium beautiful  He renamed the city Constantinople after himself

67  After Constantine died, the Roman Empire was invaded by Germanic tribes (which included people from Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark)  Visigoths (from Germany) captured and looted Rome in 410  Vandals (from East Germany) took down Rome in 455  Rome fell completely in 476, and Constantinople became the center of a new empire, the Byzantine Empire

68  Big gap between the rich and the poor led to unhappiness and a lack of support for the empire  The size of the empire made it hard to defend  Inflation – money was worthless  Unemployment – lack of jobs

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70  Major issue in the Roman Empire: Roman people never knew whether they were getting a good or bad ruler  Marcus Aurelius was the last of the “good emperors” in Rome  After his death, the Pax Romana (Roman Peace) was over

71  1. Weak, corrupt rulers  2. An army of mercenaries  3. The large size of the empire  4. Serious economic problems

72  Marcus Aurelius’ son, Commodus, was a bad ruler  Many other bad rulers followed him  Often stole money from the government’s treasury  Government and economy became weak  New rulers would take power violently  Between A.D., Rome had 29 emperors  Most were assassinated

73  Mercenaries – foreign soldiers who are paid for military service  Romans would hire mercenaries to be in the army  Mercenaries motivated by money, not loyalty to Rome  They often even switched sides if it would benefit them

74  The Roman Empire had grown too large  Empire spread itself too thin, and enemies attacked from all angles  Too much time was spent defending empire rather than strengthening their authority

75  Rome stopped conquering new lands, so new sources of wealth were no longer available  The empire struggled to pay its army  Taxes were raised  People suffered from severe unemployment  Not much food available  The price of food went up  To pay for food, government produced more coins  Resulted in inflation – an economic situation in which more money circulates, but the money has less value

76  Emperor Constantine decided to split the empire, to make it easier to manage  Constantine became emperor of the Western Roman Empire  Licinius became emperor in the Eastern Roman Empire

77  Why the need for a split?

78  Constantine was Rome’s first Christian emperor  Christians would be able to worship openly for the first time  Constantine’s most important contribution: making Christianity the official religion of Rome St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome

79  Constantine worked to strengthen Christian church  He built St. Peter’s Cathedral and paid for the construction of churches  He mixed Christianity with other “pagan” religions  Pros: This attracted more people to the church, including former “pagans”  Cons: The message of Christianity became influenced by outsiders and was changed

80  Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium (in modern day Turkey)  He made Byzantium beautiful  He renamed the city Constantinople after himself

81  After Constantine died, the Roman Empire was invaded by Germanic tribes (which included people from Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark)  Visigoths (from Germany) captured and looted Rome in 410  Vandals (from East Germany) took down Rome in 455  Rome fell completely in 476, and Constantinople became the center of a new empire, the Byzantine Empire


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