Presentation on theme: "Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?”"— Presentation transcript:
1Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?” MATTHEW ABBOTTPHILLIP GRONEWOLDRUSSELL KENNERLYKATE LYONDANIEL SCHLANGEN
2Julian RotterRotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80,1-28.
3Locus of ControlExternal Locus of Control: Consequences of behavior controlled by luck, fate, or powerful othersInternal Locus of Control: Consequences attributed to person’s behavior or personality characteristic
4Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Person’s tendency to view events from internal/external locus of control can be explained by SLTChildren may grow up with two different types of reinforcement:Frequent experiences in which behavior influences reinforcementReinforcement appears to result from actions outside of themselves
5Rotter’s Social Learning Theory Leads to generalized expectancy about whether reinforcement is internally or externally controlledGeneralized expectancies result in different actions in specific conditions
6Locus of Control Study Wanted to demonstrate two main points: A test could be developed to reliably measure the extent to which individuals possess internal or external locus of controlPeople will display individual differences in interpretations of causes of reinforcement when facing the same situationCompared behavior of internals vs. externals in numerous contexts
7Method: I-E ScaleDesigned scale containing series of pairs of statementsEach pair consisted of one statement reflecting internal locus of control and one reflecting external locus of controlParticipants asked which they believed to be more trueCould not designate neither or both
8Method: I-E Scale Examples Question 1Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck.People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.Question 2Becoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has little or nothing to do with it.Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
9Method: I-E Scale Fillers Six filler items were added to disguise the true method or purpose of the test, e.g.:Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much.The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them.
10ResultsRotter found a correlation found between I-E Scores and life situations such as:GamblingPolitical ActivismPersuasionSmokingAchievement MotivationConformity
11Results Gambling Political Activism Internals prefer to bet on sure things and tend to stay with intermediate oddsExternals tend to wager more money on risky bets and engage more in the gambler’s fallacyPolitical ActivismThose who participated in marches and civil rights groups were generally more internally oriented
12Results Persuasion Smoking Internals are significantly more successful than externals in altering the moods of othersInternals are more resistant to manipulation by others SmokingSmokers tend to be more external than nonsmokersThose who quit after the Surgeon General’s warning was put on cigarette packs were more internally oriented
13Results Achievement Motivation Conformity Internals spent more time studying in high schoolInternals had plans to attend collegeConformityInternals conform less to majority than externalsInternals trust themselves more on making judgments opposite the majority than the externals
14DiscussionRotter proposed that the development of an internal or external orientation was due to three potential influences:Cultural differencesSocioeconomic differencesVariations in styles of parentingRotter referred to several other studies for support
15Conclusions The locus of control is a definable characteristic The locus of control can be measuredThe I-E Scale provides consistent resultsLocus of control operates fairly consistently across various situations
16Conclusions There are benefits to having an internal locus of control Internals are more likely to:Gain information from the situations in their life and improve future behavior to similar situationsTake the initiative to change and improve their life conditionsPlace greater value on inner skill and achievement in goalsBe more resistant to manipulation by others
17Subsequent ResearchStrickland (1977) found internals generally take more responsibility for their own health and have lower stress levelsResearch solidifying Rotter’s view of parenting style’s effect on locus of controlSims and Baumann (1972) found internal orientation promotes life saving behaviors in catastrophic events
18Subsequent ResearchYang and Clum (2000) found that external locus of control and low self-esteem, depression and suicidal tendencies are relatedWelton (1996) found externals that perceive control by a higher power do not suffer the normal external’s problems
19Questions Is a locus of control consistent over time? Is a locus of control consistent across similar situations?“Those who are externally oriented often will become more internal when their profession places them in positions of greater authority and responsibility. People who are highly internally oriented may shift toward a more external focus during times of extreme stress and uncertainty. Moreover, it is possible for individuals to learn to be more internal, if given the opportunity.” Hock 195.
20Questions Is a locus of control learned? Do people have an innate bias towards being internal or external?
21QuestionCan an individual change his/her locus of control?
22QuestionWhat do you think would happen if someone with an internal locus of control set out to change a situation that is not changeable?Rotter, in his later writings, sounded a note of caution (see Rotter, 1975). Everyone, especially internals, must be attentive to the environment around them. If a person sets out to change a situation that is not changeable, frustration, disappointment, and depression are the potential outcomes. When forces outside of the individual are actually in control of behavioral consequences, the most realistic and healthy approach to take is probably one of an external orientation.