Presentation on theme: "Protein and Amino Acids"— Presentation transcript:
1Protein and Amino Acids Chapter 9Protein and Amino Acids
2Protein vary widely in chemical composition, physical property, size shape, solubility, biological function.
3General structure of amino acid R is the remainder of the molecule attached to the C atom associated with the α-amino group of the amino acid.NH OR —— C ——COH OH
4Amino acids not synthesized in animal tissues of most specie in sufficient amounts to meet are termed essential or indispensable, whereas those generally not needed in the diet because of adequate tissue synthesis are termed nonessential or dispensable.
6Arginine: is required for some species for maximum growth, adult do not require. However dog, cat show severe sign of deficiency.Glutamine: is a dispensable, 但生病時, 是唯持正常代謝所需，是indispensable.
7In most animal:in mucosa : glutamate＋proline合成ornithine ，ornithine轉成citrulline，再送至 腎臟產生arginine( urea cycle)In cat、 dog: ornithine→citrulline與citrulline→arginine未能進行，∴arginine is essential。在higher protein ，缺arginine 無法進行urea cycle，引起hyperammonia
8Taurine : Synthesized by most mammals from methionine and cysteine It is indispensable for cat only.a amino sulfonic acid, occurs as a free amino acid. is not present in proteindevelop degeneration of retina of the eye.(myocardium and retina contain high concentration of free taurine)Taurine deficiency occurred in the low dietary sulfer-containing amino acids
10Structure of proteinPrimary structure = linkage between α-carboxyl of one amino acid group of another (peptide linkage)
11Secondary structure = polypeptide in the form of a α-helix by means of hydrogen bond CO—HN. α—helix or β—pleated sheet, supercoil
12polypeptide into a globular form by means of: Tertiary structure :polypeptide into a globular form by means of:hydrophobicdisulfide linkage (s-s)salt bridgehydrogen bondinga globular form
13Quaternary structurealignment of several tertiary structure into one protein by means of hydrogen bonds, electrostatic, salt bondsEx: hemoglobin consist of four single strand tertiary.
14Gastrointestinal microflora synthesize protein from nonprotein N sources. The length of the chain and the order of arrangement of amino acids within the chain are two of the main factors determining the characteristics of the protein.
15Synthesis of protein from amino acids Synthesis of protein from amino acids. The linkage between amino acids called peptide bond. Elongation of chain from tripeptide, polypeptide.All naturally occuring amino acid are in the L-form. which is the biologically active form. (但合成大多為L與D form的混合物).
16All proteins can be classified on the basis of their shape; their solubilities in water, salt, acids, bases and alcohol; and other special characteristics.
17Egg albumin is the most perfect protein for meeting animal need because of its nearly ideal amino acid composition and its high digestibility.Corn endosperm: Zein(玉米蛋白) is low in lysine and tryptophan. Opaque-2 corn is lower contain in zein, 此種玉米含較高量之lysine及tryptophan.
18A sensitive measure of the nutritive value of protein is the balance among its essential balance, no two protin have an identical amino acid composition.Globular protein球狀蛋白AlbuminGlobulinGlutelinProlaminesHistoneProtamineB.Fibrous proteinCollagensElastinsKeratinC.Conjugated protein
19Lipoprotein Represented by the menbrane proteins of animal cells. myelin: in nervous system mucolipid erythrocyte membraneThe protein content of plasma lipoprotein ranges from 2% in chylomicron to about 50% in high density lipoprotein.
20GlycoproteinChondroitin sulfate A. B. C. (protein complex of sulfated polysaccharides)出現在cartilage, tendon and skin.Mucoprotein: complex of protein with:amino sugar (glucosamine, galactosamine.)hexose, manose, galactose.pentose, fucosesialic acid
22FunctionsPresent as components of cell membrane, muscle, skin, hair, hooves, blood plasma protein, enzyme, hormones, immune antibody.
23Tissue protein Collagen: triple helix, 含proline, hydroxylproline Elastin: resemble denatured collagen and consist of long, randomly ordered, ploy-peptide chain. minor component of musculature.myofibrilar protein : the proteins of sacroplasm.(肌肉與稀鹽類均質後可萃取﹐含有20種酵素)contractile protein : three protein- actin, tropomyosin B and myosin. 與muscle contraction有關.
24Tissue proteinKeratins : proteins of hair, wool, feathers, hooves, horns, claws, beaks.Blood proteins : albumin and a series of globulins, apoproteinEnzymes : hydrolytic and degradative metabolic and synthetic reaction.Hormones : insulin, growth hormone, gonadotrophic hormone, parathyroid hormone and calcitonin。
25Metabolically active peptides and polypeptides A large number of peptides and poly-peptide been identified in modulating growth and other metabolic activity.such asinsulin-like growth factor (IGF-1,)transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B)fibroblast growth factor (FGF)nerve growth factor (NGF)
26Metabolismtwo phases: catabolism (degradation) and anabolism (synthesis)The conversion of dietary protein to tissue protein involves:Intact dietary proteinhydrolysis in GI tract (catabolism)Amino acid in intestinal lumenabsorption from GI tractAmino acid in bloodsynthesis in tissues (anabolism)Intact tissue proteins
27Even protein hydrolyzed easily in the GI tract do not have a high nutritional value, if they have a deficiency or an unbalance of one or more amino acids.Dietary protein not containing the proportion of essential amino acids to meet the animal needs cannot be used efficiently for tissue protein synthesis.
28DigestionProtein→→→ tripeptide, dipeptide, amino acid( lumen) → absorption → brush border enzyme (dipeptidase, tripeptidase) →dipeptidase, tripeptidase in enterocycte→ amino acidsHydrolysis determine the degree of absorption of amino acid
29(A) Digestible protein refer to that disappearing from the ingesta as it passes down the GI tract. Nitrogen in feces include:Unabsorbed dietary N .Metabolic fecal NMetabolic fecal N :1.Normal metabolism of tissue protein cells2.sloughed residue of digestive enzyme.3.other substrate secreted into the lumen.
30(B) After absorption, amino acid are subject to further losses in utilization through metabolism in the liver and other tissues. losses N mainly as urinary urea N (mammal), or uric acid (bird).
31(C) The degree of utilization of feed protein depend on digestibility, absorbabilityutilization of its component amino acids after absorption.
32Absorption of amino acids 1. early postnatal life:absorbed by pinocytosis. (如immune globulins and lactoferrin)2. postnatal life:absorbed by active transport ( two system )one for neutral amino acid.one for basic amino acid.相關性質之amino acid由於競爭carrier, 吸收會受抑制。如leucine與 isoleucine methionine與lysine.3. peptide are absorbed directly from the rumen and omasum
33Fate of amino acids after absorption tissue protein synthesissynthesis enzyme, hormone and metabolitesdeamination or transamination and use of the carbon skeleton for energy.
34Amino acid in the GI have three source: 1.Dietary ingestion2.recycle from other nitrogen substance( digestive enzyme, sloughed mucosa cell)3.synthesized by microorganism
35A. Synthesis by microorganism Bacteria, protozoans can synthesis all amino acids in presence of ammonia, S, carbon sourcesRumen, large intestineIn ruminant, synthesis amino acid from nonprotein nitrogen.B. Body tissueTissue synthesis and degradation of amino acid in animal. Muscle, liver, brain, adipose tissue and others…..
36Sites of amino acid degradation Microbes, cell and tissue specific pathways degrade all amino acids,Liver is the principle organ, and small intestinal cells to process of degradation.Transamination, decarboxylation, hydroxylation .Product of degradation: amionia, S, fatty acids (VFA). CO2
37Nitrogen cycling in the intestine Dietary nitrogen→intestine →bloodEndogenous N (urea) →intestinal lumen →microbial action →NH3 →used for incorporation into amino acids to produce microbial protein →digested by host
38NO in animal nutrition and health Nitric oxide is a mediator of immune function, a neurotransmitter, a signaling molecule, and endothelium-derived relaxing factor and other positive role in metabolism.It is a cytotoxic free radical.Is synthesized from arginine through action of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS).Many nutrient, including protein and amino acidmay modulate NO production by NOS.
39Ruminant nitrogen metabolism RUP: rumen undegraded protein
42Synthesis of protein DNA (chromosomal component of cell) │ carry the genetic information↓transcript into a strand of messenger RNAtranlation of mRNA into protein
43Whole body protein turnover Is a dynamic process involving continuous and simultaneous protein synthesis and protein degradation.Each organ or tissue has its own rate of protein turnover.The rate of body muscle growth is affected by the rate of protein synthesis relative to degradation.
44Deamination and Transamination Deamination :removal of the amino group from carbon of amino acid and entrance of the amino group into the urea.Transamination: transfer an amino group from one amino acid to the carbon of a keto acid.
45Urea cycleThe urea or ornithine cycle is a key metabolic phenomenon in protein metabolism.Uric acid is end product of purine metabolism in human and other primate, in other mammals the principal end product is the oxidation product of uric acid, allantoin.
49Protein and amino acid requirement and deficiency Nonruminant (pig, chichken, human) require essential amino acid.Nonruminant herbivores, and adult ruminant depend on nonprotein N and synthesize protein or amino acid.Adult ruminant (cattle, sheep) can depend entirely on nonprotein N in the diet by virtue of their rumen microbes.
50Because most energy sources are low in protein and protein supplement are expensive, so inadequate protein is the most common.protein is diverted to energy only when it is provide in excess of the metabolic requirement or calorie intake is insufficient.
51sign of protein deficiency anorexia,reduced growth ratenegative N balancereduced feed efficiencyreduced serum protein concentrationanemiafat accumulation in the liveredemareduced birth weightreduced milk productionreduced enzyme, hormone synthesis
52Individual amino acid deficiency result in deamination of the remaining amino acids, loss of NH3 as urea, and use of the carbon chain for energy.Ex: tryptophan deficiency : eye cataracts.threonine, methionine : fatty liverlysine (in bird) : abnormal feathering
53individual feedstuffs are inadequate amino acid Ex: corn: lysine, tryptophane,SBM: rich in lysine, tryptophan, deficient in methionine-cystine.seasame meal: inadequate lysine
54first limit amino acid: lysine second and third limit amino acid: threonine, tryptophan
57D-amino acid and nonprotein N Natural: L-form.D-form amino acid used inefficiency. (except of methionine).Nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)=diamonium citrate, Urea, amino acid, peptide, amines, amide and nucleic acid (存於forage).
58The efficiency of utilization of NPN compounds depend on solubility of the NPN.availability to the microflora of readily available carbohydrate.
59Antagonismgrowth depression can be overcome by supplementation with an amino acids structurally similar to the antagonistEx: lysine and Arginine. (structure similar)Excess of lysine→ growth depress →improve by addition of arginineAntagonist differ from imbalance of amino acids
60Toxicityadverse effect of an amino acid in excess cannot be overcome by supplementation with another amino acidEx: Methionine
61Imbalanceproportion of dietary amino acids that has an adverse effect presentable by a relatively small amount of the most limiting amino acid.animals will reject the imbalanced diet, but will support life.protein-free-diet will be consumed largely, but not support life.
62Excessive protein intake Depression in weight gain, feed intake. Hair dull and coarse.Ammonia toxicity (urea excessive)
63Measure of nutritive value of proteins 1. Biological value (BV) =BV is defined as that percentage of N absorbed from the GI tract is available for productive body function.estimate of the efficiency of use of the absorbed protein for combined maintenance and growth.N intake - ( fecal N + urinary N )x100%N intake - fecal N
642. protein efficiency ratio (PER) = body weight gain (g)protein consumed (g)
653. Net protein Utilization (NPU) = body N with test protein)–body N with protein-free dietx100%total N intake
664. Net protein value (NPV) = BV × digestion coefficient.
675. Assay of free amino acid concentration of blood plasma : changing in amino acid patterns following ingestion of the test protein.
71All of the estimates of protein utilization described have their limitations and no one estimate is superior to all others under all conditions.PER is the best estimate of protein value for growth.
72Biological availability of amino acids 1. microbiological assay :test material is digested by enzyme, acid or alkaline hydrolysis, and the amino acid composition of hydrolysate is determined by microbiological assaythe rate and degree of release of amino acid is taken as an index of the availability to the animal.
73AA total － ( TFAA protein － TFAA protein-free ) 2. fecal analysisAmino acid availability (%) =AA total － ( TFAA protein － TFAA protein-free )AA total
743. analysis of terminal ileum content : absorption of amino acid from the large intestine and degree of degradation in the lower intestine ileum are not defined well.amino acid content of ileum contents can be used to calculate the availability of individual amino acid.
754. growth assay :comparing the growth curve of animals fed the test protein with that of animals fed the amino acid diet containing the amino acids of concern.Estimate the proportion of amino acid in the test protein utilized for growth.
765. plasma free amino acids : The change in relative concentration of amino acids in the plasma following a meal of the test protein.The duration of fasting and the selection of appropriate intervals for blood sampling are important.
77Processing methods including grinding, pellecting, drying, oil extraction, and heating. The greatest single factor affecting amino acid availability from feedstuffs is proper heating of feedstuffs during processing.
78application of heat must be a balance between beneficial and destructive effects. destruct or delayed release during digestion owing to change in linkage between amino acids and other components.