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Absolute Monarchs Textbook Chapter 18. The Power of Spain: Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s Spain experienced a golden age.

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Presentation on theme: "Absolute Monarchs Textbook Chapter 18. The Power of Spain: Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s Spain experienced a golden age."— Presentation transcript:

1 Absolute Monarchs Textbook Chapter 18

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3 The Power of Spain: Main Idea Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s Economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s Economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s

4 The King Becomes Emperor King Charles I becomes king of Spain King Charles I becomes king of Spain Rules as ABSOLUTE MONARCH Rules as ABSOLUTE MONARCH Absolute monarchs have divine right and may not be challenged Absolute monarchs have divine right and may not be challenged In Spain, Charles struggled to control empire In Spain, Charles struggled to control empire

5 Charles V and the Empire 1519 – throne of Holy Roman Empire vacant, King Charles I becomes Holy Roman Emperor Charles V 1519 – throne of Holy Roman Empire vacant, King Charles I becomes Holy Roman Emperor Charles V How might being both King of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor create difficulties for Charles?

6 Charles V and Religion Wants all of Europe to be Catholic Wants all of Europe to be Catholic 1521 – confronts Martin Luther1521 – confronts Martin Luther Rebellions against Catholic rulers spreadRebellions against Catholic rulers spread Charles V is forced to sign Peace of AugsburgCharles V is forced to sign Peace of Augsburg Martin Luther

7 Dividing the Empire 1556 – Charles V gives up throne 1556 – Charles V gives up throne Splits empire between brother and son Splits empire between brother and son Brother – Hapsburg holdings in AustriaBrother – Hapsburg holdings in Austria Son – Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s coloniesSon – Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s colonies Ferdinand Philip

8 Thinking Questions In what ways was Charles the V a successful emperor? In what ways was Charles the V a successful emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful? In what ways was he unsuccessful?

9 Spain Under Philip II Spain at peak of grandeur Spain at peak of grandeur Marries Queen Mary I of England Marries Queen Mary I of England No heir No heir 1560s – Calvinist Protestants in northern Low Country provinces revolt 1560s – Calvinist Protestants in northern Low Country provinces revolt

10 Dutch Revolt Philip II sends Duke of Alba with army to punish Dutch Philip II sends Duke of Alba with army to punish Dutch Court of Blood - tortures and executes rebelsCourt of Blood - tortures and executes rebels Revolt continued until 1609 Revolt continued until 1609

11 Spain and England English aid Dutch – both Protestant English aid Dutch – both Protestant English sea dogs attack Spanish ships English sea dogs attack Spanish ships King Philip II decides to invade England King Philip II decides to invade England Sir Francis Drake

12 Spanish Armada Naval fleet assembled to attack England Naval fleet assembled to attack England Queen Elizabeth I is prepared for attack Queen Elizabeth I is prepared for attack

13 An Empire in Decline Spain recovers from Spanish Armada, but still has internal problems Spain recovers from Spanish Armada, but still has internal problems Gov’t not centralized – Philip trusts nobodyGov’t not centralized – Philip trusts nobody Wealth from America on warWealth from America on war Philip borrows lots of money, goes into bankruptcy 4 timesPhilip borrows lots of money, goes into bankruptcy 4 times

14 Thinking Question What were 2 events that caused problems for Spain? What were 2 events that caused problems for Spain? What effects might bankruptcy have on the development of Spain? What effects might bankruptcy have on the development of Spain?

15 Absolute Monarchy in France: Main Idea Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV strengthened the French monarchy Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV strengthened the French monarchy Louis XIV set the example of an absolute monarch for the rest of Europe Louis XIV set the example of an absolute monarch for the rest of Europe

16 Religious War and Henry IV 1560s – 1 in 10 French = Huguenots 1560s – 1 in 10 French = Huguenots Threat to Catholic French monarchyThreat to Catholic French monarchy “one king, one law, one religion”“one king, one law, one religion” Religious conflict was challenge to absolute monarchyReligious conflict was challenge to absolute monarchy John Calvin

17 Conflict and New King St. Bartholomew Day Massacre ordered by Queen Catherine de’Medici St. Bartholomew Day Massacre ordered by Queen Catherine de’Medici 70,000 Huguenots killed70,000 Huguenots killed Henry of Navarre escapes death by denying religion Henry of Navarre escapes death by denying religion 1593 – coverts to Catholicism1593 – coverts to Catholicism Becomes King Henry IVBecomes King Henry IV

18 Compromise and Progress Edict of Nantes Edict of Nantes Gives Huguenots limited freedom of worship – no longer need to follow religion of kingGives Huguenots limited freedom of worship – no longer need to follow religion of king Catholicism is still official religionCatholicism is still official religion Henry focuses on repairing war-torn country Henry focuses on repairing war-torn country

19 Thinking Question What were some of the high points and low points in the life of Henry IV? What were some of the high points and low points in the life of Henry IV?

20 Louis XIII and Richelieu 1610 – Henry IV murdered, son Louis XIII crowed 1610 – Henry IV murdered, son Louis XIII crowed Cardinal Richelieu = right-hand man Cardinal Richelieu = right-hand man Reduce power of Huguenots and strengthen monarchyReduce power of Huguenots and strengthen monarchy Cuts off supplies to port city of La RochelleCuts off supplies to port city of La Rochelle Louix XIII

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22 Threat from Nobles Louis XIII and Richelieu suppress nobles Louis XIII and Richelieu suppress nobles Richelieu’s spies uncover series of secret planned revoltsRichelieu’s spies uncover series of secret planned revolts Punishments severe and included executionPunishments severe and included execution Richelieu directs foreign policy Richelieu directs foreign policy Thirty Years WarThirty Years War Sides with Protestants in effort to overthrow HapsburgsSides with Protestants in effort to overthrow Hapsburgs

23 Thinking Question Who did Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu see as their enemies? Who did Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu see as their enemies?

24 Monarchy of Louis XIV Louis XIII and Richelieu die Louis XIII and Richelieu die Louis XIV crowned at time of power, prosperity, and glory Louis XIV crowned at time of power, prosperity, and glory Rise of the “Sun King” Rise of the “Sun King” Cardinal Mazarin advisesCardinal Mazarin advises Begins to rule by himself at age 18Begins to rule by himself at age 18

25 Louis XIV, Absolutism, and Versailles Begins tradition of absolute monarchy that lasts over a century Begins tradition of absolute monarchy that lasts over a century Deprives nobles of influence Deprives nobles of influence Urges nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing, dining, and gambling Urges nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing, dining, and gambling

26 Spectacle at Versailles Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly power Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly power Louis XIV’s style emphasized political strengthLouis XIV’s style emphasized political strength Practically every moment of king’s day required rituals by bowing courtiersPractically every moment of king’s day required rituals by bowing courtiers

27 Louis and Protestantism Smashed power of Huguenots Smashed power of Huguenots revoked Edict of Nantes revoked Edict of Nantes Results in financial crisisResults in financial crisis Treasury saved by policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert Treasury saved by policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert Enlarges militaryEnlarges military Spends money on good equipmentSpends money on good equipment Louis XIV becomes most powerful ruler in Europe Louis XIV becomes most powerful ruler in Europe

28 War Over a Throne War of Spanish Succession War of Spanish Succession Louis wants Spanish throne for his oldest son Louis wants Spanish throne for his oldest son England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire went to war against France England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire went to war against France

29 Treaty of Utrecht After many defeats, Louis accepts treaty After many defeats, Louis accepts treaty Louis’ grandson got Spanish throneLouis’ grandson got Spanish throne France and Spain never to be ruled by same monarchFrance and Spain never to be ruled by same monarch Louis gave up territory acquiredLouis gave up territory acquired Louis XIV remains in power until death in 1715

30 Thinking Question What were some main events during Louis XIV’s reign? What were some main events during Louis XIV’s reign?

31 Monarchy in England: Main Idea In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarch was limited by Parliament In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarch was limited by Parliament Following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful Following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful

32 The Tudors and Parliament Henry and Elizabeth Henry and Elizabeth 2 prominent members of Tudor dynasty2 prominent members of Tudor dynasty In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchyIn England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy Both father and daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goalsBoth father and daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals Henry and Parliament Henry and Parliament Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wifeHenry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in EnglandHad Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England Act of Supremacy Act of Supremacy

33 Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth Henry VIII  Edward  Mary I Henry VIII  Edward  Mary I Bloody Mary makes England CatholicBloody Mary makes England Catholic Mary dies Mary dies Elizabeth I crowned queen Elizabeth I crowned queen Returns England to Anglican Church with help of ParliamentReturns England to Anglican Church with help of Parliament Tension between Elizabeth and Parliament Tension between Elizabeth and Parliament Wanted Elizabeth to marry, she said “NO!”Wanted Elizabeth to marry, she said “NO!”

34 Elizabeth in Charge Elizabeth allows members of Parliament to speak their minds without fear of punishment Elizabeth allows members of Parliament to speak their minds without fear of punishment Elizabeth was clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions Elizabeth was clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions Earl of Essex rebelled against authorityEarl of Essex rebelled against authority Essex executed as traitorEssex executed as traitor Not the last to question Queen Elizabeth’s authorityNot the last to question Queen Elizabeth’s authority

35 Thinking Question What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do? What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do?

36 The Stuarts and Parliament Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth Not as close to ParliamentNot as close to Parliament James I James I Considered outsiderConsidered outsider Rarely got the money he needed from ParliamentRarely got the money he needed from Parliament Wanted to be absolute monarchWanted to be absolute monarch Sees Puritans as a threat to his powerSees Puritans as a threat to his power Publishes the King James BiblePublishes the King James Bible

37 Charles I Defines Parliament James I dies, son Charles I takes over James I dies, son Charles I takes over Declines in popularity when marries Catholic princess Declines in popularity when marries Catholic princess Parliament refused to provide money until Charles signed Petition of Right Parliament refused to provide money until Charles signed Petition of Right Limited king’s power - cannot act without approval from ParliamentLimited king’s power - cannot act without approval from Parliament Charles ends up taxing English people without Parliament - forces bankers to lend him moneyCharles ends up taxing English people without Parliament - forces bankers to lend him money

38 Thinking Question Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament? Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament?

39 The English Civil War Conflict continued Conflict continued Between king who believed in absolute monarchy and Parliament who saw itself as independentBetween king who believed in absolute monarchy and Parliament who saw itself as independent Limited king’s powers Limited king’s powers Having been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limitHaving been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit Demand Parliament be called at least every 3 yearsDemand Parliament be called at least every 3 years Parliament reconvened Parliament reconvened Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for money Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for money “Long Parliament”“Long Parliament” Grudging acceptance Grudging acceptance Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss ParliamentParliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament

40 War with Parliament Radical Puritans try to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church Radical Puritans try to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church King is outranged and arrested Puritan leaders for treasonKing is outranged and arrested Puritan leaders for treason Charles led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped Charles led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped English Civil War officially begins English Civil War officially begins

41 Royalists and Roundheads King needed to rely on wealthy nobles called Royalists to pay for army King needed to rely on wealthy nobles called Royalists to pay for army Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Roundheads = Puritans, merchants, some upper classRoundheads = Puritans, merchants, some upper class Led by Oliver CromwellLed by Oliver Cromwell kill 4,000 of king’s men kill 4,000 of king’s men king surrenders and Cromwell dismisses all members of Parliament who disagreed with him king surrenders and Cromwell dismisses all members of Parliament who disagreed with him Rump ParliamentRump Parliament

42 Trial and Execution Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason and put him on trial Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason and put him on trial Charles defended himself and recognized the authority of Parliament to put him on trialCharles defended himself and recognized the authority of Parliament to put him on trial Charles sentences to death and executed January 30, 1649Charles sentences to death and executed January 30, 1649

43 England Under Cromwell England’s gov’t becomes commonwealth and outlaws monarchy England’s gov’t becomes commonwealth and outlaws monarchy Cromwell given title of Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland Cromwell given title of Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland Foreign Issues Foreign Issues Military expeditions to Scotland and IrelandMilitary expeditions to Scotland and Ireland Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on SpainEconomic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain

44 A Defender of Absolutism Question of rule Question of rule People troubled by constant turmoil in EnglandPeople troubled by constant turmoil in England Thomas Hobbes fled to France during Cromwell’s ruleThomas Hobbes fled to France during Cromwell’s rule Hobbes wrote LeviathanHobbes wrote Leviathan Leviathan Leviathan Hobbes described humans as naturally selfishHobbes described humans as naturally selfish People need all- powerful monarch to tell them how to livePeople need all- powerful monarch to tell them how to live

45 Thinking Question What were some effects of the English Civil War? What were some effects of the English Civil War?

46 Monarchy Returns The Restoration The Restoration Cromwell dies, son replces but not a good leader Cromwell dies, son replces but not a good leader Parliament eventually votes to bring back monarchyParliament eventually votes to bring back monarchy Charles II invited to be king Charles II invited to be king Had to agree to Parliament’s conditionsHad to agree to Parliament’s conditions

47 The Reign of Charles II Has to address conflict with Dutch, religious tensions, role of Parliament Has to address conflict with Dutch, religious tensions, role of Parliament Supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen Church of England Supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen Church of England (+) Charles reopened theaters (+) Charles reopened theaters (+) Habeas Corpus Act passed (+) Habeas Corpus Act passed (-) bubonic plague returned followed by Great Fire of London (-) bubonic plague returned followed by Great Fire of London (+) After fire Charles supported public construction projects (+) After fire Charles supported public construction projects

48 James II Brother of Charles…CATHOLIC Brother of Charles…CATHOLIC James not popular - believed in right to rule as absolute monarch James not popular - believed in right to rule as absolute monarch Not tolerated by EnglishNot tolerated by English Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution William and Mary invited to become monarchs William and Mary invited to become monarchs Both ProtestantBoth Protestant James fled to FranceJames fled to France

49 Changes in Government Bill of Rights Bill of Rights William and Mary had to sign before taking throneWilliam and Mary had to sign before taking throne Prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of ParliamentPrevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament US Bill of Rights based on this documentUS Bill of Rights based on this document Constitutional monarchy Constitutional monarchy Term for monarchy limited by lawTerm for monarchy limited by law England rejected conceot of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarch ruled by lawEngland rejected conceot of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarch ruled by law

50 Thinking Questions What happened during the Glorious Revolution? What happened during the Glorious Revolution?


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