Presentation on theme: "Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?” MATTHEW ABBOTT PHILLIP GRONEWOLD RUSSELL KENNERLY KATE LYON DANIEL SCHLANGEN."— Presentation transcript:
Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?” MATTHEW ABBOTT PHILLIP GRONEWOLD RUSSELL KENNERLY KATE LYON DANIEL SCHLANGEN
Julian Rotter Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80,1-28.
Locus of Control External Locus of Control: Consequences of behavior controlled by luck, fate, or powerful others Internal Locus of Control: Consequences attributed to person’s behavior or personality characteristic
Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Person’s tendency to view events from internal/external locus of control can be explained by SLT Children may grow up with two different types of reinforcement: – Frequent experiences in which behavior influences reinforcement – Reinforcement appears to result from actions outside of themselves
Leads to generalized expectancy about whether reinforcement is internally or externally controlled Generalized expectancies result in different actions in specific conditions Rotter’s Social Learning Theory
Locus of Control Study Wanted to demonstrate two main points: – A test could be developed to reliably measure the extent to which individuals possess internal or external locus of control – People will display individual differences in interpretations of causes of reinforcement when facing the same situation Compared behavior of internals vs. externals in numerous contexts
Method: I-E Scale Designed scale containing series of pairs of statements – Each pair consisted of one statement reflecting internal locus of control and one reflecting external locus of control – Participants asked which they believed to be more true – Could not designate neither or both
Method: I-E Scale Examples Question 1 – Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck. – People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. Question 2 – Becoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has little or nothing to do with it. – Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
Method: I-E Scale Fillers Six filler items were added to disguise the true method or purpose of the test, e.g.: – Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much. – The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them.
Results Rotter found a correlation found between I-E Scores and life situations such as: – Gambling – Political Activism – Persuasion – Smoking – Achievement Motivation – Conformity
Results Gambling – Internals prefer to bet on sure things and tend to stay with intermediate odds – Externals tend to wager more money on risky bets and engage more in the gambler’s fallacy Political Activism – Those who participated in marches and civil rights groups were generally more internally oriented
Results Persuasion – Internals are significantly more successful than externals in altering the moods of others – Internals are more resistant to manipulation by others Smoking – Smokers tend to be more external than nonsmokers – Those who quit after the Surgeon General’s warning was put on cigarette packs were more internally oriented
Results Achievement Motivation – Internals spent more time studying in high school – Internals had plans to attend college Conformity – Internals conform less to majority than externals – Internals trust themselves more on making judgments opposite the majority than the externals
Discussion Rotter proposed that the development of an internal or external orientation was due to three potential influences: – Cultural differences – Socioeconomic differences – Variations in styles of parenting Rotter referred to several other studies for support
Conclusions The locus of control is a definable characteristic The locus of control can be measured The I-E Scale provides consistent results Locus of control operates fairly consistently across various situations
Conclusions There are benefits to having an internal locus of control Internals are more likely to: – Gain information from the situations in their life and improve future behavior to similar situations – Take the initiative to change and improve their life conditions – Place greater value on inner skill and achievement in goals – Be more resistant to manipulation by others
Subsequent Research Strickland (1977) found internals generally take more responsibility for their own health and have lower stress levels Research solidifying Rotter’s view of parenting style’s effect on locus of control Sims and Baumann (1972) found internal orientation promotes life saving behaviors in catastrophic events
Subsequent Research Yang and Clum (2000) found that external locus of control and low self-esteem, depression and suicidal tendencies are related Welton (1996) found externals that perceive control by a higher power do not suffer the normal external’s problems
Questions Is a locus of control consistent over time? Is a locus of control consistent across similar situations?
Questions Is a locus of control learned? Do people have an innate bias towards being internal or external?
Question Can an individual change his/her locus of control?
Question What do you think would happen if someone with an internal locus of control set out to change a situation that is not changeable?