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The Restoration, 1660 – 1800 a.k.a. the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, the Neoclassical Period.

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Presentation on theme: "The Restoration, 1660 – 1800 a.k.a. the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, the Neoclassical Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Restoration, 1660 – 1800 a.k.a. the Enlightenment, the Age of Reason, the Neoclassical Period

2 Reading Review  This word means a regional variation of a shared language.  This famous Brit published a two-volume Dictionary of the English Language in 1755.  The crowning of this king firmly made Great Britain a Protestant nation.  He mathematically tracked a comet.  James Dean is an example of this type of hero.  Bonus: This influential author, born during the Romantic Period, later wrote novels that would alter the world of the poorer, working classes.

3 Evolution of the Union Jack Union Flag 1707 Great Britain Union Flag 1801 Great Britain Unofficial Flag 1606 Scotland St Andrew ’ s Cross Scotland St George ’ s Cross England St Patrick ’ s Cross Ireland Taken from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_Flag

4 Charles II and the Nation  The return of the monarchy instilled a sense of peace and prosperity.  The Bloodless Revolution firmly established Britain as a Protestant nation.  King Charles established the Royal Society of London, still in effect today.  Charles promoted reason, research and rationality from the throne.  Moved away from Puritanism.

5 Science and Reason  With the pursuits of philosophy and science came more how ?s than whys.  Halley ’ s comet accurately predicted, led to the ousting of superstition for many.  Christian thought/doctrine was still central to scientific pursuits.  Great writers pursued clarity and efficacy in words and style.

6 The New World  The Americas now receive thousands of Irish and Scottish emigrants.  New words entered the language from interaction with Native Americans.  Many Puritans and other religious conservatives flocked to the new shores.  A nation of the people, not for the monarchy, was forming.

7 Literary Contributions  English literature became a means of precise expression: a science and an art.  Poetry took on regular meter and rhyme.  Satire and the novel were introduced.  Lexicographers formed societies for the advancement of the English language.  The theaters reopened and displayed entertainment as well as critique.

8 Men of Import  John Dryden – became the standard for the academic pursuit of writing; “ perfect[ed] the technique of English poetry ” (474).  Samuel Johnson – a brilliant and witty man; conservative and staunchly religious; doubted the basic goodness of human progress and nature.

9 Social Considerations  The poorest areas of London lacked even basic infrastructure or oversight.  Infant death rates, rampant disease and short life spans increased during this time.  The lack of morals was named as the cause of health issues in the poor.  Industrialization ramped up, leading to a desire for the natural and earthy.

10 The Romantic Period, 1798 – 1832 A Move Toward the Natural

11 Coleridge and Wordsworth  First voices of the Romantic Period.  Lamented the loss of the natural to industrialization and cities.  Pointed to the impotence of human endeavor and the necessity of returning to nature for contentment and meaning.

12 Political Neighbors  America ’ s Revolution, 1776.  French Revolution, 1790s. (The Scarlet Pimpernel and Les Misérables set here.)  These sparked turmoil in England, too.  Fear at home for conservatives and the wealthy.

13 Recognition of the Poor  The Romantic poets and writers highlighted the plight of the poor.  Legislation was passed to limit child labor, but was ineffective at best.  Appalling work conditions were documented in novels. Dickens born in 1812.  Labor unions were first permitted.

14 The Romantic Ideal  Romantic refers to innocence and natural emotions.  Romantic poets viewed themselves as indispensable and influential.  Focus on feeling or sensing your way through thoughts, ideas and identity.  Rejected rational thought as a source of truth or happiness.  Exalted imagination and nature.

15 Questions to Consider  What are some ways that learning a language at a high level can increase nationalism and pride?  Why did Romantics sympathize with rebels and revolutionaries?  How did literature shape the judgments of the wealthy toward the poor?  What inspiration can we glean regarding our personal mastery of a language?


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