Presentation on theme: "Nematodes early development of Caenorhabditis elegans 9e; Page 243-251."— Presentation transcript:
1 Nematodesearly development of Caenorhabditis elegans9e; Page
2 Caenorhabditis elegans many attributes for studying developmental biologyCompact genome (approximately same number of genes as humans) but 3% of the sizeCompletely sequenced genome (first multicellular organism)Completely known cell lineageShort life cycle (3 days); good for geneticsCan freeze and thaw them with no apparent effect on mortality. So, can keep genetic stocks easily.
4 3 germ layers, but no body cavity Unsegmented, cylindrical body shape
5 Complete cell lineage. This allows highly precise investigation into cellular interactions and cell fate specification.Keep marking cells later and later in development with tracers until you only get a single cell typeOnly 959 cells in adults and 558 in larva. The number of cells is invariant!
6 Eggs fertilized internally, but laid at the 28C stage Germline is set aside at the very first cell division
8 Worms have rotational holoblastic cleavage rotational means that each daughter cell divides at a 90 degree angle relative to its sisterSite of sperm entry determines the anterior- posterior axis. Sperm usually enters the opposite side from egg pronucleus (maternal polarity)Par-3Mex-5
9 The mother segregates cell fate determinants in response to a spatial cue (sperm entry) to establish a specific axis of polarityThe Par proteins (meaning partition deficient) are important proteins for establishing and maintaining polarityPar-3+CYK proteinPar-2Mex-5
10 Par- 2 domain expands, while Par-3 contracts PseudocleavageFemale nucleus begins to migrate toward the male pronucleus
11 Egg now polarized along the A-P axis Pronuclei meet in the middlePar-2 and Par-3 are segregated to cortical cytoplasm of future daughter blastomeres
12 Cytokinesis completes the segregation of determinants
13 Founder cells have a particular cleavage rate and fate. Similar partitioning of determinants and asymmetrical division creates founder cells.Founder cells have a particular cleavage rate and fate.C. elegans uses both autonomous and conditional cell fate specification: If blastomeres at first cleavage are separated, AB the fate of AB descendents are less than their potential.When separated from the P-lineage ABa blastomeres fail to make pharyngeal muscle
14 P-granules determine germ cell fate P granules are segregated into the lineage that will become the germ line.At each cell division the P granules are segregated into only one of the daughter cells.Microfilament but not microtubule inhibitors prevent segregation of P granules
15 Gastrulation occurs at the 24 cell stage Compare urchins to wormsE cells move in ventrally first (2), then the P4 (1), MS cells migrate in from the anterior and CD cells move in from the posterior. very unusual!
16 Recall, that dorsal ventral polarity determined by early cell interactions
17 L-R axis is also determined by cell interactions.