Presentation on theme: "Restoration (1660-1800) The restoration of the Stuarts and the Bloodless Revolution that led to the German dynasty of the Hanovers (still ruling England)"— Presentation transcript:
Restoration (1660-1800) The restoration of the Stuarts and the Bloodless Revolution that led to the German dynasty of the Hanovers (still ruling England)
Beginning of an Era In 1660, England was utterly exhausted from nearly 20 years of civil war. By 1700, it had lived through a devastating plague and a fire that left more than two thirds of Londoners homeless. What is restored during the Restoration? The Monarchy - Peace. When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658, Parliament contracted Charles II, who was in exile, and sent him ships to return to England. The common people welcome the return of the Stuarts in the form of Charles II. When Charles II died, his brother James II (Roman Catholic) became King. Fearing Catholic rule, his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange, attacked England and forced James to flee. Parliament invited William and Mary to assume the throne. There was no blood shed (known as The Bloodless Revolution).
Abdication or Coup? December 1688: William of Orange arrived in England with a large force James fled for France, in fear of his life (Remember, James had been a young man of 16 when his father was executed; like his brother, he spent most of his early life facing danger and possible death). Parliament saw this as an abdication, and named William and Mary joint rulers. James never accepted defeat, and claimed the throne for the rest of his life, as did his son, “The Old Pretender”, and his grandson, the “The Young Pretender,” or Bonnie Prince Charlie as he’s often called in literature.
Bloodless Revolution Technically the second civil war in England. Although it’s called bloodless, James continued to attempt to regain the throne until the decisive Battle of the Boyne in Ireland, July 1690. Blood was spilt, but very little for such a large overthrow of a king.
England’s Only Co-regnants Mary II and William III Mary is the daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. William is the son of King Charles II and King James’s sister Mary and her husband Willem II, prince of Orange-Nassau Signed into law that no Catholic could ever rule England again (eventually leading to the throne going to Mary’s distant cousins in Germany Mary died (childless) 1694 & William died 1702
The Last Stuart Monarch Anne, younger daughter of James II and Lady Anne Hyde, Duchess of York. Died childless in 1714 Passed the throne on to her cousin George in the House of Orange from Hanover; he was the great-grandson of James I and Anne’s closest living protestant relative..
Final Uprising Jacobites were supporters of James the II and III Many Scottish people never accepted the House of Orange, and were persecuted because of it until a final revolt in 1745, which the English finally crushed for once and for all.
What Else Was Restored? Age of Reason and Enlightenment. People stopped asking “why” things happen and started asking “how?” What will this lead to? Science, math, etc. Haley figured out the time it took a comet to orbit – 76 years. Sir Isaac Newton discovered the concept of universal gravitation and motion.
What Does This Lead To? Things can be figured out!! Not everything is mysterious. Foreboding events are now explained. Deism was a spiritual belief based on reason and the observation of nature. God creates the world, starts it, then leaves it to itself. What does this do to people? Greater freedom, less conscience. Though many still remained devout Christians.
So What? Theaters reopened – plays became vulgar and bawdy female actresses allowed play topics – sexual relations between men and women, adultery, etc. Fashion became very important – incredibly ornate makeup, clothing, and accessories for both men and women!! Indulging in food and drink and excess living became very popular!!!
Restoration Literature Writing – all this gave great fodder for writers of this time: Elegies – saying the best things about a dead person at their funeral Ode - a poetic speech or poem expressing a public emotion The first English novels were written at the end of the 18 th century. Satire – saying the worst things about someone or something in a witty, indirect way in order to bring about change. Jonathan Swift – Gulliver’s Travels and A Modest Proposal. He was disgusted with the moral corruption. Alexander Pope – “The Rape of the Lock.” He condemned the excess attitude of the time.
What is Satire? The point was to make the reader feel critical of themselves and society. Provides laughter and bitterness. Devices used in satire: Exaggeration – Speaking in absolutes. “All are bad” “All are corrupt” Extremes. Understatement – a matter of fact tone about something horrific or extreme Irony – Can overlap understatement saying one thing and meaning another