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Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies Warm Up: Define 1. divine right 2. absolute monarch.

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Presentation on theme: "Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies Warm Up: Define 1. divine right 2. absolute monarch."— Presentation transcript:

1 Setting the Stage for Revolution: Absolute Monarchies Warm Up: Define 1. divine right 2. absolute monarch

2 Definitions 1. Divine Right: Belief that a ruler’s authority comes directly from God. 2. Absolute Monarch: Ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people he or she governs.

3 Absolute Monarchies in Europe  Spain  France  England  Austria  Prussia  Russia

4 Absolute Monarchies in Europe From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

5 Thirty Years’ War (page 427)  1640: Holy Roman Empire has broken down into several Prussian (German) principalities.  Electors from the 7 major German states elect the Holy Roman emperor. Many other German states no longer recognize the power of the Holy Roman emperor.  1641: Ferdinand of Bohemia (Hapsburg king) elected emperor. He is Anti – Protestant. Tried to return Prussia (Germany) to Catholicism. Spain, Poland supported Ferdinand. Protestant countries – Sweden, Netherlands – sent troops into Prussia to protect Protestants. France comes in on side of Sweden to protect Alsace from Prussian control.  Over thirty years alliances continually changed.  War led to starvation, famine and disease. Area severely depopulated.  1648: Peace of Westphalia signed. France is clear winner, gains territory from Spain and Prussia, including Alsace. Prussia remains fragmented and Hapsburgs lose much power.

6 From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

7 The Philosopher Behind the Age Thomas Hobbes 1660 – Wrote the Leviathan (Giant) Discussed the perfect government People first lived in anarchy Needed a “social contract” Required an absolute monarch to maintain order People retained the right only to maintain their lives.

8 England - Pathway to Revolution Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) – Absolute ruler of England.Elizabeth I (1558 – 1603) – Absolute ruler of England.Elizabeth I Elizabeth I Kept Parliament on her side.Kept Parliament on her side. Stabilized the nation and expanded British territory.Stabilized the nation and expanded British territory. Died without an heir.Died without an heir. Country had to decide who would replace her.Country had to decide who would replace her.

9 England - Pathway to Revolution

10 England – James I (1603 – 1625) James VI of ScotlandJames VI of ScotlandJames VI of ScotlandJames VI of Scotland Became James I of England when Elizabeth I died.Became James I of England when Elizabeth I died. Believed in Divine Right of Kings. (page 435) “Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth.Believed in Divine Right of Kings. (page 435) “Kings are called gods because they sit upon God’s throne on earth. Ran up a huge debt in England.Ran up a huge debt in England. Had Bible translated from Latin into EnglishHad Bible translated from Latin into English

11 England – Charles I Charles I of EnglandCharles I of EnglandCharles I of EnglandCharles I of England Absolute monarch - had no problem with putting his enemies in prison without trialAbsolute monarch - had no problem with putting his enemies in prison without trial Ran up a huge debtRan up a huge debt Dissolved Parliament in 1629Dissolved Parliament in 1629 Touched off a massive English Civil War between supporters of Charles and supporters of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell.Touched off a massive English Civil War between supporters of Charles and supporters of Parliament led by Oliver Cromwell. English Civil War English Civil War Charles I beheaded in 1649.Charles I beheaded in 1649.

12 England – Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector – England Oliver Cromwell: Lord Protector – EnglandOliver CromwellOliver Cromwell Ruled through the armyRuled through the army Exiled Catholics to IrelandExiled Catholics to Ireland Strict Puritan laws passed – theaters closed, Sunday set aside for worship, no lewd dancing, taverns or gamblingStrict Puritan laws passed – theaters closed, Sunday set aside for worship, no lewd dancing, taverns or gambling Religious freedom for everyone elseReligious freedom for everyone else When Cromwell died, Restoration began.When Cromwell died, Restoration began.

13 England – Charles II The Restoration Charles II - Popular rulerCharles II - Popular rulerCharles II Charles II Monarchy restored – Hence: RestorationMonarchy restored – Hence: RestorationRestoration Bowed to the wishes of ParliamentBowed to the wishes of Parliament Restored the Church of EnglandRestored the Church of England Stabilized governmentStabilized government

14 England – James II James II - Absolute RulerJames II - Absolute RulerJames II James II Antagonized ParliamentAntagonized Parliament Ran up a huge debtRan up a huge debt Openly CatholicOpenly Catholic Forced from throne in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution.Forced from throne in what came to be called the Glorious Revolution. Glorious RevolutionGlorious RevolutionGlorious RevolutionGlorious Revolution

15 England – William and Mary English Bill of Rights 1689 William and Mary were given the throne after the English Bill of Rights was passed.William and Mary were given the throne after the English Bill of Rights was passed.William and Mary English Bill of Rights William and Mary English Bill of Rights Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy.Guaranteed supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy. Parliament had to meet on a regular basisParliament had to meet on a regular basis Monarchy could neither make nor suspend lawsMonarchy could neither make nor suspend laws Trial by jury reinstated.Trial by jury reinstated. Abolished fines and cruel and unusual punishment.Abolished fines and cruel and unusual punishment. Affirmed “writ of habeas corpus” – no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. Due process of laws.Affirmed “writ of habeas corpus” – no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime. Due process of laws.“writ of habeas corpus” “writ of habeas corpus” Laid groundwork for American system of laws.Laid groundwork for American system of laws.

16 The Philosophy Advances John Locke 1690 People first lived in anarchy Needed a “social contract” People gave up only SOME of their individual rights. Kept the right to: - Live - Enjoy Liberty - Own Property Rulers who violated these rights broke the social contract and could be overthrown.

17 France – Louis XIV Ruled  Called himself the Sun King Sun KingSun King  Believed in divine right. “L’etat, c’est moi.” I am the state. (page 417)  Made French army the strongest in Europe  France was the wealthiest country in Europe under Louis XIV  Louis XIV spent huge amounts of money  Built Versailles. (page 419)  War of Spanish Succession (page 420)

18 France – Louis XIV Versailles  Expanded from a hunting lodge in  Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France.  Seat of French government for nearly over 100 years.  Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France.

19 France – Louis XIV Versailles  Expanded from a hunting lodge in  Became the symbol to European monarchs of the wealth and power of the king of France.  Seat of French government for over 100 years.  Its upkeep consumed as much as 25% of the income of France. Hall of Mirrors

20 Spain – Philip II Ruled Philip II - Sought to expand Spanish influence – ruled Spain when the empire was at its height. Included the Spanish New World (page 414)Philip II - Sought to expand Spanish influence – ruled Spain when the empire was at its height. Included the Spanish New World (page 414)Philip II Philip II Devout: tried to strengthen Catholic churchDevout: tried to strengthen Catholic church Centralized royal powerCentralized royal power Married Mary I of England – returned England to CatholicismMarried Mary I of England – returned England to Catholicism Invaded England with Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I – He lost most of the Armada.Invaded England with Spanish Armada against Elizabeth I – He lost most of the Armada.

21 Spain – Philip II Ruled

22 Russia – Peter the Great Ruled Peter the Great of RussiaPeter the Great of RussiaPeter the Great of RussiaPeter the Great of Russia Goal was to westernize Russia. Forced powerful boyars to bow to his will.Goal was to westernize Russia. Forced powerful boyars to bow to his will. Built modern Western city for Russian capital – St. Petersburg.Built modern Western city for Russian capital – St. Petersburg. Spread serfdom.Spread serfdom. Studied Western technology. Worked in a shipyardStudied Western technology. Worked in a shipyard Extended Russian territory – to Pacific Ocean.Extended Russian territory – to Pacific Ocean. 1700: Fought Sweden for control of Baltic. Gained several Baltic ports1700: Fought Sweden for control of Baltic. Gained several Baltic ports

23 Russia – Peter the Great From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003

24 Austria – Maria Theresa ruled  Absolute monarch of Austria Absolute monarch of Austria Absolute monarch of Austria  Fought Frederick II of Prussia for control of Hungary and Silesia  Reorganized the government  Enlightened Despot  Eased tax burden on her people  Gave more rights to her subjects  Gave birth to 16 children while in power

25 Prussia – Frederick II Ruled  Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany) Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany) Absolute ruler of Prussia (Germany)  Attacked Austria, sparking the War of Austrian Succession  Unified Prussia, part of the Holy Roman Empire, into one nation

26 Absolutism Summary Chart Textbook page 436 From World History: Connections to Today Prentice Hall, 2003


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