Presentation on theme: "T HE T UDORS Five hundred years ago the world was a very different place. We were only just realizing that America existed and we had no idea about Australia."— Presentation transcript:
T HE T UDORS Five hundred years ago the world was a very different place. We were only just realizing that America existed and we had no idea about Australia. England (including the Principality of Wales) and Scotland were separate kingdoms, each with their own royal family.
W HO WERE THE T UDORS ? The Tudors were a Welsh-English family that ruled England and Wales from 1485 to 1603 - one of the most exciting periods of British history. They ruled for 118 years. Henry VII 1485 - 1509 Henry VIII 1509 - 1547 Edward VI 1547 - 1553 Jane Grey 1553 - 1553 Mary I 1553 - 1558 Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603 Tudor England had two of the strongest monarchs ever to sit on the English throne: Henry VIII and his daughter Elizabeth I.
When did the Tudors rule England? The Tudors ruled England from 1485 to 1603. Who was the first Tudor king? The first Tudor king was Henry Vll. He became king after the battle of Bosworth field, which ended the War of the Roses. He was followed by his son, Henry Vlll, who was famous for marrying six times and beheading two of his wives! His son, Edward Vl ruled after him, followed by his daughters Mary l and Elizabeth l.
W HY ARE THEY SO FAMOUS ? W HY ARE THEY SO FAMOUS ? T HEY ARE FAMOUS FOR MANY THINGS, INCLUDING THE H ENRY VIII AND HIS SIX WIVES, THE EXPLORATION OF A MERICA AND THE PLAYS OF W ILLIAM S HAKESPEARE. D URING THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY, E NGLAND EMERGED FROM THE MEDIEVAL WORLD. I T WAS A TIME OF GREAT CHANGE, MOST NOTABLY IT MARKED THE END OF THE C ATHOLIC CHURCH IN E NGLAND. G REAT NAVAL EXPLOITS BEGAN THE GREAT E NGLISH SEAFARING TRADITION.
W HAT WAS IT LIKE LIVING DURING THE T UDOR TIMES ? Life had many problems. Towns were becoming overcrowded, roads were muddy tracks and travelling was difficult. The overcrowding caused danger from fire and disease. What did the Tudors do for Britain? During 118 years of Tudor rule, England became richer than ever before. As the country became wealthier, towns grew, beautiful houses were built and schools and colleges were set up. Arts and crafts flourished too. England was home to great painters, writers and musicians. What did the Tudors do for Britain? During 118 years of Tudor rule, England became richer than ever before. As the country became wealthier, towns grew, beautiful houses were built and schools and colleges were set up. Arts and crafts flourished too. England was home to great painters, writers and musicians.
H ENRY VII ( REIGNED 1485-1509) Henry Tudor became King Henry Vll of England and Wales after defeating Richard lll at the Battle of Bosworth in August 1485. This battle saw the end of the Wars of the Roses which had brought instability to England. The Wars of the Roses had been a constant battle between two of England's most powerful families - the families of York and Lancaster. Henry was a member of the Lancaster family. To bring the two families closer together he married Elizabeth of York (the niece of the man he had killed to become king). Henry Vll was the first Tudor King and reigned for 24 years until 1509. Henry Vll enjoyed music, gambling and building palaces. Who was the next King? Henry Vll's second son, also called Henry, inherited the throne and became Henry Vlll. Henry succeeded to the throne because his elder brother Arthur died in 1502.
H ENRY VIII ( REIGNED 1509-1547) Henry Vlll is probably the most well known of the Tudor kings. He was a very selfish person and by the end of his life everyone was afraid of him, mainly because of his ruthless behaviour toward anyone who didn't agree with him. See Henry Vlll timeline Henry Vlll was born at Greenwich Palace, London on 28 June 1491 and was the second son of Henry Vll and Elizabeth of York (daughter of Edward lV). He became Prince of Wales and heir to the throne on the death of his elder brother, Prince Arthur, in 1502.
W HEN DID H ENRY BECOME KING ? H E SUCCEEDED TO THE THRONE AFTER HIS FATHER ' S DEATH ON 21 A PRIL 1509. H E WAS 17 YEARS OLD WHEN HE BECAME KING. H ENRY BUILT FINE PALACES, AND FOUGHT WARS AGAINST F RANCE AND S COTLAND. Appearance Tall and thickset, with blue-grey eyes, short auburn hair and a beard. Henry Vlll was handsome in his youth, but became bloated and fat (he had a 54-inch waist when he was 50). He dressed lavishly, wearing a gold collar with a diamond as big as a walnut and many jewelled rings.
Religion Henry Vlll brought religious upheaval to England. When he became king, most people belonged to the Catholic Church, which was headed by the Pope, in Rome. In 1534, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church and proclaimed himself head of the Church of England. The land and riches of the church became Henry's property and he sold off most of this land to dukes, barons and other noblemen. Sport / Hobbies Henry Vlll was a great athlete in his youth. Henry threw the javelin and enjoyed hunting, archery, jousting and tennis. He spoke French, Spanish, Latin and some Italian and was a good musician. Henry played the lute and harpsichord well and could sing from sight.
H OME Henry Vlll lived at Hampton Court Palace in London. Family Life Henry Vlll wanted a son to rule after him. He first married his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon but divorced her when she did not produce a male heir to the throne. He married three times more before a son was born. In total he married six times!
Catherine of Aragon m. 1509 - 1533 Divorced Anne Boleyn m. 1533 - 1536 Executed Jane Seymour m. 1536 - 1537 Died Anne of Cleves m. 1540 Jan. - July Divorced Kathryn Howard m. 1540 - 1542 Executed Katherine Parr m. 1543 - 1547 Widowed
How many children did Henry VIII have? Henry Vlll had three children - Mary (by Catherine of Aragon), Elizabeth (by Anne Boleyn) and Edward (by Jane Seymour). Each became a monarch - Edward Vl, Mary l (or Mary Tudor) and Elizabeth l in that order. His son, Edward Vl ruled for six years after Henry's death, he became King at age 9 and died at age 15. Henry's daughter Mary ruled for the next five years, but also died without children. Finally, Henry's last surviving child, Elizabeth I became Queen, and ruled for 45 years. Death Henry died in St James's Palace, Westminster, around 2 am on Friday 28 January 1547, aged 55 years. His funeral procession to Windsor was four miles long. He was buried at Windsor Castle beside his third wife, Jane Seymour.
Important events during the reign of Henry Tudor (Henry Vlll) King Henry Vlll, Henry's son, successfully united England and Wales under one system of government. The two countries were joined in 1536. Henry Vlll wanted a male heir, but his wife had not given birth to a son. Henry wanted to divorce her and take a new wife. The Roman Catholic Church refused to grant the divorce. In order to gain his divorce, Henry had to establish the Church of England and end Catholicism. Henry passed a law in 1534 making himself head of the Church of England. This act allowed him to divorce his wife and led to the formation of the Protestant Church of England. The Protestant movement was known as the Reformation.
K ING E DWARD VI ( REIGNED 1547-1553) Edward was the only son of Henry VIII. Edward VI became king at the age of nine upon the death of his father, Henry Vlll. He was known as 'The Boy King'. His mother was Jane Seymour, Henry Vlll's third wife. Edward was a sickly child and the country was run by his protectors: firstly, the Duke of Somerset, his mother's brother, then by the Duke of Northumberland. Edward enjoyed reading about battles and writing Greek. Edward died at the age of 16 in 1553.
Lady Jane Grey While Edward was still alive his ministers persuaded him to make a will naming Lady Jane Grey his successor to the throne. She was a Protestant unlike Edward's half sister Mary (Henry VIII's eldest daughter) who was Catholic. The ministers wanted to keep England a Protestant country. Lady Jane Grey ruled for only 9 days before Mary had her arrested and executed.
Queen Mary I (reigned 1553-1558) Mary I was the first Queen Regnant (that is, a queen reigning in her own right rather than a queen through marriage to a king). Mary was the eldest daughter of Henry Vlll by his first wife Katherine of Aragon. She was named after Henry's favourite sister, Mary Tudor (the 'Tudor Rose'). Mary was born just before dawn on Monday 18 February 1516 in Greenwich Palace. Mary came to the throne after contesting the 14 day reign of the uncrowned Lady Jane Grey, grandaughter of Mary Tudor, who had been named by Edward Vl as his successor.
Religion Mary was a committed Catholic. When she came to the throne she vowed to return England to Rome and Catholicism. Mary reunited the English Church with Rome and in 1555 banned English translations of the Bible. Why is Mary l called Bloody Mary? She is known as Bloody Mary because of the numbers of people who were executed for being Protestants. Mary burned nearly three hundred Protestants at the stake when they refused to give up their religion. Appearance Mary was short and slender, with a rosy-cheeked complextion and large hazel eyes. She had golden, bright auburn hair.
Marriage Mary made herself even more unpopular by marrying Philip of Spain and losing Calais, England's last possession in France. They had no children. Hobbies Mary enjoyed riding and hunting and liked to be painted with her Italian Greyhounds at her feet. She was very musical. She played the virginals from the age of three and also the regals and lute. Mary was well educated, she could read Greek and Latin, understood Italian and spoke Latin, French and Aragonese Spanish. Death Mary died in the early morning of 17 November 1558. She was buried in Henry Vll's chapel, Westminster Abbey.
Queen Elizabeth I (reigned 1558-1603) Elizabeth I - the last Tudor monarch - was born at Greenwich Palace on 7 September 1533, the younger daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. When Elizabeth came to the throne, she was 25. She succeeded to the throne on her half- sister's death in November 1558.
Sport / Hobbies Elizabeth liked hunting and enjoyed court masques (entertainment of poetry, songs and dancing). She was very well-educated and was fluent in six languages. Religion Elizabeth made England Protestant again and her will was the law. Marriage She did not marry and was known as the Virgin Queen. War During her reign, England became enemy of Catholic Spain, and Elizabeth fought against Philip II's navy (the Spanish Armada). Death The Tudor period ended with the death of Queen Elizabeth I on 24th March 1603 after 45 years on the throne. She had no husband or children to succeed her.
Golden Age of English History Elizabeth I's rule is remembered as the Golden Age of English history. Under her rule, England advanced in such areas as foreign trade, exploration, literature, and the arts. During Elizabeth's reign the age of exploration began with explorers such as Francis Drake claiming new lands for England and introducing new materials and foods. The American State, Virginia, is named after her.