Presentation on theme: "Chapter 28 Cosmology The Creation and Fate of the Universe."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 28 Cosmology The Creation and Fate of the Universe
Guiding Questions 1.What does the darkness of the night sky tell us about the nature of the universe? 2.As the universe expands, what, if anything, is it expanding into? 3.Where did the Big Bang take place? 4.How do we know that the Big Bang was hot? 5.What was the universe like during its first 300,000 years? 6.How is it possible to measure how the universe is curved? 7.What is “dark energy”? 8.Has the universe always expanded at the same rate? 9.What will happen if the universe keeps expanding forever?
Some Vocabulary Universe –All matter, energy, and spacetime -- in other words, everything that is. Cosmogony –A belief system that describes where the universe came from and why it is here. Cosmology –The scientific investigation of the origin, structure, and evolution of the universe. Cosmetology
The darkness of the night sky tells us about the nature of the universe. If space goes on forever, then eventually every space should be filled with light, yet that’s not what we see when we look up. Olbers’ paradox is that the sky is actually dark in places. We live in an expanding universe and all of the light in the universe has not yet reached us.
Hubble’s law shows that the more distant galaxies have higher recessional velocities. Hubble’s law is the same in all directions (called isotropic). Hubble’s law allows to “play the scenario backwards” and determine an age of the universe. Doppler red shifts are caused by an object’s motion whereas cosmological redshifts are caused by the expansion of spacetime. The universe is expanding
The 3D universe is expanding rather like the 2D surface of the balloon. As there is no “central point” on the 2D surface, there is no center to our 3D space volume.
In the 1940s, based on Hubble’s Law, George Gamow proposed the universe began in a colossal explosion. In the 1950s, the term B IG B ANG was coined by an unconvinced Sir Fred Hoyle. In the 1990s, there was an international competition to rename the B IG B ANG with a more appropriate name, but no new name was selected. Big STRETCH is better, as the expansion is NOT really an explosion. The expanding universe emerged from an event called the Big Bang.
B IG B ANG is a relatively simple idea If the universe is expanding, it must have been smaller in the past. If it was smaller in the past, then something must have made it begin to expand. This “event” is called the B IG B ANG. The age of the universe is the distance to the furthest galaxies divided by their recessional speed Current figures date the universe at about 13 billion years. What caused the expansion? A quantum fluctuation in the primordial vacuum?
The farther we look into space, the farther back in time we are seeing.
The microwave radiation that fills all space is evidence of a hot Big Bang.
The spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation reveals a temperature of 2.73K.
Variations in the microwave sky are due to the motion of Earth through the cosmos.
Earth orbits Sun, Sun orbits in the Milky Way, and our Galaxy moves too.
The universe was a hot, opaque plasma during its first 300,000 years. Everything in the early universe falls into two categories: matter or energy. Mass density of radiation, rad rad = 4 T 4 /c 3 = 5.67 x 10 -8 Wm -2 K -4 [ for T = 2.73K, rad is 4.6 x 10 -31 kg/m 3 ] Average density of matter, mass present day mass is about 2 to 4 x 10 -27 kg/m 3
The universe was a hot, opaque plasma during its first 300,000 years. The early radiation dominated universe became today’s matter dominated universe.
Light could not stream freely through matter until 300,000 years after BB. At t = 300,000 years, the universe was finally cool enough from its initial primordial fireball that electrons and protons could combine to form atoms (era of recombination).
The shape of the universe indicates its matter and energy content. The shape of our universe depends on the combined average mass density of all forms of matter and energy. The three possibilities are: Z ERO C URVATURE : Two parallel beams of light never intersect – the universe is FLAT. P OSITIVE C URVATURE : Two initially parallel beams of light gradually converge – the universe is “spherical” and is CLOSED. N EGATIVE C URVATURE : Two initially parallel beams of light gradually diverge – the universe is “hyperbolic” and is OPEN – most likely.
Tiny temperature variations of about 3 x 10 -4 K in the CMB may have provided the seeds of the large-scale structure of the Universe as observed by Geller and Huchra.
Critical density of the universe c = 3H 0 2 / 8 G H 0 is the Hubble constant and G is the universal constant of gravitation. For H 0 = 70 km/s/Mpc, c = 9.2 x 10 -27 kg/m 3 Density parameter 0 0 = 0 / c 0 is the combined average mass density. The shape of the universe indicates its matter and energy content.
The universe appears to be filled with dark energy. Our observations suggest that the universe is flat or slightly open. This conflicts somewhat with our observation that all known radiation, matter, and dark matter only account for 20% to 40% of the total density of the universe. There must be an additional source somewhere – dark energy.
Observations of distant supernovae indicate that we live in an accelerating universe.
The matter and dark energy in the universe determine its future evolution. Deceleration parameter (q 0 ) If q 0 = 0, then the universe expands forever at a constant rate. If q 0 = ½, then the universe is marginally bounded and just barely is able to continue expanding. If q 0 < ½, then the universe is unbounded when the universe expands at a decreasing rate, but never stops. If q 0 > ½, then the universe is bounded and will eventually collapse in on itself ending in a big crunch.
Guiding Questions 1.What does the darkness of the night sky tell us about the nature of the universe? 2.As the universe expands, what, if anything, is it expanding into? 3.Where did the Big Bang take place? 4.How do we know that the Big Bang was hot? 5.What was the universe like during its first 300,00 years? 6.How is it possible to measure how the universe is curved? 7.What is “dark energy”? 8.Has the universe always expanded at the same rate? 9.What will happen if the universe keeps expanding forever?