Presentation on theme: "The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare."— Presentation transcript:
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare
Elements of Literature Motivation: the reasons behind a character’s actions Pun: a play on words; using a word that sounds like another word but has a different meaning. Example: Striker says, "Surely you can't be serious!" Rumack responds, "I am serious. And don't call me Shirley.”
Tragedy: a literary work in which the main character(s) meet an unhappy or disastrous end. Shakespeare’s tragedies usually end with the deaths of all of the main characters Tragic Flaw: the main defect of the protagonist in a tragedy Tragic Hero: the main character in a tragedy; in order to fit the definition, the hero must have a tragic flaw that causes his or her downfall/death
Elements of a Play Aside: words spoken by an actor in such a way that they are heard by the audience but supposedly not by the other actors. These lines are meant to represent the inner thoughts of the speaker Dialogue: conversation between two or more characters Monologue: an extended speech by one character, either when alone or to others
Soliloquy: A long speech spoken by a character while alone on stage. The speech expresses his or her thoughts out loud Stage Directions: the information given for the reader to visualize the setting, position of props, etc. in a play. They may also give character actions. Example: “Exit” or “He dies.” Verse: another word for “poetry.” In Shakespeare, the educated characters and the nobility usually speak in verse to show their high status
Elements of Shakespearean Tragedy Exposition: Introduction of Characters & Setting Act I Rising Action: Introduction of Conflicts Act II Climax: Turning Point Act III In a tragedy, things usually go from bad to worse in Act III Falling Action: Conflict resolution begins to fall into place Result of the climax Act IV Resolution: Main conflicts are resolved Act V This act includes a catastrophe, which is another climactic turning point in the story line.
Roman Customs and Beliefs In ancient Rome, the role of fate and the pantheon of gods were key in lives of people. The Roman system of belief centered upon faceless gods and goddesses who were present in nature, and ritual and superstition surrounded their worship. Fate was an important concept at the time. –Fate: each person has a predetermined course of action for their life; nothing can be done to change this. The Romans would make sacrifices for protection and good fortune. They also believed that doing so could change their fate.
Customs and Beliefs contd. Shakespeare uses Roman customs and superstition to create ominous conditions to foreshadow potential danger on the horizon. –Superstition: any belief or attitude based on fear or ignorance that is inconsistent with the known laws of science. Example, if you break a mirror it will lead to seven years of bad luck. The Romans believed that omens could reveal the future. –Omen: the use of an animal or aspect of nature to foreshadow an event; a sign
Customs and Beliefs These omens could take the form of unusual weather, flights of birds, or other natural phenomena. –Severe storms; thunder and lightning –Owls and scavenger birds were considered bad omens –Draughts, floods, etc. Unusual astronomical and meteorological occurrences were also seen as signs of future events. –Meteor showers and solar eclipses were believed to foreshadow doom –Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc.
Roman Government Around 509 B.C., the Romans ended a monarchy by rebelling against the last king of Rome, Tarquinius. After this revolution, the Romans established their famous republic, in which all citizens were represented in the Senate—similar to modern day democracy. They were very proud of their republic form of government, and were determined to preserve it—Caesar’s charisma and success in battle changed this.
Roman Government contd. After Caesar’s victories in the Gallic Wars, and the defeat of his rival, Pompey in a Civil War, Caesar became ruler of Rome— having himself appointed dictator for life. This made certain members of the Senate very angry, leading them to plot against and ultimately kill Caesar.
Themes power and how easily it can become a corruptive force People who come into power begin to abuse it. i.e. Jack/Roger in Lord of the Flies loyalty, honor, and friendship Being able to trust individuals (loyalty/friendship) Doing what is right, even when it’s difficult (honor)
Themes Contd. pride, conspiracy, and anarchy Not wanting to appear weak in the eyes of others (pride) Secretly plotting to over-throw a leader (conspiracy) Break down/destruction of government (anarchy) fate vs. free will is life pre-determined (fate) or do we have a choice in the outcome? (free-will)