Presentation on theme: "A general overview so you can better understand Sir Gawain and Chaucer."— Presentation transcript:
A general overview so you can better understand Sir Gawain and Chaucer
55 BCE: Julius Caesar invades Britain By 77 AD Roman conquest of Britain is complete 122 AD – in response to raids from the north, Emperor Hadrian builds a wall across northern England The beginning
From A.D. Roman Empire Raiders from the north – Goths, Visigoths, and Vandals 410 A.D. Rome sacked, citizens slaughtered, temples looted – official end of Pax Romana Empire broke apart Western section decayed into warring kingdoms Eastern section became the Byzantine Empire Much more unified – Constantinople becomes the largest, wealthiest city in the world The fall of Rome
Britain under attack by various tribes from the north, east Jutes, Angles, Saxons, Danes (Vikings) Tribes attacked and then settled, prompting a migration from modern day Scandinavia and Germany to Britain Constant battling between groups leads to creation of kingships (think Beowulf ) Time marked by violence Arrival of the invaders
Britain, C. 540 A.D.
314 A.D. – arrival of Christian Church in Britain 597 A.D. – St. Augustine arrives in Britain Sent by Pope Gregory to convert pagan British who have melded Christianity with their Celtic gods Establishes major seats for the church in Canterbury, York Effectively overpowers the Celtic church Creation of monasteries – way to keep teachings of church, place of knowledge Role of the Church
7 th to 8 th centuries – rise and fall of many kingdoms Kent, Northumbria, Mercia, Wessex Aethelbold (726-57) first to call himself King of Britain – kingdom much of southern England Kingdoms brought rule, law, structure Established rules for interacting with the church The many kingdoms
Britain, C. 800 A.D.
870 A.D. – King of Wessex (southern England) Successfully defends area from raids by Vikings Vikings not interested in settling – just looted, killed and left Developed treaties with surrounding kingdoms which helped secure large area Reclaimed London from Danish control Helped create political unity throughout England Laws of his kingdom, first basis for British laws Ruled against the custom of blood feuds – “wirgild” Increased the role of church, tried to restore education Alfred the Great
Alfred dies in 899 A.D. – left kingdom to son Edward Continued his father’s work Established the dominance of the West Saxon kingdom Opposite to northern England – under control of Danes and part of Scandinavian empire York – Viking city run by Eric Bloodaxe Rise of Wessex
Norman invasion part of political battle between King Edward the Confessor and Harold, Duke of Wessex Edward promised his crown to William of Normandy Upon his death, Harold seized control William invades – defeats Harold at the Battle of Hastings Crowned on Dec. 25, 1066 A.D A.D.
William the Conqueror brought Norman rule to England, now linked with France, not Scandinavia Replaced old Anglo-Saxon ruling families with Norman Destroyed/overpowered old kingdoms Required allegiance in form of set number of knights from each area Created new social class Doomsday Book – full accounting of who, what was in southern England for taxation, tything purposes Brought language, culture to England (very behind in cultural development) Norman rule
William dies in 1087 A.D. Decedents William II and Henry I struggle to keep the kingdom together, face insurrection Stephen, nephew of Henry I looses control of kingdom to Geoffrey the Fair and his wife Matilda Begins the Plantagenet line Their son Henry II married Eleanor of Aquitaine England gains more control of France, becomes one of the most powerful leaders in Europe Creation of common law, replacing some of the old Anglo-Saxon feudal laws Growth in economy, trade in England, spurred by First Crusade Henry responsible for death of Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury in ongoing dispute over power, influence of church Turnover I
Henry II dies in 1189 A.D. after failing to stop son Richard from seizing the throne, aided by his mother, Eleanor Richard the Lionheart captured while on crusade in the Holy Land Ransomed and then taken prisoner again in Germany Raised taxes, created many new taxes to pay for crusade, ransoms Turnover II
John I, Richard’s brother, takes over in 1199 A.D. Almost looses control of whole kingdom Creates income tax, continues harsh taxing rules left by his brother Battle with barons leads to signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 A.D. John dies in 1216 and is first English monarch to be buried in England A +: The Magna Carta
Henry III ( ) Completion of Westminster Abby Creation of Parliament Edward I ( ) Conquest of Wales, peace with Scotland Other + developments
Edward II ( ) Abandons the throne to his young son Alienated his wife as homosexual, she took refuge in France, raised forces against him Edward III ( ) Began 100 Years War with France 1348 A.D. – arrival of Black Death in England 50 percent of population dead by 1350 Did oversee a growth in Parliament Turnover III
Richard II ( ) Took throne at age of 10 Betrayed by nobles and deposed by Henry Bolingbroke, a nobleman Henry IV ( ) Encountered serious legitimacy issues as usurped the throne Turnover IV
Henry V ( ) Successfully expanded English territory back into France, made English empire greater Henry VI ( ) Battled Joan of Arc over French lands occupied by England Beginning of French nationalism Beginning of War of the Roses Civil war among the aristocracy House of York (white rose) led by Richard of York House of Lancaster (red rose) led by King Henry War lasts for 30 years – destroys aristocracy Ends at Battle of Tewkesbury, Edward (York’s son) defeats Henry Henry executed at Tower of London Turnover V
Edward IV ( ) Brings relative peace to England Richard III ( ) Brother of Edward Leads coup against his nephews for throne Has two young boys killed Challenged by nobles Killed at the Battle on Bosworth Field Defeated by Henry Tudor, married to Elizabeth York, Edward’s daughter Tudor’s assentation to throne marks end of mediaeval period – last king to gain throne through combat Turnover VI