Presentation on theme: "By Yvette Duenas, Sweta Zaveri, and Daniel Narvaez of Mrs. Demangos 4 th Period Class."— Presentation transcript:
By Yvette Duenas, Sweta Zaveri, and Daniel Narvaez of Mrs. Demangos 4 th Period Class
Background information before the Invasion In January of 1066, King Edward of England died which lead to a dispute over the succession of his throne. The leading contender was Harold Godwinson, the second most powerful man in England and brother-in-law of Edward. He quickly seized the crown but was shortly threatened by other rivals who also made claims to the crown. The first rival who desired to rule was his exiled brother Tostig Godwinson. He raided Lincolnshire and East Anglia, two Northern England regions until he was confronted by Earl brothers Edwin of Mercia and Morcar of Northumbria in the beginning of 1066. The second rival was Harald Hardrada, King of Norway, who initially crushed the English army under Edwin and Morcar, but was eventually defeated by Harold at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in September of 1066. This English victory was costly as it weakened Harold’s army.
Why exactly did the whole conflict start in the first place? As explained earlier, the reasons for the Normans’ and particularly William’s (II Duke of Normandy) desires for the English throne were because they were tied by bloodline and it seemed like a suitable piece of land. He swore that they were promised to reign since there was no clear heir to the throne.
More background events leading up to the Invasion His third rival was William, Duke of Normandy who justified his claim to the throne through his distant blood relation with Edward. William also claimed that Edward himself had designated him as the next successor. He quickly got support from Pope Alexander II and began to plan his invasion on England. This would come to be known as the Norman Invasion of 1066.
Who was involved? The English under King Harold Godwinson were too defend their homeland against any invaders that were trying to usurp the throne. The Normans under William II Duke of Normandy who believed they had the right to rule England because of Family relations. Tostig Godwinson and King Harald Hadrada of Norway influenced the results.
Precisely when and where did it occur? It occurred throughout the year 1066 and it’s effects were felt throughout 1074. The fighting took place in several areas of England including more importantly, Hastings, Berkhamsted, and London.
What happened when the Normans landed? William assembled his army, composed of cavalry and infantry, in Pevensey, located on the Sothern English shore. He then ordered his army to pillage and burn nearby towns in order to force Harold to retaliate and defend his people. Just shortly after having defeated the Norwegians, Harold marched half of his troops, south to deal with the Normans.
The Battle of Hastings The battle began on October 14, 1066. The English, composed mainly of foot soldiers and archers, met the Normans and were forced to fight a defensive battle. They formed a defensive shield wall in attempt to block Norman efforts to attack. This proved to be successful until some of William’s army fled followed by some of Harold’s army in pursuit. This broke up the English wall allowing the Normans to effectively damage the English army. The battle finally culminated with the death of Harold resulting in the Norman victory over the English.
More events after the attack After the Battle of Hastings with the Leader of England killed, William continued up the island. He was met by a few forces in small skirmishes and easily continued. The rest of England began to crumble at their ineffective attempts to stop the invaders. They soon gave in and William was crowned King on December 25th of December. He successfully conquered England.
What was the aftermath of the Conquest? After William was crowned on Christmas day by Archbishop Ealdred, he sought to preserve the powerful administration held by the previous Anglo-Saxon regimes. However, he also brought change through his new and strengthened aristocracy, built upon the French ruling class, as well as his efforts to reform the church. Furthermore, William brought on a transformation of the English language and the overall culture of England. French (the Norman dialect of Old French) became the language of the royal courts and government. French words and names were introduced into Old English, developing into “Middle English”. Language of the Church in England was changed from Old English (Anglo-Saxon) to Latin.
More results of the William’s Rule King William I took away land from English aristocrats and handed it to his Norman followers which led to a large emigration of English nobility to Ireland, Scotland, and Scandinavia. The Bayeux Tapestry and Domesday Book were created following the Conquest. The Bayeux Tapestry was an Embroidered cloth measuring 70 meters long, which depicted the events leading up to William the Conqueror’s victory and the Battle of Hastings itself. It is believed to be commissioned by Bishop Odo (William’s half-brother), in order to win favor with William. The Domesday Manuscript was a tax record book and survey of the majority of land in England, completed in 1086.
Works Cited Page http://www.britannia.com/history/hastings.html Ibeji, Mike. BBC News. 17 Feb. 2011. BBC. 02 Nov. 2013 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/1066_01.shtml> https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Norman_conquest_of_England.h tml "Invasion of England, 1066." Invasion of England, 1066. 02 Nov. 2013 http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/bayeux.htm> "Norman conquest of England." Norman Conquest of England. 02 Nov. 2013 http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/normans/background_01.shtml Huscroft, Richard (2009). The Norman Conquest: A New Introduction. New York: Longman, 2009. Print. Huscroft, Richard (2005). Ruling England 1042–1217. London: Pearson/Longman, 2005. Print. Thomas, Hugh M. (2003). The English and the Normans. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. Print. http://www.essentialnormanconquest.com/