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 Puritans, Revolutionaries, & Transcendentalists.

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Presentation on theme: " Puritans, Revolutionaries, & Transcendentalists."— Presentation transcript:

1  Puritans, Revolutionaries, & Transcendentalists

2  Theists – A person who believes in an all powerful God as a creator and ruler  Deists – A person who believes in a God, based on reason, who created the universe, but has assumed no control over life, exerted no influence on nature, and given no supernatural revelation  Pantheists – A person who believes in the worship of all gods, identifies gods with nature


4  Came to America to escape persecution o However, believed that their way of life was absolutely right o This lead to persecution of others o No person could remain in the community without being a member in good standing of the Church  Doctrine of the Elect o Only God could grant the gift of Salvation o If not chosen, could not enter Heaven o Arbitrary – no amount of good work, righteous living or moral behavior could help anyone become Elect

5  Theocracy o Government totally controlled by the Church o A person must be a member of the Church to vote o Without Church membership, loss of property was possible  Basic Beliefs o As sinners, all must be punished – All humans are inherently evil o God decided the fate of all people before they were born – Nothing they did could change destiny o Each person, regardless of fate, was responsible for own behavior o All Puritans had to carefully watch their own behavior & that of their neighbors o God required everyone to be busy & work hard o Bible is the supreme authority on earth

6  View of God: God is omnipotent and wrathful (Theists)  View of Man: Man is basically Evil without God o Work and Worldly success are the paths to God’s grace  View of Society: Emphasis on success of society and authority  View of Truth: Faith and religion  Values: morality, religion, Bible, & God  MISC: o Education was religious o Pessimistic view of life


8  Believed in God -- Did not believe God controlled life o God is benevolent o God judges, but doesn’t control  Reason and logic was an integral part of life  Optimistic about life – saw the goodness in man  Individual rights and liberty were supreme  Success can be achieved through work

9  View of God: Believed in a higher power who was benevolent (Deists)  View of Man: Man is perfectible and basically good o All men can achieve success through work  View of Society: Emphasis on the individual  View of Truth: Science and reason  Values: usefulness, success, reason  MISC: o God judges but doesn’t control o Importance of liberty o Education is practical and vocational o Optimistic view of life


11  “To go beyond”  To go above reason and beyond the material world  Ralph Waldo Emerson lionized as the great thinker of the time  Emerson’s optimism was tailored to the era  Social Reform Movement o Anti-Slavery o For Women’s Rights o Use intelligence to rescue mankind from poverty, ignorance, and social injustice o When inconsistencies were pointed out, Emerson accused critics of not being morally capable of understanding

12  Generation of well educated that struggled to define spirituality and religion  Individuals had it within themselves to be perfect – the capacity to be happy  Self-reliance and self-discipline  Pantheism- belief that nature is divinity – nature over civilization  Based on feelings rather than reason, Personality over laws  Universe ruled by all-pervasive intelligence known as the Over- Soul o As an intelligent being man was divine – salvation from within o Man in the process of realizing own divinity o God gave humankind the gifts of intuition, insight, & inspiration – Why waste such a gift?

13  View of God: Believed in many gods (Pantheists)  View of Man: Man is divine and shares divinity with all life o Success is measured by man’s correct relationship to his work  View of Society: Emphasis on the individual as superior to society  View of Truth: Intuition and instinct  Values: Nature and instinct  MISC: o Self Knowledge was important o Education aimed at self-knowledge o Idealistic view of life

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