Presentation on theme: "Aim: How did the Glorious Revolution transform England into a constitutional monarchy? James II (1685-1688) – Charles II’s brother – Catholic! Reactions."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: How did the Glorious Revolution transform England into a constitutional monarchy? James II (1685-1688) – Charles II’s brother – Catholic! Reactions – Tories (Control most of the House of Lords, over half of the House of Commons): Wanted to let James take the throne – Whigs (Minority in the Commons): Believes James has no right to take the throne under the Test Act. – Tories win!
Reign of James II / Glorious Revolution James II antagonizes his subjects with absolutist / pro-Catholic policies. 1688: James II’s young wife gives birth to a son. Parliament offers the throne to James’ Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange. Leads to the Glorious Revolution (1688).
Rise of the English Constitutional Monarchy In 1689, William and Mary accept the English throne directly from Parliament (what does this represent?). English Bill of Rights (1689): Response to Stuart absolutism, foundation of the Constitutional monarchy (see separate sheet). Rise of the English Cabinet (18 th century): One party (Torries, Whigs) will have a majority in Parliament. They will choose cabinet officers to serve as chief ministers to the King. A Prime Minister is selected to lead the Cabinet. The Cabinet directs the programs and policies of Parliament. When a new political party gains power, they can select new cabinet officials and a new Prime Minister.
Political Philosophy in England In the 17 th century, the French political system is dominated by absolutism, but there are divergent views in England. – Absolutism / Divine Right (Stuarts) – Thomas Hobbes (An absolutist who does not believe in divine right) – John Locke (represents Constitutional monarchy / limited government based on the consent of the governed)
Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) Mankind begins in a state of nature ( life is “nasty, brutish and short.”) Men must enter a social contract in which all members of society place themselves under the absolute rule of a monarch. People give up freedom to ensure order and stability. The absolute ruler has total power, but he receives this power from the people (NOT God). People have no right to rebel against this government.
John Locke (Second Treatise of Civil Government) Man is an inherently good creature driven by reason. Because the state of nature is disorderly, man establishes governments to preserve the “natural rights” of life, liberty and property. – How is Locke’s purpose for government different from Hobbes? – What should happen if a government becomes tyrannical and violates these natural rights? – Why is Locke significant in American history?