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FIGURE 4-1 Some fate and transport processes in the subsurface and atmospheric environment.

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Presentation on theme: "FIGURE 4-1 Some fate and transport processes in the subsurface and atmospheric environment."— Presentation transcript:

1 FIGURE 4-1 Some fate and transport processes in the subsurface and atmospheric environment.

2 FIGURE 4-2 Some fate and transport processes in the aquatic environment.

3 FIGURE 4-3 Contaminant transfer through soil-water-air interfaces.

4 FIGURE 4-4 Sources of fluids for the generation of landfill leachate.

5 FIGURE 4-5 Water balance variables in the HELP model.

6 FIGURE 4-6 Hydrologic cycle.

7 FIGURE 4-7 Darcy’s experiment.

8 FIGURE 4-8 Schematic of saturated flow in laboratory experiment.

9 FIGURE 4-9 Bernoulli’s equation for flow through a pipe.

10 FIGURE 4-10 Hydraulic heads in Darcy’s experiment.

11 FIGURE 4-11 Darcy’s experiment revisited.

12 FIGURE 4-12 Flow lines and equipotentials.

13 FIGURE 4-13 Flow net for steady-state flow through a homogeneous embankment.

14 FIGURE 4-14 Characteristic curves relating hydraulic conductivity and moisture content to pressure head for a naturally occurring sand soil.

15 FIGURE 4-15 Schematic of mechanical dispersion.

16 FIGURE 4-16 Effect of dispersion on contaminant transport.

17 FIGURE 4-17 Plume migration affected by dispersion and source type. The arker the area, the higher the contaminant concentration.

18 FIGURE 4-18 Effect of diffusion oncontaminant transport with no advective transport.

19 FIGURE 4-19 Schematic of fractured flow.

20 FIGURE 4-20 Effect of high-permeability zone on contaminant transport.

21 FIGURE 4-21 Movement of NAPL.

22 FIGURE 4-22 Two-dimensional control volume.

23 FIGURE 4-23 Finite difference.

24 FIGURE 4-24 Simplified flow diagram representing general process of developing a transport model.

25 FIGURE 4-25 Soil aggregates in subsurface domain.

26 FIGURE4-26 Partitioningof sorbate between solventand sorbent.

27 FIGURE 4-27 Two-stage sorption model.

28 FIGURE 4-28 Desorption of sorbate.

29 FIGURE 4-29 Sorption of lindane by unstripped and stripped soil.

30 FIGURE 4-30 Variable sorption of trichloroethene on glacial till.

31 FIGURE 4-31 Solubilities of metal hydroxides as a function of pH.

32 FIGURE 4-32 Biological transformation of PCE under anaerobic conditions.

33 FIGURE 4-33 Hydrolysis of chlorinated alkyl compounds.

34 FIGURE 4-34 Reduction of sorption by cosolvation.

35 FIGURE 4-35 Effect of the distribution coefficient on contaminant retardation during transport in a shallow groundwater flow system.

36 FIGURE 4-36 A simplified, expanding box model.

37 FIGURE 4-37 The effect of turbulent eddies on plumes (after Pendergast, 1984).124 (a) A large cloud in a uniform field of small eddies, (b) a small cloud in a uniform field of large eddies, (c) a cloud in a field of eddies of the same size as the cloud.

38 FIGURE 4-38 Stable and unstable lapse rates.

39 FIGURE 4-39 A gaussian distribution.

40 FIGURE 4-40 Bivariate plume and plume cross section.

41 FIGURE 4-41 PGT horizontal (crosswind) dispersion coefficient as a function of stability category and downwind distance.

42 FIGURE 4-42 PGT vertical dispersion coefficient as a function of stability category and downwind distance.

43 FIGURE 4-43 Two steps of estimating dispersion.

44 FIGURE 4-44 Relative ground level concentration versus distance.

45 FIGURE 4-45 Relative ground level concentration versus distance for various stability classes.

46 FIGURE 4-46 Relative ground level concentration versus distance for various effective stack heights.

47 EXAMPLE 4-7. FLOWNETFORAWATERTABLEAQUIFER.

48 EXAMPLE 4-8. FINITE DIFFERENCE SOLUTION FOR DARCY’S EXPERIMENT.

49 Hydrolysis of chlo-rinated organics involves exchange of the hydroxyl group with an anionic X on a carbon atom.

50 The groundwater contours are spaced at intervals of about 50 m. 4-3.

51 The groundwater contours are spaced at intervals of about 50 m. 4-4.

52 4-9. A laboratory experiment similar to the one conducted by Darcy is shown in Figure P-3.

53 4-10. The boundary conditions and material properties for a flow regime are shown in Figure P-4.

54 4-20. Determine the pressure, elevation, and total heads at points a, b, and c in Figure P-5.

55 4-21. Determine the pressure, elevation, and total heads at points A, B, and C in Figure P-6.


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