Presentation on theme: "Medieval Period 1066-1485 1066 AD – The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings 1485 AD – The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the."— Presentation transcript:
1Medieval Period1066 AD –The death of Edward the Confessor and The Battle of Hastings1485 AD –The Battle of Bosworth Field, The End of the War of the Roses,and the Rise of the Tudors Dynasty
2Historical Events that Started and Ended this Period 1066 A.D. –Norman conquest of England; Battle of Hastings; William the Conqueror defeats, Harold, the last Anglo-Saxon king1485 A.D. –Invention of printing press by Johannes Gutenberg; in 1485 William Caxton sets up the first one in England; Battle of Bosworth Field
3Introduction to Medieval Period Dark Ages: Barbarian Germanic tribes move across Europe. Generally rough, crude, illiterate, new Christians.
4England’s Invaders:Prior to 1100 AD:England is invaded often by tribes from many different parts of Europe.Normans – 1. Descendants of a Germanic tribe2. Loyal to the French King3. Very powerful, French King madetheir ruler a Duke
5England’s Invaders: 1066AD King Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon king, dies without an heirKing Edward’s witan demanded that his distant relative Harold be given the throneThe Norman Duke, William, a relative of Edward, also claims the throneWilliam is triumphant at The Battle of Hastings.He is crowned the king of England on Christmas Day, 1066.6. He will go down in history as William the Conqueror
6England’s Invaders: William The Conqueror (1066-1087) His most significant introduction into English society was the concept of FEUDALISM.A political economic system in which the hierarchy of power was based on the premise that the king owned all the land in the kingdom. Essentially he claims that all English soil belongs to him.3. Keeping a fourth for himself, granting a fourth to the church, he then parcels out the rest of English land to his men in exchange for their loyalty4. With the birth of Feudalism many people became serfs - - the permanent servants to the Norman Lords5. In 1086, he compiles The Doomsday Book, a record of all property. (Think of the census and IRS, all rolled into one.)
7The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: William the Conqueror used superior military might and ORGANIZATION to defeat King Harold and the Anglo-SaxonsThe Normans did not want to eradicate the Anglo-Saxon culture - - they wanted to RULE the people, not destroy themNormans’ strengths - - administrative ability, emphasis on law & order, democratic and artistic tendenciesThe Normans brought England into mainstream of Europe - - Eastern Europe: the Netherlands, western France, Austria are more civilized
8KNIGHTS KNIGHTS KNIGHTS The Results of the Norman Invasion for England:The Feudal caste, property, and military systemKINGLORD LORD LORDKNIGHTS KNIGHTS KNIGHTSSQUIRE SQUIRE SQUIREYEOMAN YEOMAN YEOMANSERFS SERFS SERFS
9The Results of the Norman Invasion for England: The Feudal System Developed in Two Ways -Landowners wanted protectionA. Paid a portion of the yield from their lands (King and his Lords wanted to be paid what they felt was their due.)B. Provided soldiers from their familiesC. Performed whatever other duties and homage were required2. Conquering princes and warlords – would reward valued allies with grants of land. The land still technically belonged to the king or prince, but they administered it. However, the king could revoke these rewards at any time.3. Serfs – were not really slaves. Bottom of the feudal social order though. Not truly free: bound to the land they worked on. Owed service to the master of the land and were passed along from owner to owner.
10The Medieval Church Clergy were important and powerful Church owned and controlled a fourth of the land in EnglandChurch had its own legal systemChurch had its own tax systemChurch leaders could speak with the religious leaders in other countries WITHOUT the permission of the King (No one else could do that!!!)Church supervised education (Education meant POWER!!)
12Medieval LanguageThree languages spokenA. French by the Norman rulersB. Latin by the clergy and lawyersC. Anglo-Saxon (Old English) by the common people2. Middle EnglishA. Evolves over a period of 400 yearsB. Old English combines with the Norman FrenchC. Latin terms are added to the language of the common people
13Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Out of the feudal system during the Medieval Period grew a sense of form and manners :Chivalry – a system of ideals and behavior that governed knights and gentlemen. It also set the rules of warFrom the French word Chevalier (knight)
15Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Stations of a knight:PAGE SQUIRE KNIGHTKnights were required to –Defend his honor by honorable meansSet limits on the scope and nature of revenge that could be taken for real or fancied insultsFight fairly even with Moslems or non-ChristiansLove GodBe loyal to his King or princePractice Christian humility, kindness, and politeness to those of lower stationsBe generous with worldly goods and possessions
16Code of Knighthood and Chivalry: Stations of a knight:PAGE SQUIRE KNIGHTIf a knight failed to uphold these high principles he must do penance which might be participating in a Crusade or performing some religious dutySome of these ideals are the same heroic qualities that the Anglo-Saxons admired in Beowulf. Some are different. Anglo-Saxons lived in a more brutal society than the upper classes during the Middle Ages.
17Courtly LoveBy revering and acting in the name of a lady, a knight would become better and braverAdded to the Chivalric Code in the later Middle AgesEach knight devoted himself to a lady of the court (liege lady)Source – the religious cult of the Virgin Mary, a non-sexual devotionRarely the knight’s wife, but rather a lady of a higher station who the knight could never hope to marryOften the knight would only ever see his liege lady from a distance
18How might a knight demonstrate Courtly Love? Wear his lady’s colors into battleGlorify her in wordsBe inspired by herRevere her on a pedestal (like the Virgin Mary)
19Courtly LoveChivalry and Courtly Love were only practiced by the upper classes – NOT the common peopleContributions of Chivalry and Courtly Love:An improved and even idealized attitude toward womenThe birth of the form of literature known as the “Romance”A civilizing influence in human behavior
20Henry II Important king and beginning of the Plantagenet Dynasty Reformed the Judicial SystemInstituted a jury system and the idea of “common law”
21King Henry II and St. Thomas a Becket – 1118 to 1170 AD “The holy blissful martyr”Was a friend of King Henry IIAppointed Archbishop of CanterburyKing hoped for Thomas’ support against PopeHenry II said in a fit of anger, “Will no one rid me of this meddlesome priest?”Four knights murdered him in the cathedral in CanterburyLed to pilgrimage
22The Crusades: Richard I “The Lionheart” Began in 1096 AD (30 years after Norman Conquest)Christians fought against Muslims along the Mediterranean Sea and in North AfricaPrize – Jerusalem and the Holy LandEuropeans benefited from the contact with the higher civilizations of the Middle East. Exposure to mathematics, astronomy, architecture, and medicine
23Richard I “The Lionheart” and The Crusades 1095 Pope Urban calls for a Crusade to rid the holy land (Jerusalem, modern-day Palestine) of MuslimsRichard I was one of the English kings who answered this callInterestingly, The Crusades increased English commerce around the worldDuring his absence, his brother John controlled the kingdom.John was a treacherous and domineering king as we know from…
25King John & the Magna Carta Signed by King John in 1215Because of King John’s unpopularity and weakened treasury (due to the Crusades), John was forced to sign the Magna CartaWritten by aristocrats for aristocratsThe Magna Carta limited royal authority, gave power to the nobles, and set the stage for the development of democracyKing could not raise taxes without the consent of the baronsLaid the foundation for rights such as trial by jury and legislative taxation
26King John & the Magna Carta 7. The Magna Carta also brought about the decline of Feudalism and the rise of a middle-class Mercantile economic system – a system that used money instead of land as the basis of wealth (this was also due to The Crusades).
27England attacked France but were largely unsuccessful The Hundred Years War(116 years):First “national” warEngland attacked France but were largely unsuccessfulDeveloped a British national consciousnessNo longer chivalric knights in armor – instead green-clad yeoman with longbows and arrows
28The Hundred Years War(116 years):5. The yeoman or small landowner formed the nucleus of the English Army in France. He became the dominant force in the emerging, NON-FEUDAL England.6. Long arrows could fly over castle walls and pierce a knight’s armor.
298. Feudalism begins to die out in earnest. The Hundred Years War(116 years):7. Gave confidence8. Feudalism begins to die out in earnest.9. Democratic principles begin to take hold.
30Key Battles in The Hundred Years War Henry V’s victory at Agincourt was a key moment for the English side—memorialized in Shakespeare’s play Henry the FifthJoan of Arc’s victory at Orleans broke the English’s success and began the ejection of the English from France
31AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND WAR OF THE ROSESAN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND1453 to 1485 – King Henry VIHenry VI in 1453 suffers from extreme madnessHis cousin, Richard of York, was appointed acting kingHenry recovers briefly, but Richard will not give up the throne
32AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND WAR OF THE ROSESAN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLANDRichard III (House of York) – represented by the White RoseKing Henry VII (House of Lancaster) – represented by the Red Rose
33AN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLAND WAR OF THE ROSESAN ENGLISH CIVIL WAR OVER THE THRONE OF ENGLANDThis war ends for two reasons:In 1485, Henry Tudor (Lancaster), marries the niece of Richard III (York) and unites the two houses.2. In 1485, Henry Tudor kills Richard III at The Battle of Bosworth Field and takes the throne as Henry VII.The House of Tudor becomes a powerful new royal lineThe Battle of Bosworth Field is one of the historical markers that ends the Medieval Period
34Famous Tudor MonarchsHenry VIII Bloody Mary Elizabeth I
35The Black Death (1347-1352) Bubonic plague Early 1320s first outbreak in ChinaSpread to Europe on trading ships by rats with fleas.Fleas carried the disease.
36The Black Death ( )5. During winter when fleas were dormant the plague disappeared, but reappeared in the spring when the fleas became active6. Killed 25 million people, approximately one-third the population of Europe
37Peasant’s Revolt of 1381Only major social rebellion of medieval EnglandReduced population from plague left laborers scarceSerfs revolted against taxes and the restraints of serfdomSpurred the dissolution of feudalism
38Gothic Architecture Popular from 1100-1500 AD Prominent Features: - Stained glass- External archways- Rib vaulting-Flying buttresses3. Enables them to create the first cathedral ceilings4. Notre Dame de Paris (1163) Gargoyle statues5. Westminster Abbey (1245) London
39Plays became popular. Acted out in town squares LITERATUREAverage person could not readPlays became popular. Acted out in town squaresMystery Plays (or Miracle Plays) had a common theme of Christianity and retold the lives of the saints, Bible stories, or moral allegories
40LITERATURE Geoffrey Chaucer Author ofThe Canterbury Tales2. Describes a pilgrimage to Canterbury3. Uses the frame story technique that was popular at that time
41Many wide sweeping changes during the Medieval Period: Beginning (1066)ECONOMIC: Feudal EstatesCULTURAL: Rural agricultural lifestyle; role of women limitedLANGUAGE: Latin – only written languageRELIGION: Christian unityGEOGRAPHICAL: Limited geographical knowledge; limited travelEnd (1485)ECONOMIC: More independent businessesCULTURAL: Cities, commercial centers, trade routes; women idealizedLANGUAGE: Literature written in many languages – including Middle EnglishRELIGION: Diversity as the Reformation approachesGEOGRAPHICAL: Discoveries of vast new worlds, more travel
42Medieval Period ends in 1485. Why? FIRST: Henry VIII’s victory over Richard III at The Battle of Bosworth Field ushers in a Tudor Dynasty that reigns for over 115 years and sees such well known leaders as Henry VIII and Elizabeth I on the throne of England.
43Medieval Period ends in 1485. Why? SECOND: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press in Germany in 1476
44Medieval Period ends in 1485. Why? SECOND: Johannes Gutenberg invents the printing press in Germany in 1476THIRD: William Caxton travels to Germany, sees it, and sets up the first printing press in London in 1485
45Medieval Period ends in 1485. Why? Le Morte d’Arthur by Sir Thomas Mallory is one of the first books ever to appear in printTHIS DRAMATICALLY CHANGED SOCEITY!!! Books no longer had to be hand-copied and were more widely available and less expensive. People learned to read.Knowledge is power.