Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Emerging Contaminants. Taking Water Policy into the 21st Century Coordination of all measures drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocides landfills water wasteotherpesticides.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Emerging Contaminants. Taking Water Policy into the 21st Century Coordination of all measures drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocides landfills water wasteotherpesticides."— Presentation transcript:

1 Emerging Contaminants

2 Taking Water Policy into the 21st Century Coordination of all measures drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocides landfills water wasteotherpesticides bathing water industry water discharges Water Framework Directive

3 Contaminants in the Water Cycle: soils as source and sink (filter, retention and transformation capacity) Integrated soil-water management

4 Inter-Compartment/Media Transport and Fate of Pollutants in the Water Cycle Litho- sphere Pedosphere Atmosphere Accumulation Deposition Migration Degradation Transport Water Rain, Groundwater Surface Water Air incl. Soil Air Soils Waste materials Analytics incl. Sensors for Air/Water/Solids, (Eco)Tox.-Tests PollutionPrevention, Monitoring, Risk Asses. Remediation Integrated Management (economic, environ. and spatial planning policies) Compounds: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) and Heavy Metals Hydrosphere CompartmentsProcessesMediaTools/Procedures

5 Emerging Contaminants §Definition: Previously unknown or unrecognized (mystery) pollutants. (Ignored Environmental Contaminants) §Detective work called Environmental Forensics §“ As any analytical chemist knows, what you see depends on what you look for “ ( Lynn Roberts, Johns Hopkins University ) §Emerging contaminants are generally not included in the legislation ( Non-priority Pollutants) §Emerging Contaminants= Emerging Chemical Risks §Emerging Issues and Short -Circuiting Risks

6 Emerging Contaminants: Continuum of Risk  Long-established widely recognized risks, as POPs or PBT(persistent bioaccumulative toxicants)  Unexpectedly growing/developing risks ( due to increasing consumption, as MTBE)  Hidden, latent risks (previously unrecognized risk existing for some time, now recognized, as PPCPs)  Future risks, currently not-existing risks (new generation of chemicals/drugs subjected to approval) (Adapted from C.G. Daughton, US EPA, Las Vegas)

7 Emerging Contaminants, US EPA S. Richardson, 2001 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) Analytes  Pharmaceuticals  Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)  Polybrominated diphenyl ethers  Algal toxins  Cryptosporidium & Giardia  Organotins  MTBE (methyl-tert-butyl ether)  DBPs (including NDMA)  Perchlorate  Arsenic

8 Emerging Contaminants (EU): Water Framework Directive and the Precautionary Principle  Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)-  Endocrine Disrupting Compounds-Alkylphenols- detergents, Phthalates  Upcoming Priorities (Future Candidates for Monitoring) :  PPCPs (Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products) Diclofenac,Ibuprofen, EDCs  Veterinary pharmaceuticals for animal feeding  MTBE and related compounds

9 EU adopted Strategy for Endocrine Disrupting Compounds (March 30, 2000) (5257/00) §URGENT NEED to establish monitoring programs and to assess hazards and risks of EDC §Establishment of PRIORITY LIST of substances, i.e., EU 32 priority substances within Water Framework Directive include EDC: Octylphenols, Nonylphenols and Di(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) §In the medium-long-term, EU Directives for EDC and identification of substitutes §The whole approach is to be based on PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE

10 PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOUNDS FOR HUMAN AND VETERINARY MEDICINE  France, Italy, Spain,(Germany) 300 (>600) T/year Antibiotics  Germany, Ibuprofen, Aspirin more than 100 T/year VETERINARY DRUGS  (1999) 1645 Tons of Antibiotics at the EU (European Federation of Animal Health) 275 Tons mixed with feed as growth promotors (in 1997, 1600 Tons)  January 2006, EU ban Antibiotics as growth promotors  70-80% of Drugs in fish farms, end up in the environment  EU level, 115 million pigs (208 million Tons manure)  Pigs in Spain, from millions (2010). Catalonia=8 million Pharmaceutical Compounds

11 Pharmaceuticals Considered as possible future CCL Drinking Water Contaminants (U.S. EPA):  Estrogen  Diclofenac (antirheumatic)  Carbamazepine (antiepileptic)  Chloramphenicol (antibiotic)  Concern about introduction of these compounds into drinking water  Possible estrogenic effects  Research at U.S. EPA and EU on fate & effect

12

13

14 Wastewater treatment plant Drinking water production Man Sediment Sewage sludge Ground water Soil Surface water Estuarine water Sediment Ocean water Sediment Biota Surfactant usage (10 M.tons)

15 Directive 91/271/EEC ( 98/15/EEC ) Urban Waste Water Treatment  Till year 2000, urban centres > inhabitants and till year 2005 urban centres >2000 inhabitants should have treatment of wastewaters  Construction of treatment plants in EU (till year 2005)  N & West Europe, % of wastewater treated, S & East Europe, only %  More treatment plants  higher production of sludge (increase from 5.5 to 8.3 millions tons from1992 to 2005)  It is necessary to increase the capacity of collection systems and treatment 22% and 69%, respectively (from 1992 to 2005)  37 cities of more than inhabitants do not have treatment of wastewaters (Brighton, Portsmouth, Brussels, Milan, Toronto, Coruña, Cadiz, Oporto, Costa Estoril)

16

17 PHTHALATE

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25


Download ppt "Emerging Contaminants. Taking Water Policy into the 21st Century Coordination of all measures drinking urbannitratesIPPC & biocides landfills water wasteotherpesticides."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google