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Chapter 1 Section 3 Review The Meaning of Culture.

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1 Chapter 1 Section 3 Review The Meaning of Culture

2 9/16 Do Now: What is culture? Aim: What are the elements of culture? Objectives: You will be able to… Describe the elements of culture Identify the different types of economies and governments Agenda: Chapter 1 Section 3 Review Personal Culture Wheel Begin 1.4 Notes? Homework: Read and take notes on Chapter 1 Section 4, Chapter 1 Test Monday

3 The Elements of Culture Social organization Customs and traditions Language Beliefs Government Economic system Arts and literature

4 Social Organization Societies organize people into smaller groups to help them work together to meet basic needs – Families Nuclear family Extended family Family clans – Social classes

5 Customs and Traditions Cultures develop rules of behavior to guide social interaction – Examples in our culture? – How are these rules or behavior enforced?

6 Language Language is the “cornerstone of culture” Why? People with the same language usually share other similar cultural traits

7 Beliefs Truths and understandings about life Affect values and ethical behavior Can be based on a religion or philosophy – Monotheistic religions – Polytheistic religions

8 Government Formed to provide for people’s common needs Affected by a group’s social organization, customs, and beliefs Types of government: – Dictatorship – Monarchy – Direct democracy – Representative democracy/republic

9 Economic Systems Ways to use scarce resources to meet people’s needs and wants Types of economic systems: – Traditional/Barter economy – Market economy – Command economy – “Mixed” economy

10 Arts and Literature Products of the human imagination like art, music, and literature express the other elements of culture and influence culture – Examples?

11 Organizing the Elements of Culture Can organize the elements of culture into four main groups to make them easier to understand and compare – Social- how people interact with each other (social organization, customs and traditions, the arts) – Political- deals with govt. – Economic- how people get what they need, deals with economic activities (people’s jobs) and systems – Beliefs- things accepted to be true, ideas about right and wrong, correct behavior, values, religion

12 Culture Wheel SOCIAL BELIEFSECONOMIC POLITICAL Family, class, customs, traditions, education, language, arts Economic and monetary systems, possessions, trade, jobs form of govt., military, pol. parties, govt. offices and policies Religion, philosophy, superstition, myths, ethics

13 My Personal Culture Wheel SOCIAL BELIEFS ECONOMIC POLITICAL

14 Ending Questions What type of government do you think is best? Why? What type of economy do you think is best? Why?

15 Deserted Island Simulation Imagine that you and your group have survived a global catastrophe by sailing out to sea. You then are shipwrecked on a distant, uncharted, and deserted island. Based on the island’s geography, you believe it is in the tropics (between the equator and 30° latitude). The island’s weather is hot and humid with a steady 15 mph wind and ample supply of rainfall. Inland from a sandy beach there is a forest with a variety of vegetation, including banana trees. There also appears to be many types of birds and small game in the forest. The forest thins at the northern side of the island and there the coast is rocky and full of marine life. You will live on this island and form a new society there. This society should meet your needs, as you define them, and it should avoid the mistakes of "the old ones", those who died in the recent tragedy. Use the questions provided to guide your discussion of how you will set up this new society. Record your answers and be ready to appoint 2-3 members of your society to explain it to the class.

16 Western ValuesSome Other Values Personal Control/We Control Our Fate: we control nature; we determine our fate through our actions Fate/God Controls Fate: “it’s out of our hands”; higher power in control; everything for the best Change/Progress: change / progress is good / inevitable Tradition: change is disruptive / bad; old ways are best ways Use of Time/Efficiency: spend time wisely; don’t waste time Human Interaction: more important than “saving time” Individualism: individual is unique; privacy is valued; individual rights Public Welfare: group needs over those of individual Competition: high achievement is valued; brings out the best in people / organizations Cooperation: ensures group continuation and survival Focus on Future: focus on possibilities, potential; future achievement Focus on Past: appreciate / respect the past Informality: first names, casualFormality: titles, rituals, ceremony lead to established social order and organization

17 9/15 Do Now: How are forms of government and economic systems related to culture? Aim: What kinds of governments and economies have societies developed? Objectives: You will be able to… Explain why governments and economic systems develop Describe the main forms of government Describe the main types of economic systems Agenda: Deserted Island Simulation Homework: Chapter 1 Section 4 notes (p. 19-23), Ch.1 Test next Thursday

18 Forms of Government Established to provide for a people’s common needs – Dictatorship- one person holds power and makes all decisions, usually through force – Monarchy- rule by one person who inherits the position (king, queen) – Direct Democracy- all citizens hold power and are involved in making decisions – Representative Democracy/Republic- citizens choose leaders to represent them

19 Economic Systems Ways societies decided how to use limited resources to meet their wants and needs – Traditional- All people work together to produce what they need to survive, activities determined by tradition – Market Economy- Individuals decide what and how much to produce based on how much they think people will buy them for, private property – Command Economy- Government owns resources and means of production and makes economic decisions – Mixed- Government regulates the economy but does not control it


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