2Table of contents Introduction The Stuarts Dynasty Family Tree James I Charles IInterregnum: Oliver CromwellCharles IIJames IIWilliam III and Mary IIQueen Anne
3Introduction The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom. They reigned in England and Scotland from till 1714.They faced a period of intense religious debates, radical politics, civil wars and instabilities.
4Brief summary of the history of Britain in the time of the Stuarts (1603-1714) Ruling Family/SystemKing/Queen/RulerDatesHOUSE OF STUARTJames ICharles ICOMMONWEALTH AND PROTECTORATECouncil of StateOliver CromwellRichard CromwellHOUSE OF STUART (RESTORED)Charles IIJames IIWilliam III and Mary IIWilliam IIIAnne
6James I (r )Son of Mary Stuart Queen of ScotsHe succeeded to the throne in 1603 (when Elizabeth I died)He reunited the countries of England and Scotland under one monarch;Forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own (Protestantism and Divine Right of Kings);Made Sunday Church-going compulsory;Refused church reform to the Puritans;Authorised the use of the King James Bible;Led to a power struggle between the King and the Parliament by taking decisions all on his own;He wasn’t able to solve England’s financial or political problems, so when he died in 1625 he left the country in very poor conditions.
7He succeeded to the throne in 1625 (when his father James I died) Charles I (r )Son of James IHe succeeded to the throne in 1625 (when his father James I died)He embarked on a war with Spain and France;Wanted to rule without the advice or consent of the Parliament In response a Parliament member presented the Petition of Right (1628);Dissolved the Parliament in 1629;Tried to convert all Scottish Puritans to Protestantism;Attempt topurge Puritanexcesses fromthe Church ofEnglandTwo BishopWars( )Recall of theParliamentHis style of rule lead the country to Civil War and to his execution in 1649
8Also known as the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth Oliver Cromwell (r )Also known as the Lord Protector of the CommonwealthHe tried to redefine and establish a workable constitution without a monarchy;Took revenge for the massacre of English Protestants (1641) by laying a siege to the town of Drogheda in 1949 and killing most of its inhabitants;He established colonies in Jamaica and the West Indies;In 1653 the Parliament was dissolved, and under the Instrument of Government, Oliver became Lord Protector, later refusing the offer of the throne though;After Cromwell’s death in 1658, and the failure of his son Richard’s short- lived Protectorate ( ), the army under General Monk invited Charles II (Charles I’s son) to become King.
9Charles II (r )He is also known as the “Merry Monarch” becausehe loved parties, music and the theatre;In 1660 he was invited, by the Parliament, to return to England as King Charles II. This event is better known as the Restoration.He abolished all Cromwell’s laws that forbade music and dancing;Since he was always spending money, he was forced to marry Portuguese Catherine of Braganza who would’ve brought a large entry to the country;Even after the marriage, Charles II still had financial problemsAlliance between England and FranceWar with the Dutch and acquisition of New Amsterdam for EnglandCharles died in 1685
10James II (r )He succeeded his brother Charles to the throne in 1658After the Monmouth rebellion (1685), James increased the standing army and the appointment of loyal and experienced Roman Catholic officers;Attempt to give civic equality to Roman Catholic and Protestant dissentersConflict with the Parliament, which was prorogued in 1685He attempted to promote the Roman Catholic cause by dismissing judges and Lord Lieutenants;In 1687 he issued the Declaration of Indulgence aiming at religious toleration;In 1690, James II was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne and forced to spend the rest of his life in exile in France, dying there in 1701.
11William III (r. 1689-1702) and Mary II (r. 1689-1694) Following the Glorious Revolution, William II and Mary II (daughter of James II) were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England.They accepted a Declaration of Rights (also known as the Bill of Rights), drawn by a Convention of Parliament (it prevented Catholics succeeding to the throne, and insured Anne would’ve become the next queen);William’s Burg and the College of William and Mary in Virginia were named after the king and queen in 1693;William appointed a Ministry in 1696 and it was regarded with suspicion as it met separately;The Bank of England was founded in 1694 to control public expenditure;Mary died in 1694 with no surviving children ;William formed an alliance between England, Holland and Austria to prevent the union of the French and Spanish Crowns (War of Spanish succession);William died in 1702
12Anne (r )She was the sister of Mary II and was married to Prince George of DenmarkShe was a committed Protestant and supported the Glorious Revolution;In 1707 the Act of Union formally united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland;In 1713 with the Treaty of Utrecht, France recognized Anne’s title and England’s possession of Gibraltar;Party politics became more important: Whigs and Tories;She was the last Stuart Monarch as none of her eighteen children survived beyond infancy. Anne died in 1714.
13And lastly, again the Stuart family tree and their portraits