First inhabitants of the island small bands of hunters Stone Age: immigrants 4,000 BC Extract chalk Build the mysterious stone circles at Stonehenge and Avebury. Bronze Age: Celts 800 BC metal works
The Romans Julius Caesar came in 43 AD it took him 7 years to control most of England The northern tribes were aggressive, so he had to build the Hadrian's Wall to isolate them The Romans brought stability, paved roads and Christianity Queen Boudicca fought the Romans (destroyed the 9 th Legion, burned the capital), but the Romans were never completely defeated. The Romans left around 410 AD as their empire declined.
Other invaders Tribes Angles, Jutes and Saxons Angles : the name England originates from this tribe. Jutes are possibly from the Jutland peninsula (ships). Anglo-Saxon dialects = Old English language. About one third of Anglo-Saxon vocabulary survived into modern English, including many most basic and daily words. 7th century: Anglo-Saxon kings organize fortresses and begin to think of themselves as English. 9th century: Vikings had invaded northern parts and Danes invade the eastern England. a process of assimilation
The Normans (French) William of Normandy (William the Conqueror), who arrived in 1066 with a force of 12,000 men. After the Battle of Hastings, he replaced English aristocrats with French-speaking Normans. For the next 200 years, the language of nobility was French. The Normans built impressive castles, imposed taxes, counted the population A constant process of assimilation
Next… The next centuries saw a series of royal fights, political intrigues, plagues, unrest and revolt. The Hundred Years War with France: (1337- 1453) House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet fought for the French throne. Valois claimed the title of King of France Plantagenet claimed the thrones of both France and England (they were already kings in England, even if they came from Normandy). Valois won, so Plantagenet kept the throne of England.
The War of Roses The War of the Roses: between the House of York (white rose) and the House of Lancaster (red rose) for the throne of England. Lancaster won: Dynasty of Tudors. 16th century, King Henry VIII handsome, clever loved sports, music and dancing very popular with his people Wife (1): Catherine of Aragon (Spain) Daughter (1): Mary
Marriage problems: religious and political solutions Main problem: no son to inherit the throne Religion in Britain: Catholic (7th-16th century) Life expectancy: 50 years (short), people are worried about their life after death (they give 10% to the Church) Church = more powerful than the king Henry wants to get a divorce Only the Pope can approve Pope says no, Henry decides to break free from Catholicism and creates a new religion (Church of England, Protestant+Catholic, controlled by the king) The Bible is translated into English. Henry receives the money donated to church (he is very rich and powerful) The relationship between Church and State became difficult.
Marriage problems Wife (2): Anne Boleyn (English) Daugther (2): Elizabeth Wife (3): Jane Seymour Son (1): Edward Wife (4): Anne de Cleves (Germany) Wife (5): Catherine Howard Wife (6): Catherine Parr 4 5 6 2 3
Succession to the throne: King Edward VI (1537 – 1553) Queen Mary I (1516 – 1558) Queen Elizabeth I (1533 – 1603)
Accomplishments PEACE in the kingdom (more than 50 years) INDEPENDENCE (Spain, France) FREEDOM to choose a religion Discovery of NEW LANDS (America) + the beginning of the English Empire Period of GREAT DEVELOPMENT of arts, sciences, etc. SHAKESPEARE – perfection of English language