Presentation on theme: "All of the following except _____ is a major function of blood. 1.Transport of dissolved gases, nutrients and hormones 2.Stabilization of body temperature."— Presentation transcript:
All of the following except _____ is a major function of blood. 1.Transport of dissolved gases, nutrients and hormones 2.Stabilization of body temperature 3.Provides storage for calcium ions 4.Defense against toxins and pathogens
Which characteristics of blood contribute to its high viscosity? 1.Its temperature is slightly above body temperature. 2.Interactions among proteins, formed elements, and water molecules in plasma. 3.Its alkalinity. 4.The percentage of body weight it comprises.
Why is venipuncture a common technique for obtaining a blood sample? 1.Blood pressure is relatively low in veins. 2.Superficial veins are easy to locate. 3.Venous walls are thinner than arterial walls. 4.All of the above are correct.
What is the primary difference between plasma and interstitial fluid? 1.Plasma contains significantly more protein. 2.Interstitial fluid contains no respiratory gases. 3.The concentration of ions is significantly less in plasma. 4.Interstitial fluid contributes very little to the volume of ECF in the body.
A deficiency of albumin in plasma contributes to __. 1.A decrease in the ability for blood to clot 2.A decrease in the ability to fight infection 3.A decrease in osmotic pressure and decrease in transport of fatty acids 4.A decrease in transport of hormone binding proteins and steroid binding proteins
In which organ are most plasma proteins synthesized? 1.Spleen 2.Bone marrow 3.Kidneys 4.Liver
What accounts for males’ HCT (~46) being higher than females’ HCT (~42)? 1.Males are larger than females. 2.Females’ RBCs are smaller than males’ RBCs. 3.Androgens stimulate RBC production. 4.Estrogens breakdown RBCs at a faster rate than they are produced.
All of the following except ___ leads to a decrease in HCT. 1.Dehydration 2.Hemorrhage 3.Problems with RBC formation 4.Anemia
Why is it important that the iron–oxygen interaction in oxyhemoglobin is weak? 1.So that an irreversible bond forms between oxygen and the hemoglobin molecule 2.So that oxygen may dissociate into tissues 3.Because RBCs consume some of the oxygen they carry 4.Because carbon dioxide has a higher affinity for the iron molecule
There are ~280 million Hb molecules in one RBC. A single Hb molecule carries ___ molecule(s) of O 2, which means that a single RBC carries about ____ O 2 molecules. 1.1/280 million 2.8/2 billion 3.2/1 million 4.4/1 billion
Under normal conditions, what is the fate of the globular proteins of a recycled hemoglobin molecule? 1.They are filtered by the kidneys and eliminated in urine. 2.They are disassembled into their component amino acids. 3.They are stripped of their heme unit and converted into biliverdin. 4.They are converted to bilirubin and excreted in bile.
Tracey has been diagnosed with pernicious anemia. Which of the following conditions contributed to his illness? 1.He has a vitamin B 12 deficiency. 2.He has more than the normal percentage of RBCs. 3.He has an iron deficiency. 4.He is producing too much intrinsic factor.
Which condition(s) stimulates the release of EPO? What is/are effects of EPO? 1.The presence of deoxyhemoglobin in the blood/ decreases the rate of hemoglobin synthesis 2.Blood flow to the kidneys declines/Stimulates increase in cell division rates of erythroblasts 3.Moving to a high altitude/Speeds up maturation of RBCs 4.2 and 3 are correct
What is the nature of and purpose of surface antigens on RBCs? 1.Glycoproteins in the cytoplasm/substances that your body recognizes as foreign 2.Receptor proteins/they aid the entry of oxygen to RBCs 3.Peripheral proteins/they trigger an immune response 4.Integral membrane glycoproteins or glycolipids/ substances your immune system recognizes as “normal”
If Sarah has surface antigen A on her RBCs, what blood type does she have? What type of antibodies are in her plasma? 1.O/Anti-A and Anti-B 2.B/Anti-A 3.A/Anti-B 4.AB/None
Christopher has blood type O. What blood type(s) can he receive from a donor? Why? 1.O/he has anti-A and anti-B antibodies in his plasma 2.A, B, or O/he has no surface antigens on his RBCs 3.A or O/he has anti-B surface antigens on his RBCs 4.None of the above is correct.
Why can’t a person with Type A blood safely receive blood from a person with Type B blood? 1.Mixing blood types causes infections in the recipient. 2.The anti-A antibodies in Type A’s plasma would react with Type B’s donated blood. 3.Type B blood would agglutinate in the recipients blood vessels and plug small vessels to vital organs. 4.All of the above are correct.
Why is it unlikely that the antibodies in a Type O donors plasma would cause a transfusion reaction in a Type A recipient? 1.Surface antigens on RBCs are more important in determining compatibility. 2.The plasma portion of donated blood is tiny when compared to the volume of plasma in the recipient’s body. 3.Plasma is not transfused in blood donations. 4.O blood doesn’t have any antibodies in its plasma.
Why is cross-matching performed, though both donor and recipient are known to be the same blood type? 1.It reveals the presence of potential cross-reactions with surface antigens other than A, B, or Rh. 2.It ensures that neither donor nor recipient is anemic. 3.It confirms the HIV status of the donor. 4.It ensures that the donor does not have WBCs outside the normal range.
All of the following except ____ are characteristics of all types of WBCs. 1.They can leave capillaries by diapedesis 2.They are capable of amoeboid movement 3.They are phagocytic 4.They are attracted to specific chemical stimuli
Which type of WBC is found in greatest numbers in an infected cut? 1.Monocytes 2.Neutrophils 3.B lymphocytes 4.Eosinophils
Sam has an infestation of large parasitic worms. Which of the following will happen? 1.Eosinophils will release cytotoxic enzymes from their granules. 2.Lymphocytes will engulf the worms by phagocytosis. 3.Basophils will release histamine. 4.All types of WBCs will be damaged by the parasites, causing leukopenia.
Monocytes transform into ____ in tissues, where they ____. 1.Basophils/exacerbate inflammation 2.Plasma cells/synthesize and release antibodies 3.Macrophages/are phagocytic and release chemicals that attract neutrophils 4.Natural killer cells/detect and destroy abnormal tissue cells
Which of the following is not true of platelets? 1.They are packets of cytoplasm produced from megakaryocytes. 2.They release chemicals important to clotting. 3.Their formation is stimulated by thrombopoietin. 4.There are about 3.5 million platelets in a microliter of blood.
Which of the phases of hemostasis occurs first? 1.Platelet phase 2.Vascular phase 3.Fibrinolysis phase 4.Coagulation phase
What contributions from the Extrinsic and Intrinsic Pathways help form the enzyme complex necessary to begin the Common Pathway? 1.Factors VIII and IX from the Extrinsic pathway/ factor VII from the Intrinsic pathway 2.Factor III from the Extrinsic pathway/factor XII from the Intrinsic pathway 3.Factor VII from the Extrinsic pathway/factors VIII and IX from the Intrinsic pathway 4.None of the above is correct