Presentation on theme: "From Julius to Nero. By the end of this lesson I will know the major differences between the Emperors of the Claudeo-Julian dynasty. By the end of."— Presentation transcript:
From Julius to Nero
By the end of this lesson I will know the major differences between the Emperors of the Claudeo-Julian dynasty. By the end of this lesson I will recognize the changes occurring within Rome under the various Claudeo-Julian Emperor’s. By the end of this lesson I will recognize trends in the hereditary succession of the Roman throne.
Mostly A – Nero Mostly B – Augustus Mostly C – Claudius Mostly D – Cleopatra
Hereditary succession Kind of…adoption…weird connections, but it is largely seen as a family business. A really unstable job…almost all of them were killed and almost always by those closest to them – a tradition began with Julius Caesar Emperor gained throne through power and force…why not be booted using the same tactics. There was no “impeaching” an emperor – only one way out! There was some good, some bad, some ugly….
The person responsible for moving Rome from Republic to Empire. Senate increasingly ineffective with infighting and indecision. Allied with Pompey and Crassus against the Roman Senate Secured Governorship of Gaul (Modern Day France and Belgium). Recruited and conquered Crassus dead – Caesar grows distant with Pompey Invades Rome with no army – destroys opposition Invites some of his enemies to join him in government…hmmm?
Continued fighting wars in the East Allowed foreigners to gain citizenship Like his army of Gauls Reformed Roman calendar Adopted his great nephew Augustus Took some power away from the Senate – they became more representative and increasingly under control of the Emperor
March 15 th, 44 B.C.E. Brutus and Longinus along with many other Senators attack Caesar in the theatre of Pompey Stab him to death Feared that the Senate was losing power – feared Caesar might just axe the whole thing… Worried about Caesar gaining any more power. Oh Crap! The act essentially guaranteed the ascension of Augustus – who fully aware of the Senate’s actions would disband them and send Mark Antony to hunt down Brutus and Longinus
Adopted by Julius Caesar several years before death. After Caesar’s death Augustus allied with Mark Antony – a strong military leader as well as Lepidus to form another triumvirate (the first one being Caesar, Pompey and Crassus This alliance effectively removed the Senate from power. Tensions rise and Octavian once again leads army against Antony (and now Cleopatra) at the battle of Actium Putting Egypt under Rome’s control
Augustan did not want to suffer the same fate as his Uncle… Told the Senate that someone else was welcome to take throne Only made Romans panic and they elected him eternal ruler – he always acted and suggested that he was ruling in obedience to the Senate - in fact he had absolute power. He effectively solidified what his Uncle had begun and moved Rome from a Republic to an Empire
Peace out of Chaos Fire fighters and Police officers “Pax Romana” Expansion continued into the Nile regions Praetorian Guard…not gonna make that mistake twice! Marble out of Brick Huge system of Roads Repaired and improved aqueducts (virtually no water in Rome at time) Temple of Augustus, Temple of Caesar and Baths of Agrippa
Tiberius Julius Caesar Augustus– just like in that video – is rarely even considered because everyone saw him as meek and non- threatening. He was married to Augustus daughter Julia but after she started trifling he left her – Augustus eventually found out and kicked her to the curb He was considered weak by many within the Roman elite including Augustus other possible heir Agrippa
But was he..? He was politically intelligent and made a lot of right decisions…but sometimes not fast enough He filled Rome’s treasury to the brim Militarily intelligent He became corrupt and involved in multiple scandals He relied heavily on Sejanus – the head of the Praetorian guard but eventually became suspicious and had him killed – and replaced him with Macro…who actually did kill Tiberius – awkward!
After Marco had killed Tiberius, Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) took the throne and was originally welcomed by the Roman people. By the time Caligula was twelve years old his mother had been exiled and his brothers executed for treason. After falling ill less than a year after he took power – Caligula went crazy…like really crazy
He began claiming to be a God – making senators kiss his sandals and seducing their wives and then bragging about it… He also went into the temple at Jerusalem and tried to erect a massive statue of himself He ordered his guards to throw an entire section of the crowd into arena to be killed because…there was no criminals to execute Made his horse Incintatus a high priest – because he was incapable of being a Consul – obviously! Accused of incest with his sisters. “no more chance of becoming emperor than of riding a horse across the Bay of Baiae”
Emptied Rome’s treasury within one year. As a result he began blackmailing whoever he could. Rome was plagued by riots and instability as a result of the poverty. Caligula launched attacks against Gaul and other parts of Roman empire to try to regain money. The leader of the Praetorian guard killed Caligula – and just to drive the point home – killed his wife and daughter as well.
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus – An ideal choice..? Maybe? Physically disfigured from an early illness he was considered unthreatening and weak – and easily controlled. A secret – safe – agenda! Worked hard behind the scenes Just after midnight
The provinces of Thrace, Noricum, Pamphylia, Lycia and Judea were annexed under his term. A feat unattained by all previous Emperors even though most tried! Reformed Judicial System Extended citizenship Increased women’s rights Apologized to those attending court when there were too few chairs. Big fan of games Not well liked by the Senate
Despite his successes – he had the WORST taste in women. Welcome to Emperor Matchmaker…our first contestant… Messalina – Messalina likes long walks on the beach and sleeping with all her servants behind her Emperor husbands back – she was eventually found dead to which her husband replied – more wine.
Agrippina – Agrippina likes candlelit dinners and apparently marrying her Uncle Claudius the Emperor in order to bring her own son to power. Skills include convincing the Emperor to disown his own son as well as a knowledge of poisonous mushrooms. A strong and determined catch she has on occasion convinced doctors to show poisoned feathers down throats to move the agenda along.
Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus Originally a bit of a Mama’s boy – although not forever. Much like Caligula, Nero had a strong start, especially compared the last years of Claudius’ reign. Lowered taxes More citizenship Increased independence of Senate
Stories about women, young boys, and street murder Mom, who tried to reign in her son, was attacked by order of Nero… But it failed…until Nero sent soldiers – no longer one for subtlety Nero – for reasons no one really knows – decided to play with fire… And sang “show tunes” while Rome burned After an attempt on his life he launched a campaign of terror through Empire. Nero had a pretty bad beef with the Jews and Christians – “the first persecutor”
With Nero gone the Augustan dynasty had ended and Rome was plunged into Civil War Vespian emerged a victor – and a new dynasty began in Rome…with the exact same bloody problems as before – pun intended. From Domitian to Titus the Empire continued to expand and contract with ever growing tension.
Empires continued to be killed, crazy and clever. Building projects continued to be erected including the Pantheon and the Coliseum – mainly for the increased persecution of Christians and Jews under the Nerva- Antonine, Severan and Constantinian Dynasty. But…the problems we see arise during the Claudeo-Julian dynasty are only made worse with time…