Presentation on theme: "Industrialization’s effects Along with the changing trends in intellectual thought brought about by the Enlightenment thinkers, industrialization also."— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization’s effects Along with the changing trends in intellectual thought brought about by the Enlightenment thinkers, industrialization also brought: 1) Obvious commercial growth 2) Population pressure 3) Revolutions 4) New Economic trends
Age of Revolution Three forces were working to shatter Europe’s relative calm by the mid-18 th century: Cultural forces Economic forces Social forces
Cultural forces Enlightenment thinkers had called for full religious freedom, an end to aristocratic privileges, and widespread popular voice in government. Thinkers like Rousseau called for government based on general will (democracy), and Voltaire called for the separation of the powerful church from the state, thereby giving more power to the people. (see document)
Economic Changes Though there was a call for an end to aristocratic privileges, as commercialization grew, so to did the wealthy businessmen. They viewed themselves as the “new” aristocracy, upsetting the already established aristocratic order as well as the exploited workers. This could feed revolution.
Social Changes Western Europe experienced a huge population jump after 1730 known as the population revolution. Several factors contributed to this boom including: improved nutrition from the potato, reduced child mortality rates, increased birth rates, and better policing of nation’s borders, thereby reducing the movement of disease-bearing animals.
Social Changes cont’d This population had dramatic impacts. The growing number of middle and lower class led to demands for change.
Social Changes cont’d Also, more people naturally meant more consumers. To meet the demand for products, hundreds of thousands of people became part-time producers in their homes to meet the capitalistic demand of consumers. This is called proto-industrialization. It eventually encouraged new technologies to develop to meet the growing volume of products needed.
More Revolutions To go along with population and industrial revolutions of the time period, you had revolutions fought for freedom and rights in America and France. Both were largely influenced by Enlightenment ideas and ended up with significant and parallel documents stating their rights. (Declaration of Independence and Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen)
Both Revolutions were fought to end monarchial oppression. Louis XVI of FranceKing George III of Britain
Key Figures of the French Revolution Maximilien Robespierre (Reign of Terror) Napoleon Bonaparte (Emperor)
Congress of Vienna A meeting of diplomats from allied nations that defeated Napoleon. They met to establish a peace settlement that would make further revolutions impossible. They made several key changes including: 1) Surrounding France with strong powers to prevent their growth. 2) Also restored many European monarchs to the throne.
Political Classes Emerge As a result of the Congress of Vienna, several new political classes emerged. A) Conservatives: They were against revolutionary goals and favored little to no change whatsoever. B) Liberals: Touted some important changes like freedoms (religion, press, and assembly), economic and social changes. C) Radicals: Wanted widespread changes such as democracy or socialism (both radical at that time)
Industrial Revolution By the 1830’s, industrialization had spread throughout Europe (and America) and added to social pressures. Led to discontent among factory workers over wages, hours, and work conditions. Corporations arose encouraging more and more stockholders to invest large amounts of money in the company. These stockholders demanded profit at all cost.
Opponents of capitalism Karl Marx Naturally, the stress and demand placed on workers combined with the overbearing drive of owners and stockholders led to problems. Many began to speak out against the evils of industrialization and the capitalist system it thrived on.
The Spread of Industrialization As industry grew in Europe, railroads and canals began to link cities across the continent and spur industrial and commercial growth. More and more people began moving into the cities to find jobs and urbanization expanded rapidly. For the first time in history, more than a minority of a population lived in cities.
Industrialization in Europe (1850)
Labor Movements Beginning in the late 1800’s, workers began to organize labor movements to improve their conditions. New trade unions emerged such as the Knights of Labor and the American Federation of labor. Even so, the process of gaining workers rights was very, very slow and drawn out.
Nationalism As countries gained more and more wealth through industry, they began competing with one another for economic dominance. A system of national pride and superiority called nationalism arose throughout the west. Countries not only wanted to see their nations succeed, but also wanted to surpass other nations in economic and military strength.
Imperialism Nationalism also encouraged the expansion of a nations borders or territories. The dominance of a weaker nation by a stronger nation politically, economically, and socially is known as imperialism. Over the next century a colonial race will ensue between European powers and even America (Alaska, Hawaii, Philippines, Guam, Puerto Rico) to some extent.
European Imperialism (1763)
Increased Government Functions Governments began to expand and take on new functions and roles. Western governments began instituting civil service exams. (Only about a 1,000 years behind China). Created compulsory education in some cases all the way through high school. Schools increased literacy and also taught nationalistic superiority.
Feminist Movements Other powerful movements of the time period were in the area of female rights. Women fought for equal job opportunities, higher education, and the right to vote.
The Emergence of Mass Leisure Culture (p.527)
Diplomatic Tensions and WWI Imperialistic expansion and nationalism fed into the rivalry between key European nation-states. As a result, these nations began building up their militaries. Combine these three problems with new alliance systems that emerged in Europe and you have a deadly recipe for war.
Causes of WWI (The “ism’s” of war) 1) Nationalism 2) Imperialism 3) Militarism’ 4) Alliance System (Alliancism???)