Presentation on theme: "Medieval Period 1066-1485 1066 AD – The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings 1485 AD – The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the."— Presentation transcript:
Medieval Period AD – The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings 1485 AD – The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the War of the Roses,and the Rise of the Tudors Dynasty
1066 A.D. – Norman conquest of England; Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror defeats, Harold, the last Anglo-Saxon king Historical Events that Started and Ended this Period 1485 A.D. – Invention of printing press by Johannes Gutenberg; in 1485 William Caxton sets up the first one in England; Battle of Bosworth Field
Introduction to Medieval Period Dark Ages: Barbarian Germanic tribes move across Europe. Generally rough, crude, illiterate, new Christians.
England’s Invaders: Prior to 1100 AD: England is invaded often by tribes from many different parts of Europe. Normans – 1. Descendants of a Germanic tribe 2. Loyal to the French King 3. Very powerful, French King made their ruler a Duke
England’s Invaders: 1066AD 1.King Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon king, dies without an heir 2.King Edward’s witan demanded that his distant relative Harold be given the throne 3.The Norman Duke, William, a relative of Edward, also claims the throne 4.William is triumphant at The Battle of Hastings. 5.He is crowned the king of England on Christmas Day, He will go down in history as William the Conqueror
England’s Invaders: William The Conqueror ( ) 1.His most significant introduction into English society was the concept of FEUDALISM. 2.A political economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. Essentially he claims that all English soil belongs to him. 3. Keeping a fourth for himself, granting a fourth to the church, he then parcels out the rest of English land to his men in exchange for their loyalty 4. With the birth of Feudalism many people became serfs - - the permanent servants to the Norman Lords 5. In 1086, he compiles The Doomsday Book, a record of all property. (Think of the census and IRS, all rolled into one.)
The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: 1.William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo- Saxons 2.The Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy them 3.Normans’ strengths - - administrative ability, emphasis on law & order, democratic and artistic tendencies 4.The Normans brought England into mainstream of Europe - - Eastern Europe: the Netherlands, western France, Austria are more civilized
The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal caste, property, and military system KING LORDLORDLORD KNIGHTSKNIGHTSKNIGHTS SQUIRESQUIRESQUIRE YEOMANYEOMANYEOMAN SERFSSERFSSERFS
The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal System Developed in Two Ways - 1.Landowners wanted protection A. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands (King and his Lords wanted to be paid what they felt was their due.) B. Provided soldiers from their families C. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required 2. Conquering princes and warlords – would reward valued allies with grants of land. The land still technically belonged to the king or prince, but they administered it. However, the king could revoke these rewards at any time. 3. Serfs – were not really slaves. Bottom of the feudal social order though. Not truly free: bound to the land they worked on. Owed service to the master of the land and were passed along from owner to owner.
The Medieval Church 1.Clergy were important and powerful 2.Church owned and controlled a fourth of the land in England 3.Church had its own legal system 4.Church had its own tax system 5.Church leaders could speak with the religious leaders in other countries WITHOUT the permission of the King (No one else could do that!!!) 6.Church supervised education (Education meant POWER!!)
The Medieval Church GOD POPE CARDINALS BISHOPS PRIESTS, FRIARS, NUNS
Medieval Language 1.Three languages spoken A. French by the Norman rulers B. Latin by the clergy and lawyers C. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) by the common people 2. Middle English A. Evolves over a period of 400 years B. Old English combines with the Norman French C. Latin terms are added to the language of the common people
Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Out of the feudal system during the Medieval Period grew a sense of form and manners : Chivalry – a system of ideals and behavior that governed knights and gentlemen. It also set the rules of war From the French word Chevalier (knight)
Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Knights were required to – 1.Defend his honor by honorable means 2.Set limits on the scope and nature of revenge that could be taken for real or fancied insults 3.Fight fairly even with Moslems or non- Christians 4.Love God 5.Be loyal to his King or prince 6.Practice Christian humility, kindness, and politeness to those of lower stations 7.Be generous with worldly goods and possessions Stations of a knight: PAGE SQUIREKNIGHT
Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: 1.If a knight failed to uphold these high principles he must do penance which might be participating in a Crusade or performing some religious duty 2.Some of these ideals are the same heroic qualities that the Anglo- Saxons admired in Beowulf. Some are different. Anglo-Saxons lived in a more brutal society than the upper classes during the Middle Ages. Stations of a knight: PAGE SQUIREKNIGHT
Courtly Love 1.By revering and acting in the name of a lady, a knight would become better and braver 2.Added to the Chivalric Code in the later Middle Ages 3.Each knight devoted himself to a lady of the court (liege lady) 4.Source – the religious cult of the Virgin Mary, a non-sexual devotion 5.Rarely the knight’s wife, but rather a lady of a higher station who the knight could never hope to marry 6.Often the knight would only ever see his liege lady from a distance
Courtly Love How might a knight demonstrate Courtly Love? 1.Wear his lady’s colors into battle 2.Glorify her in words 3.Be inspired by her 4.Revere her on a pedestal (like the Virgin Mary)
Courtly Love Chivalry and Courtly Love were only practiced by the upper classes – NOT the common people Contributions of Chivalry and Courtly Love: 1.An improved and even idealized attitude toward women 2.The birth of the form of literature known as the “Romance” 3.A civilizing influence in human behavior
Henry II Important king and beginning of the Plantagenet Dynasty Important king and beginning of the Plantagenet Dynasty Reformed the Judicial System Reformed the Judicial System Instituted a jury system and the idea of “common law” Instituted a jury system and the idea of “common law”
King Henry II and St. Thomas a Becket – 1118 to 1170 AD “The holy blissful martyr” 1.Was a friend of King Henry II 2.Appointed Archbishop of Canterbury 3.King hoped for Thomas’ support against Pope 4.Henry II said in a fit of anger, “Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?” 5.Four knights murdered him in the cathedral in Canterbury 6.Led to pilgrimage
The Crusades: Richard I “The Lionheart” A.Began in 1096 AD (30 years after Norman Conquest) B.Christians fought against Muslims along the Mediterranean Sea and in North Africa C.Prize – Jerusalem and the Holy Land D.Europeans benefited from the contact with the higher civilizations of the Middle East. Exposure to mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and medicine
Richard I “The Lionheart” and The Crusades 1095 Pope Urban calls for a Crusade to rid the holy land (Jerusalem, modern- day Palestine) of Muslims 1095 Pope Urban calls for a Crusade to rid the holy land (Jerusalem, modern- day Palestine) of Muslims Richard I was one of the English kings who answered this call Richard I was one of the English kings who answered this call Interestingly, The Crusades increased English commerce around the world Interestingly, The Crusades increased English commerce around the world During his absence, his brother John controlled the kingdom. During his absence, his brother John controlled the kingdom. John was a treacherous and domineering king as we know from… John was a treacherous and domineering king as we know from…
King John & the Magna Carta 1.Signed by King John in Because of King John’s unpopularity and weakened treasury (due to the Crusades), John was forced to sign the Magna Carta 3.Written by aristocrats for aristocrats 4.The Magna Carta limited royal authority, gave power to the nobles, and set the stage for the development of democracy 5.King could not raise taxes without the consent of the barons 6.Laid the foundation for rights such as trial by jury and legislative taxation
King John & the Magna Carta 7. The Magna Carta also brought about the decline of Feudalism and the rise of a middle-class Mercantile economic system – a system that used money instead of land as the basis of wealth (this was also due to The Crusades).
The Hundred Years War (116 years): 1.First “national” war 2.England attacked France but were largely unsuccessful 3.Developed a British national consciousness 4.No longer chivalric knights in armor – instead green-clad yeoman with longbows and arrows
The Hundred Years War (116 years): 5. The yeoman or small landowner formed the nucleus of the English Army in France. He became the dominant force in the emerging, NON-FEUDAL England. 6. Long arrows could fly over castle walls and pierce a knight’s armor.
The Hundred Years War (116 years): 7. Gave confidence 8. Feudalism begins to die out in earnest. 9. Democratic principles begin to take hold.
Key Battles in The Hundred Years War Henry V’s victory at Agincourt was a key moment for the English side—memorialized in Shakespeare’s play Henry the Fifth Henry V’s victory at Agincourt was a key moment for the English side—memorialized in Shakespeare’s play Henry the Fifth Joan of Arc’s victory at Orleans broke the English’s success and began the ejection of the English from France Joan of Arc’s victory at Orleans broke the English’s success and began the ejection of the English from France
WAR OF THE ROSES AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 1453 to 1485 – King Henry VI Henry VI in 1453 suffers from extreme madness His cousin, Richard of York, was appointed acting king Henry recovers briefly, but Richard will not give up the throne
WAR OF THE ROSES AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND Richard III (House of York) – represented by the White Rose King Henry VII (House of Lancaster) – represented by the Red Rose
WAR OF THE ROSES AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND 2. In 1485, Henry Tudor kills Richard III at The Battle of Bosworth Field and takes the throne as Henry VII. The House of Tudor becomes a powerful new royal line The Battle of Bosworth Field is one of the historical markers that ends the Medieval Period This war ends for two reasons: 1.In 1485, Henry Tudor (Lancaster), marries the niece of Richard III (York) and unites the two houses.
Famous Tudor Monarchs Henry VIII Bloody Mary Elizabeth I
The Black Death ( ) 1.Bubonic plague 2.Early 1320s first outbreak in China 3.Spread to Europe on trading ships by rats with fleas. 4.Fleas carried the disease.
The Black Death ( ) 5. During winter when fleas were dormant the plague disappeared, but reappeared in the spring when the fleas became active 6. Killed 25 million people, approximately one-third the population of Europe
Peasant’s Revolt of Only major social rebellion of medieval England 2.Reduced population from plague left laborers scarce 1.Serfs revolted against taxes and the restraints of serfdom 2.Spurred the dissolution of feudalism
Gothic Architecture 1.Popular from AD 2.Prominent Features: - Stained glass - External archways - Rib vaulting -Flying buttresses 3. Enables them to create the first cathedral ceilings 4. Notre Dame de Paris (1163) Gargoyle statues 5. Westminster Abbey (1245) London
LITERATURE Average person could not read Plays became popular. Acted out in town squares Mystery Plays (or Miracle Plays) had a common theme of Christianity and retold the lives of the saints, Bible stories, or moral allegories
LITERATURE Geoffrey Chaucer 1.Author of The Canterbury Tales 2. Describes a pilgrimage to Canterbury 3. Uses the frame story technique that was popular at that time
Many wide sweeping changes during the Medieval Period: Beginning (1066) 1.ECONOMIC: Feudal Estates 1.CULTURAL: Rural agricultural lifestyle; role of women limited 2.LANGUAGE: Latin – only written language 3.RELIGION: Christian unity 4.GEOGRAPHICAL: Limited geographical knowledge; limited travel End (1485) 1.ECONOMIC: More independent businesses 1.CULTURAL: Cities, commercial centers, trade routes; women idealized 2.LANGUAGE: Literature written in many languages – including Middle English 3.RELIGION: Diversity as the Reformation approaches 4.GEOGRAPHICAL: Discoveries of vast new worlds, more travel
Medieval Period ends in Why? FIRST: Henry VIII’s victory over Richard III at The Battle of Bosworth Field ushers in a Tudor Dynasty that reigns for over 115 years and sees such well known leaders as Henry VIII and Elizabeth I on the throne of England.
Medieval Period ends in Why? SECOND: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press in Germany in 1476
Medieval Period ends in Why? SECOND: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press in Germany in 1476 THIRD: William Caxton travels to Germany, sees it, and sets up the first printing press in London in 1485
Medieval Period ends in Why? Le Morte d’Arthur by Sir Thomas Mallory is one of the first books ever to appear in print THIS DRAMATICALLY CHANGED SOCEITY!!! Books no longer had to be hand-copied and were more widely available and less expensive. People learned to read. Knowledge is power.