Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Section 3 Review"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 1 Section 3 Review The Meaning of Culture
2 9/16Do Now: What is culture?Aim: What are the elements of culture?Objectives: You will be able to…Describe the elements of cultureIdentify the different types of economies and governmentsAgenda: Chapter 1 Section 3 ReviewPersonal Culture WheelBegin 1.4 Notes?Homework: Read and take notes on Chapter 1 Section 4, Chapter 1 Test Monday
3 The Elements of Culture Social organizationCustoms and traditionsLanguageBeliefsGovernmentEconomic systemArts and literatureAll the things that make up a person’s entire way of life, it’s learned
4 Social OrganizationSocieties organize people into smaller groups to help them work together to meet basic needsFamiliesNuclear familyExtended familyFamily clansSocial classesWhat can social classes be based on? Possibility of social mobility?
5 Customs and Traditions Cultures develop rules of behavior to guide social interactionExamples in our culture?How are these rules or behavior enforced?Social pressure used to enforce minor rules of behaviorIssues of right & wrong enforced more strictly and often by government
6 Language Language is the “cornerstone of culture” Why?People with the same language usually share other similar cultural traitsAll cultures have a language, although not all have written formsPeople with the same language usually share other similar cultural traits
7 Beliefs Truths and understandings about life Affect values and ethical behaviorCan be based on a religion or philosophyMonotheistic religionsPolytheistic religionsReligionAnswers, or can help answer, basic questions such as…?Supports the values that a group of people think importantTypes: Monotheistic & polytheisticReligious differences, when combined with other factors, can be explosive
8 Government Formed to provide for people’s common needs Affected by a group’s social organization, customs, and beliefsTypes of government:DictatorshipMonarchyDirect democracyRepresentative democracy/republicDictatorship- one person holds power and makes all decisions, usually through forceOligopoly- a small group of people hold power and make decisionsDirect Democracy- all citizens hold power and are involved in making decisionsRepresentative Democracy/Republic- citizens choose leaders to represent them
9 Economic SystemsWays to use scarce resources to meet people’s needs and wantsTypes of economic systems:Traditional/Barter economyMarket economyCommand economy“Mixed” economyTraditional- All people work together to produce what they need to survive, activities determined by traditionMarket Economy- Individuals decide what and how much to produce based on how much they think people will buy them for, private propertyCommand Economy- Government owns resources and means of production and makes economic decisionsMixed- Government regulates the economy but does not control it
10 Arts and LiteratureProducts of the human imagination like art, music, and literature express the other elements of culture and influence cultureExamples?
11 Organizing the Elements of Culture Can organize the elements of culture into four main groups to make them easier to understand and compareSocial- how people interact with each other (social organization, customs and traditions, the arts)Political- deals with govt.Economic- how people get what they need, deals with economic activities (people’s jobs) and systemsBeliefs- things accepted to be true, ideas about right and wrong, correct behavior, values, religion
12 Culture Wheel SOCIAL BELIEFS ECONOMIC POLITICAL Family, class, customs, traditions, education, language, artsBELIEFSECONOMICEconomic and monetary systems, possessions, trade,jobsReligion, philosophy, superstition,myths,ethicsform of govt., military, pol. parties, govt. offices and policiesPOLITICAL
13 My Personal Culture Wheel SOCIALBELIEFSECONOMICPOLITICAL
14 Ending Questions What type of government do you think is best? Why? What type of economy do you think is best? Why?
15 Deserted Island Simulation Imagine that you and your group have survived a global catastrophe by sailing out to sea. You then are shipwrecked on a distant, uncharted, and deserted island. Based on the island’s geography, you believe it is in the tropics (between the equator and 30° latitude). The island’s weather is hot and humid with a steady 15 mph wind and ample supply of rainfall. Inland from a sandy beach there is a forest with a variety of vegetation, including banana trees. There also appears to be many types of birds and small game in the forest. The forest thins at the northern side of the island and there the coast is rocky and full of marine life. You will live on this island and form a new society there. This society should meet your needs, as you define them, and it should avoid the mistakes of "the old ones", those who died in the recent tragedy.Use the questions provided to guide your discussion of how you will set up this new society. Record your answers and be ready to appoint 2-3 members of your society to explain it to the class.
16 Western ValuesSome Other ValuesPersonal Control/We Control Our Fate: we control nature; we determine our fate through our actionsFate/God Controls Fate: “it’s out of our hands”; higher power in control; everything for the bestChange/Progress: change / progress is good / inevitableTradition: change is disruptive / bad; old ways are best waysUse of Time/Efficiency: spend time wisely; don’t waste timeHuman Interaction: more important than “saving time”Individualism: individual is unique; privacy is valued; individual rightsPublic Welfare: group needs over those of individualCompetition: high achievement is valued; brings out the best in people / organizationsCooperation: ensures group continuation and survivalFocus on Future: focus on possibilities, potential; future achievementFocus on Past: appreciate / respect the pastInformality: first names, casualFormality: titles, rituals, ceremony lead to established social order and organization
17 9/15Do Now: How are forms of government and economic systems related to culture?Aim: What kinds of governments and economies have societies developed?Objectives: You will be able to…Explain why governments and economic systems developDescribe the main forms of governmentDescribe the main types of economic systemsAgenda: Deserted Island SimulationHomework: Chapter 1 Section 4 notes (p ), Ch.1 Test next Thursday
18 Forms of Government Established to provide for a people’s common needs Dictatorship- one person holds power and makes all decisions, usually through forceMonarchy- rule by one person who inherits the position (king, queen)Direct Democracy- all citizens hold power and are involved in making decisionsRepresentative Democracy/Republic- citizens choose leaders to represent them
19 Economic SystemsWays societies decided how to use limited resources to meet their wants and needsTraditional- All people work together to produce what they need to survive, activities determined by traditionMarket Economy- Individuals decide what and how much to produce based on how much they think people will buy them for, private propertyCommand Economy- Government owns resources and means of production and makes economic decisionsMixed- Government regulates the economy but does not control it