Presentation on theme: "The Restoration, 1660 – 1800 a.k.a. the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, the Neoclassical Period."— Presentation transcript:
The Restoration, 1660 – 1800 a.k.a. the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, the Neoclassical Period
Reading Review This word means a regional variation of a shared language. This famous Brit published a two-volume Dictionary of the English Language in 1755. The crowning of this king firmly made Great Britain a Protestant nation. He mathematically tracked a comet. James Dean is an example of this type of hero. Bonus: This influential author, born during the Romantic Period, later wrote novels that would alter the world of the poorer, working classes.
Evolution of the Union Jack Union Flag 1707 Great Britain Union Flag 1801 Great Britain Unofficial Flag 1606 Scotland St Andrew ’ s Cross Scotland St George ’ s Cross England St Patrick ’ s Cross Ireland Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag
Charles II and the Nation The return of the monarchy instilled a sense of peace and prosperity. The Bloodless Revolution firmly established Britain as a Protestant nation. King Charles established the Royal Society of London, still in effect today. Charles promoted reason, research and rationality from the throne. Moved away from Puritanism.
Science and Reason With the pursuits of philosophy and science came more how ?s than whys. Halley ’ s comet accurately predicted, led to the ousting of superstition for many. Christian thought/doctrine was still central to scientific pursuits. Great writers pursued clarity and efficacy in words and style.
The New World The Americas now receive thousands of Irish and Scottish emigrants. New words entered the language from interaction with Native Americans. Many Puritans and other religious conservatives flocked to the new shores. A nation of the people, not for the monarchy, was forming.
Literary Contributions English literature became a means of precise expression: a science and an art. Poetry took on regular meter and rhyme. Satire and the novel were introduced. Lexicographers formed societies for the advancement of the English language. The theaters reopened and displayed entertainment as well as critique.
Men of Import John Dryden – became the standard for the academic pursuit of writing; “ perfect[ed] the technique of English poetry ” (474). Samuel Johnson – a brilliant and witty man; conservative and staunchly religious; doubted the basic goodness of human progress and nature.
Social Considerations The poorest areas of London lacked even basic infrastructure or oversight. Infant death rates, rampant disease and short life spans increased during this time. The lack of morals was named as the cause of health issues in the poor. Industrialization ramped up, leading to a desire for the natural and earthy.
The Romantic Period, 1798 – 1832 A Move Toward the Natural
Coleridge and Wordsworth First voices of the Romantic Period. Lamented the loss of the natural to industrialization and cities. Pointed to the impotence of human endeavor and the necessity of returning to nature for contentment and meaning.
Political Neighbors America ’ s Revolution, 1776. French Revolution, 1790s. (The Scarlet Pimpernel and Les Misérables set here.) These sparked turmoil in England, too. Fear at home for conservatives and the wealthy.
Recognition of the Poor The Romantic poets and writers highlighted the plight of the poor. Legislation was passed to limit child labor, but was ineffective at best. Appalling work conditions were documented in novels. Dickens born in 1812. Labor unions were first permitted.
The Romantic Ideal Romantic refers to innocence and natural emotions. Romantic poets viewed themselves as indispensable and influential. Focus on feeling or sensing your way through thoughts, ideas and identity. Rejected rational thought as a source of truth or happiness. Exalted imagination and nature.
Questions to Consider What are some ways that learning a language at a high level can increase nationalism and pride? Why did Romantics sympathize with rebels and revolutionaries? How did literature shape the judgments of the wealthy toward the poor? What inspiration can we glean regarding our personal mastery of a language?