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Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?”

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1 Presentation on Hock Chpt 7 “Are You the Master of Your Fate?”

2 Julian Rotter Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80,1-28.

3 Locus of Control External Locus of Control: Consequences of behavior controlled by luck, fate, or powerful others Internal Locus of Control: Consequences attributed to person’s behavior or personality characteristic

4 Rotter’s Social Learning Theory
Person’s tendency to view events from internal/external locus of control can be explained by SLT Children may grow up with two different types of reinforcement: Frequent experiences in which behavior influences reinforcement Reinforcement appears to result from actions outside of themselves

5 Rotter’s Social Learning Theory
Leads to generalized expectancy about whether reinforcement is internally or externally controlled Generalized expectancies result in different actions in specific conditions

6 Locus of Control Study Wanted to demonstrate two main points:
A test could be developed to reliably measure the extent to which individuals possess internal or external locus of control People will display individual differences in interpretations of causes of reinforcement when facing the same situation Compared behavior of internals vs. externals in numerous contexts

7 Method: I-E Scale Designed scale containing series of pairs of statements Each pair consisted of one statement reflecting internal locus of control and one reflecting external locus of control Participants asked which they believed to be more true Could not designate neither or both

8 Method: I-E Scale Examples
Question 1 Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck. People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make. Question 2 Becoming a success is a matter of hard work; luck has little or nothing to do with it. Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.

9 Method: I-E Scale Fillers
Six filler items were added to disguise the true method or purpose of the test, e.g.: Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much. The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them.

10 Results Rotter found a correlation found between I-E Scores and life situations such as: Gambling Political Activism Persuasion Smoking Achievement Motivation Conformity

11 Results Gambling Political Activism
Internals prefer to bet on sure things and tend to stay with intermediate odds Externals tend to wager more money on risky bets and engage more in the gambler’s fallacy Political Activism Those who participated in marches and civil rights groups were generally more internally oriented

12 Results Persuasion Smoking
Internals are significantly more successful than externals in altering the moods of others Internals are more resistant to manipulation by others  Smoking Smokers tend to be more external than nonsmokers Those who quit after the Surgeon General’s warning was put on cigarette packs were more internally oriented

13 Results Achievement Motivation Conformity
Internals spent more time studying in high school Internals had plans to attend college Conformity Internals conform less to majority than externals Internals trust themselves more on making judgments opposite the majority than the externals

14 Discussion Rotter proposed that the development of an internal or external orientation was due to three potential influences: Cultural differences Socioeconomic differences Variations in styles of parenting Rotter referred to several other studies for support

15 Conclusions The locus of control is a definable characteristic
The locus of control can be measured The I-E Scale provides consistent results Locus of control operates fairly consistently across various situations

16 Conclusions There are benefits to having an internal locus of control
Internals are more likely to: Gain information from the situations in their life and improve future behavior to similar situations Take the initiative to change and improve their life conditions Place greater value on inner skill and achievement in goals Be more resistant to manipulation by others

17 Subsequent Research Strickland (1977) found internals generally take more responsibility for their own health and have lower stress levels Research solidifying Rotter’s view of parenting style’s effect on locus of control Sims and Baumann (1972) found internal orientation promotes life saving behaviors in catastrophic events

18 Subsequent Research Yang and Clum (2000) found that external locus of control and low self-esteem, depression and suicidal tendencies are related Welton (1996) found externals that perceive control by a higher power do not suffer the normal external’s problems

19 Questions Is a locus of control consistent over time?
Is a locus of control consistent across similar situations? “Those who are externally oriented often will become more internal when their profession places them in positions of greater authority and responsibility. People who are highly internally oriented may shift toward a more external focus during times of extreme stress and uncertainty. Moreover, it is possible for individuals to learn to be more internal, if given the opportunity.” Hock 195.

20 Questions Is a locus of control learned?
Do people have an innate bias towards being internal or external?

21 Question Can an individual change his/her locus of control?

22 Question What do you think would happen if someone with an internal locus of control set out to change a situation that is not changeable? Rotter, in his later writings, sounded a note of caution (see Rotter, 1975). Everyone, especially internals, must be attentive to the environment around them. If a person sets out to change a situation that is not changeable, frustration, disappointment, and depression are the potential outcomes. When forces outside of the individual are actually in control of behavioral consequences, the most realistic and healthy approach to take is probably one of an external orientation.

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