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Iqta ‘ ≈ feudal fief ‘Ashura’ - commemorates martyrdom of al-Husayn Ghadir Khumm - commemorates Prophet’s designation of ‘Ali as successor Hamdanids of.

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Presentation on theme: "Iqta ‘ ≈ feudal fief ‘Ashura’ - commemorates martyrdom of al-Husayn Ghadir Khumm - commemorates Prophet’s designation of ‘Ali as successor Hamdanids of."— Presentation transcript:

1 iqta ‘ ≈ feudal fief ‘Ashura’ - commemorates martyrdom of al-Husayn Ghadir Khumm - commemorates Prophet’s designation of ‘Ali as successor Hamdanids of Aleppo 960s Buyids inaugurate holy days of ‘Ashura’ and Ghadir Khumm

2 Map Link: Eastern Hemisphere, 900 AD:

3 Samanids of Bukhara mamluks (“owned ones”) i.e. slave- soldiers Ghaznavids Mahmud of Ghazna (r ) 960s Byzantines take Crete, take or raid cities in N. Syria 961 Ghaznavids set up in Ghazna, soon take Khurasan 11th c. Turks entering Muslim world from Transoxiana

4 Map Link: The Ghaznavids ( ):

5 980s Saljuqs enter Transoxiana as mercenaries for Samanids 1010 Ferdowsi completes the Shah-Nameh 1028 Mahmud of Ghazna defeats band of Saljuqs. Survivors flee west Shah-Nameh of Ferdowsi (d. 1020) Saljuqs/Seljüks iwan/eyvan (three-sided hall)

6 Nizam al-Mulk (d. 1092) wazir = vizier Turkmen/ Turcomans (nomadic Turkish warriors) 1035 Saljuqs under Tughril and Chaghri defeat Mas‘ud of Ghazna 1037 Saljuqs take Merv 1038 Saljuqs take Nishapur 1040 Saljuqs defeat Mas‘ud again, take Khurasan 1042 Saljuqs take Khwarazm

7 Map Link: The Muslim East around 1090:

8 Tughril takes Rayy, Hamadan, Isfahan/Esfahan 1055 Tughril takes Baghdad Al-Basasiri holds Baghdad for Fatimid caliph Reign of Alp Arslan 1071 Battle of Manzikert/Malazgirt sultan = ruler gazi/ghazi = raider

9 Saljuq Sultanate of Rum, based at Nicaea/Iznik Rum = Byzantines Great Saljuq Sultanate

10 Reign of Malik-Shah 1092 Death of Malik-Shah leads to civil war between various members of the Saljuq family Reign of Muhammad at Esfahan, with brother Sanjar ruling Khurasan for him Great Mosque of Malik-Shah, Esfahan, bt. 1080

11 Abu’l-Qasim al-Ferdowsi (b. Tus , d. Tus 1020) Independently wealthy. Lived off income from lands Patriotic Persian, expert in Persian history and legends Initially wrote both epic and lyric poetry, then in 980 started work on Shah-Nameh (Book of Kings), epic history of Persia from origin to end of Sasanian dynasty

12 Abu’l-Qasim al-Ferdowsi (b. Tus , d. Tus 1020) 1004 Ferdowsi seeks patron 1010 Ferdowsi presents Shah-Nameh to Mahmud of Ghazna but work receives only lukewarm reception. Ferdowsi eventually retires to Tus Shah-Nameh presents tragic fate for some, but advocates human struggle against fate, good conduct, tolerance, stoicism and reason


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