Presentation on theme: "Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy. 1560-1572 Introduction What Shaped Foreign Policy? MunitionsShipsManpower Resources Important questions: Did Elizabeth have."— Presentation transcript:
Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy
1560-1572 Introduction What Shaped Foreign Policy? MunitionsShipsManpower Resources Important questions: Did Elizabeth have a foreign policy? Was she reacting to safeguard England’s national interests?
England’s Traditional Alliances Spain (friend) France (foe) France’s geographical proximity made it the greatest threat. England & Spain allies despite their religious differences.
Antwerp 1. To secure trade access through Antwerp. 2. To secure England’s national interests against Spain, France a Spain, France and Scotland. But subject to change. Elizabeth had TWO major priorities. What Determines Foreign Policy? Personality of the Monarch Priorities of the Monarch
For the first 20 years it was linked to the question of m mm marriage & s ss succession. Relied on all for a aa advice. Cecil was the most influential. Facts on Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy Major Influences William Cecil Privy Council Leading Men Foreign Ambassadors
Limitations on Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy Couldn’t wage a prolonged war in Europe. The loss of Calais and England’s failure to conquer Scotland was proof of it’s inability to fight a prolonged war. England’s navy and militia’s role was primarily defensive. Smaller population. Less financial resources.
The Situation in 1558 Events at h hh home and a aa abroad determined and shaped Elizabeth’s foreign policy. Expectation for Elizabeth to right the wrongs of Mary’s reign. unify division To unify England after years of division. rebuildnavy To rebuild England’s run down navy. In England
European Opponents of Protestantism SpainPopeFrance In Europe Catholicism was a unifying force in Europe. Protestantism had ended that unity. All were committed to achieving a Counter-Reformation! Counter-Reformation!
Philip II rule was extensive. Spain As ‘ ‘‘ ‘Most Catholic King’ he saw himself as the P rotector of Catholicism. Spain had several advantages over England: THREEPOPULATION THREE times the POPULATION. GREAT WEALTHNEW WORLD GREAT WEALTH from the NEW WORLD. Spain had a fear of France. Alliance with England to neutralize French threat.
Elizabeth’s Greatest Fear Spain and France would unite against England. In the past she had been able to play one off against the other. In 1559 Spain, France and England signed the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. Spain and France were now friends and Elizabeth’s worst fears were realised.
The French Threat Alliance with Scotland Geographical Proximity Mary’s claim to English throne France England’s traditional enemy. FOURPOPULATION FOUR times the POPULATION. Rome support Mary Stuarts claim the throne.
Mary Stuart’s husband Francis II was a puppet King of Mary’s uncles the Guise brothers. They wanted…. Elizabeth’s Concern Mary GuiseScottish throne. Mary Guise restored to the Scottish throne. Mary StuartEnglish throne. Mary Stuart on the English throne. The Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis and papal support against Elizabeth made this threat a distinct possibility.
Scotland In 1558 was ruled by M MM Mary Guise on behalf of her daughter M MM Mary Stuart. Influence of French. Elizabeth’s Concern Geographical proximity made it a threat. Elizabeth welcomed and supported a rebellion led by Scottish Protestants against Mary of Guise.
The Main Features of Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy
Intervention in Scotland Elizabeth feared a F FF French and C CC Catholic crusade being launched from S SS Scotland and I II Ireland. Wanted to r rr reduce French influence. Treaty of Berwick 1560 Cecil threatens to resign if Elizabeth doesn’t intervene in Scotland. Elizabeth pledges support to Scottish nobles against the French.
French agree to w ww withdraw from Scotland. Treaty of Edinburgh 1560 New government formed under L LL Lord James Stuart. Result Cecil’s policies prove successful. Threat of France resolved without war. Elizabeth seen as P PP Protectress of Protestant rebels, a role that would upset Spain and France.
The War with Spain Elizabeth had successfully kept the peace with France but Spain was angered by the execution of Mary. Points of Conflict Colonialism and piracy England’s assistance to Netherlands, 1585 – 86.
The Naval War 1585 - 86 Phillip seizes English ships in Spanish ports Drake sacks Cape Verde Island, Sanio Domingo, Cartagenea Spanish shipping devastated, English supremacy at sea underlined.
The Spanish Armada 1587 - 88 Attempts at assassination had failed, the sea war had been lost, only a land war could succeed. Catholic countries supplied ships and troops Elizabeth became aware of Armada plans, sent Drake in. 1587 Drake attacked Spanish fleet at Cadiz – delayed the invasion for at least a year.
Effects of Defeat Counter Reformation impossible Anglican church secure No Catholic heir to throne Elizabeth's prestige increased English power and influence increase English nationalism advances Increased English colonialism at American colonies
IRELAND Although Ireland was one of her two kingdoms, Elizabeth faced a hostile— and in places virtually autonomous Catholic population that was willing to plot with her enemies. Policy grant land to her courtiers Prevent Spain a base scorched-earth tactics, burning the land and slaughtering man, woman and child. "that rude and barbarous nation” Tyrone's Rebellion, or the Nine Years War. Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, was backed by Spain. 1599, sent Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex made little progress and returned to England without permission. Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, three years to defeat the rebels. O'Neill finally surrendered in 1603, a few days after Elizabeth's death.
unimpressive Stephen Ellis (1985) The Tudor achievement in Ireland remains distinctly unimpressive. Concerns in Ireland did not receive the urgent attention which characterised Elizabeth’s dealings with mainstream issues. A drain on resources A volatile situation, clearly periods where English rule broke down. Considerations
Individual policies were workable but none were given time, effort or resources. unhappy relationship Inconsistently applied goals, and as a result Ireland simply entered another unhappy relationship with England. Results
Was Elizabeth’s Foreign Policy Successful?
Historians agree war with Spain inevitable. Not able to authorize full scale attack and preferred to send l ll limited aid through her allies. Considerations 1570s: aim was to avoid war with Spain but by the 1 11 1580s couldn’t. England a s ss second rate power went to war against E urope's strongest military power. War not a success because of its l ll length & c cc cost. Defeat of A AA Armada due to e ee external factors(Storm).
Could not have anticipated events of 1 11 1580s. Defending Elizabeth Portugal Philip’s acquisition of Portugal. Henry III Murder of Henry III. William of Orange Assassination of William of Orange. Henry V! Accession of Henry V! to throne of France. Concerned that defeat of Spain would open the way for F FF French expansionism. Elizabeth wanted to maintain the b bb balance of power between Spain and France. Elizabeth’s foreign policy deemed a s ss success!.