Presentation on theme: "The Stuarts Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” Year 2013/2014 Melanie Bertossi 4ALS."— Presentation transcript:
The Stuarts Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” Year 2013/2014 Melanie Bertossi 4ALS
Table of contents Introduction The Stuarts Dynasty Family Tree James I Charles I Interregnum: Oliver Cromwell Charles II James II William III and Mary II Queen Anne
Introduction The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. They reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 till 1714. They faced a period of intense religious debates, radical politics, civil wars and instabilities.
Brief summary Brief summary of the history of Britain in the time of the Stuarts (1603-1714) Ruling Family/SystemKing/Queen/RulerDates HOUSE OF STUARTJames I1603-1625 Charles I1625-1649 COMMONWEALTH AND PROTECTORATE Council of State1649-1653 Oliver Cromwell1653-1658 Richard Cromwell1658-1659 HOUSE OF STUART (RESTORED) Charles II1660-1685 James II1685-1688 William III and Mary II1689-1694 William III1694-1702 Anne1702-1714
James I (r. 1603-1625) Son of Mary Stuart Queen of Scots He succeeded to the throne in 1603 (when Elizabeth I died) reunited the countries He reunited the countries of England and Scotland under one monarch; Divine Right of Kings Forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own (Protestantism and Divine Right of Kings); Made Sunday Church-going compulsory; Refused church reform to the Puritans; King James Bible Authorised the use of the King James Bible; Led to a power struggle between the King and the Parliament by taking decisions all on his own; He wasn’t able to solve England’s financial or political problems, so when he died in 1625 he left the country in very poor conditions.
Charles I (r. 1625-1649) Son of James I He succeeded to the throne in 1625 (when his father James I died) warSpain and France He embarked on a war with Spain and France; Petition of Right 1628 Wanted to rule without the advice or consent of the Parliament In response a Parliament member presented the Petition of Right (1628); DissolvedParliament in 1629 Dissolved the Parliament in 1629; Tried to convert all Scottish Puritans to Protestantism; Attempt to purge Puritan excesses from the Church of England Attempt to purge Puritan excesses from the Church of England Two Bishop Wars (1639-1640) Two Bishop Wars (1639-1640) Recall of the Parliament Recall of the Parliament His style of rule lead the country to Civil War and to his execution in 1649
Oliver Cromwell (r. 1653-1658) Also known as the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth without a monarchy He tried to redefine and establish a workable constitution without a monarchy; Drogheda1949 Took revenge for the massacre of English Protestants (1641) by laying a siege to the town of Drogheda in 1949 and killing most of its inhabitants; colonies He established colonies in Jamaica and the West Indies; 1653Parliamentdissolved Lord Protector In 1653 the Parliament was dissolved, and under the Instrument of Government, Oliver became Lord Protector, later refusing the offer of the throne though; Richard Protectorate (1658-1659), After Cromwell’s death in 1658, and the failure of his son Richard’s short-lived Protectorate (1658-1659), the army under General Monk invited Charles II (Charles I’s son) to become King.
Charles II (r. 1660- 1685) He is also known as the “Merry Monarch” because he loved parties, music and the theatre; Restoration In 1660 he was invited, by the Parliament, to return to England as King Charles II. This event is better known as the Restoration. abolishedlaws He abolished all Cromwell’s laws that forbade music and dancing; marry Catherine of Braganza Since he was always spending money, he was forced to marry Portuguese Catherine of Braganza who would’ve brought a large entry to the country; Even after the marriage, Charles II still had financial problems Alliance between England and France War with the Dutch and acquisition of New Amsterdam for England Charles died in 1685
James II (r. 1685-1688) He succeeded his brother Charles to the throne in 1658 Monmouth rebellion 1685 After the Monmouth rebellion (1685), James increased the standing army and the appointment of loyal and experienced Roman Catholic officers; Attempt to give civic equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissenters Conflict with the Parliament, which was prorogued in 1685 promoteRoman Catholic cause He attempted to promote the Roman Catholic cause by dismissing judges and Lord Lieutenants; 1687Declaration of Indulgence In 1687 he issued the Declaration of Indulgence aiming at religious toleration; 1690Battle of the Boyne In 1690, James II was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne and forced to spend the rest of his life in exile in France, dying there in 1701.
William III (r. 1689-1702) and Mary II (r. 1689-1694) Following the Glorious Revolution, William II and Mary II (daughter of James II) were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England. Declaration of Rights They accepted a Declaration of Rights (also known as the Bill of Rights), drawn by a Convention of Parliament (it prevented Catholics succeeding to the throne, and insured Anne would’ve become the next queen); William’s Burg College of William and Mary 1693 William’s Burg and the College of William and Mary in Virginia were named after the king and queen in 1693; Ministry in 1696 William appointed a Ministry in 1696 and it was regarded with suspicion as it met separately; Bank of England 1694 The Bank of England was founded in 1694 to control public expenditure; Mary died 1694 Mary died in 1694 with no surviving children ; allianceEnglandHolland Austria William formed an alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the French and Spanish Crowns (War of Spanish succession); William died 1702 William died in 1702
Anne (r. 1702-1714) She was the sister of Mary II and was married to Prince George of Denmark committed Protestant She was a committed Protestant and supported the Glorious Revolution; 1707Act of Union In 1707 the Act of Union formally united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland; 1713Treaty of Utrecht In 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht, France recognized Anne’s title and England’s possession of Gibraltar; Party politics Whigs and Tories Party politics became more important: Whigs and Tories; She was the last Stuart Monarch as none of her eighteen children survived beyond infancy. Anne died in 1714.
And lastly, again the Stuart family tree and their portraits