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Medicine Through the Ages, The Mentality & The Approach.

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Presentation on theme: "Medicine Through the Ages, The Mentality & The Approach."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medicine Through the Ages, The Mentality & The Approach.

2 Why Choose Medicine as your future? You give the answers: 1. 2. 3. 4.

3 The fate and destiny of the doctors…

4 Career destinations seven years on among doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom in 1988: postal questionnaire survey. Lambert TW, Goldacre MJ.Lambert TWGoldacre MJ UK Medical Careers Research Group, Unit of Health-Care Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, UK. Comment in: OBJECTIVE: To report the career choices and career destinations in 1995 of doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom in 1988. DESIGN: Postal questionnaire. SETTING: United Kingdom. SUBJECTS: All doctors who qualified in the United Kingdom in 1988. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Current employment. RESULTS: Of the 3724 doctors who were sent questionnaires, eight had died and three declined to participate. Of the remaining 3713 doctors, 2885 (77.7%) replied. 16.9% (608/3593; 95% confidence interval 16.1% to 17.8%) of all 1988 qualifiers from medical schools in Great Britain were not working in the NHS in Great Britain in 1995 compared with 17.0% (624/3674; 16.1% to 17.9%) of the 1983 cohort in 1990. The proportion of doctors working in general practice was lower than in previous cohorts. The percentage of women in general practice (44.3% (528/1192)) substantially exceeded that of men (33.1% (443/1340)). 53% (276/522) of the women in general practice and 20% (98/490) of the women in hospital specialties worked part time. CONCLUSIONS: Concerns about recruitment difficulties in general practice are justified. Women are now entering general practice in greater numbers than men. There is no evidence of a greater exodus from the NHS from the 1988 qualifiers than from earlier cohorts.



7 What is your fate? You Have NO FATE!!! No body did research…

8 Medicine: Ancient Approach Hippocrates, Diocles, Galen, Soranus and Caelius Aurelianus Elaborated on philosophical methods such as causal explanation, definition and division and applied key concepts such as the notion of nature to their understanding of the human body. Similarly, philosophers such as Plato and Aristotle were highly valued for their contributions to medicine. Particularly striking in the study of the human soul in its relation to the body. Approaches to specific topics such as intellect, sleep and dreams, and diet and drugs.

9 Medicine: Ancient Approach 1.The 'theology' of the Hippocratic treatise On the Sacred Disease; 2. Diocles and the Hippocratic writings on the method of dietetics and the limits of causal explanation; 3. To help, or to do no harm: principles and practices of therapeutics in the Hippocratic Corpus and in the work of Diocles of Carystus; 4. The heart, the brain, the blood and the pneuma: Hippocrates, Diocles and Aristotle on the location of cognitive processes; 5. Aristotle on melancholy; 6. Theoretical and empirical elements in Aristotle's treatment of sleep, dreams and divination in sleep;

10 Medicine: Ancient Approach 7. The matter of mind: Aristotle on the biology of 'psychic' processes and the bodily aspects of thinking; 8. Divine movement and human nature in Eudemian Ethics 8.2; 9. On sterility ('Hist. an. 10'), a medical work by Aristotle?; Part III. Late Antiquity: 1 10. Galen's use of the concept of 'qualified experience' in his dietetic and pharmacological works; 11. The Methodism of Caelius Aurelianus: some epistemological issues; Bibliography; Index of passages cited; General index.

11 Medicine in medieval age Medicine in medieval age is mainly influence by Prophet Muhammad hadith. The Popular term that always use is `Islamic Medicine’ Islamic medicine was a genre of medical writing that was influenced by several different medical systems, including the traditional Arabian medicine during prophet Muhammad's time, ancient Hellenistic medicine such as Unani, ancient Indian medicine such as Ayurveda, and the ancient Iranian Medicine of the Academy of Gundishapur. The works of ancient Greek and Roman physicians Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Soranus, Celsus and Galen also had a lasting impact on Islamic medicine. MuhammadHellenistic medicine Unaniancient IndianAyurvedaancient Iranian MedicineAcademy of Gundishapurancient GreekRomanHippocratesDioscoridesSoranusCelsusGalen

12 Medicine in medieval age In Islamic tradition, the origins of Islamic medicine can be traced back to the time of Prophet Muhammad, as a significant number of hadiths concerning medicine are attributed to him.Muhammad hadiths Several Sahaba are said toSahaba have been successfully treated of certain diseases by following the medical advice of Muhammad. The three methods of healing known to have been mentioned by him were honey, Hijama (wet cupping),honeyHijamawet cupping and cauterization, though he wascauterization generally opposed to the use of cauteri- zation unless it "suits the ailment."

13 Medicine in medieval age Prophet Muhammad appears to be the first recorded as directly stating that there is always a cause and a cure for every disease, according to several hadiths in the Sahih al-Bukhari, Sunan Abi Dawood and Al-Muwatta attributed to Prophet Muhammad, such as: diseaseSahih al-BukhariSunan Abi DawoodAl-Muwatta

14 The meaning of Hadith: "There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment."[7][7] "Make use of medical treatment, for Allah has not made a disease without appointing a remedy for it, with the exception of one disease, name was old age."[8][8] "Allah has sent down both the disease and the cure, and He has appointed a cure for every disease, so treat yourselves medically."[9][9] "The one who sent down the disease sent down the remedy."[10][10] "For every disease, Allah has given a cure."[6][6]

15 Medicine in medieval age Wikipedia has quoted a list of contributors in Medicine during Medieval age: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari'sAli ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi (Rhazes)Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi Ali ibn Abbas (Haly Abbas)'s Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis),Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī'sAbū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī Ibn Al-Thahabi Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288)Ibn al-Nafis Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu's surgical atlas,Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğluatlas Avicenna (Ibn Sina),Avicenna

16 Medicine in medieval age George Sarton, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction to the History of Science:George Sartonhistory of science "Through their medical investigations they not merely widened the horizons of medicine, but enlarged humanistic concepts generally. [...] Thus it can hardly have been accidental that those researches should have led them that were inevitably beyond the reach of Greek masters. If it is regarded as symbolic that the most spectacular achievement of the mid-twentieth century is atomic fission and the nuclear bomb, likewise it would not seem fortuitous that the early Muslim's medical endeavor should have led to a discovery that was quite as revolutionary though possibly more beneficent."

17 Medicine in medieval age "One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna (981- 1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most important medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on cardiac drugs. The 'Qanun fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy; contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil; careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of nervous ailments." universalismIbn SinaQanun (Canon)cardiacQanun fi-l-Tibbmediastinitis pleurisycontagious naturephthisis

18 Are you practicing modern medicine? You answer the question.. ------------------------ Modern Medicine..

19 Modern Medicine Evidence base Symptoms and signs Investigations Sterility Organized – Teaching - Explanation - Nursing, Treatment Documentation Specialty Proper dosing etc

20 Challenges in Modern Medicine 1. Capitalism -Mass production of equipments, drugs, medical students etc. orientated for `MONEY’ 2. Increase cost due to a lot of procedures and also `profit taking’. 3. Higher expectations as patients have mentality that modern medicine has reached the `TOP edge’ and also because they are paying `high price’.

21 Challenges in Modern Medicine 4. Medical staffs have high target to get `high reward’ after spending a lot of time, energy and money. 5. Risk of transmitted disease from patients to staffs. 6. 24H operating hospital – affected medical staff social life.. 7. Rapid changing in practice lead to `ot dated knowledge’.


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