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Absolute Monarchs Textbook Chapter 18

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1 Absolute Monarchs Textbook Chapter 18
Interesting current event related to Scientific Revolution -


3 The Power of Spain: Main Idea
Spain experienced a golden age during the 1500s Economic problems and military struggles decreased Spanish power by the 1600s

4 The King Becomes Emperor
King Charles I becomes king of Spain Rules as ABSOLUTE MONARCH Absolute monarchs have divine right and may not be challenged In Spain, Charles struggled to control empire Charles is teenager when he becomes king = INEXPERIENCED Member of ancient Hapsburgs family

5 Charles V and the Empire
1519 – throne of Holy Roman Empire vacant, King Charles I becomes Holy Roman Emperor Charles V How might being both King of Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor create difficulties for Charles? Charles borrows money to buy votes Rules part of Italy, Austria, and a number of German states as Holy Roman Emperor When Charles became king of Spain, he inherited the Low Countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, along with colonies in the Americas Growing Protestant movement threatened influence As HRE, becomes enemy of Ottoman Turks, French, and German princes

6 Charles V and Religion Wants all of Europe to be Catholic
1521 – confronts Martin Luther Rebellions against Catholic rulers spread Charles V is forced to sign Peace of Augsburg Even after confronting ML, Protestant continue to gain power Charles’ vision of a Catholic Europe never became reality Constant warfare also brought Charles to brink of bankruptcy Peace of Augsburg – each German prince allowed to decide religion of his state Martin Luther

7 Dividing the Empire 1556 – Charles V gives up throne
Splits empire between brother and son Brother – Hapsburg holdings in Austria Son – Netherlands, Spain, Sicily, Spain’s colonies Ferdinand Charles moves into monestary Philip

8 Thinking Questions In what ways was Charles the V a successful emperor? In what ways was he unsuccessful? Answer(s): successful—exploration of the Americas, which brought fabulous wealth to Spain; unsuccessful—did not maintain religious control over Europe; constant wars brought financial problems

9 Spain Under Philip II Spain at peak of grandeur
Marries Queen Mary I of England No heir 1560s – Calvinist Protestants in northern Low Country provinces revolt Gold and silver flowing in from colonies While Spain is reaching a peak in terms of wealth and power, wealth cannot solve all problems (especially internal) Philip and Mary have no children – no heir, England will not return to Catholicism

10 Dutch Revolt Philip II sends Duke of Alba with army to punish Dutch
Court of Blood - tortures and executes rebels Revolt continued until 1609 Dutch refused to declare allegiance to Philip II When revolt ends: Seven northern provinces become independent as the Netherlands Southern provinces remain Spanish

11 Spain and England English aid Dutch – both Protestant
English sea dogs attack Spanish ships King Philip II decides to invade England When England aids Dutch, already poor relationship between Spain and England gets worse Sea dogs steal gold and silver from Spanish ships Sir Francis Drake

12 Spanish Armada Naval fleet assembled to attack England
Queen Elizabeth I is prepared for attack 130 ships with 20,000 sailors (maneuver boat) and soldiers (land invasion) Because England prepared: English severely damage Philip’s fleet Spanish ships panic and flee

13 An Empire in Decline Spain recovers from Spanish Armada, but still has internal problems Gov’t not centralized – Philip trusts nobody Wealth from America on war Philip borrows lots of money, goes into bankruptcy 4 times Relying on traditional agricultural economy, Spain’s economy lagged behind that of other countries. Spain declined as a major power

14 Thinking Question What were 2 events that caused problems for Spain?
What effects might bankruptcy have on the development of Spain? Answer(s): revolt in the Netherlands; defeat of the Spanish Armada Lack of industry, education, progress

15 Absolute Monarchy in France: Main Idea
Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV strengthened the French monarchy Louis XIV set the example of an absolute monarch for the rest of Europe

16 Religious War and Henry IV
1560s – 1 in 10 French = Huguenots Threat to Catholic French monarchy “one king, one law, one religion” Religious conflict was challenge to absolute monarchy Huguenot = French Calvinist Protestant Even noble families become Protestant John Calvin

17 Conflict and New King St. Bartholomew Day Massacre ordered by Queen Catherine de’Medici 70,000 Huguenots killed Henry of Navarre escapes death by denying religion 1593 – coverts to Catholicism Becomes King Henry IV SBDM - Assassinations begin with nobles in town for wedding of Henry of Navarre

18 Compromise and Progress
Edict of Nantes Gives Huguenots limited freedom of worship – no longer need to follow religion of king Catholicism is still official religion Henry focuses on repairing war-torn country Henry realized compromise is necessary for peace Edict of Nantes - Huguenots have right to hold office in 200 cities When Henry repairs country, he improved financial situation, eliminated debt, stimulate trade, drained swamps, built canals, road

19 Thinking Question What were some of the high points and low points in the life of Henry IV? Answer(s): possible answer—high points: being crowned king, Edict of Nantes, reforms; low points: Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre, having to fight to claim throne

20 Louis XIII and Richelieu
1610 – Henry IV murdered, son Louis XIII crowed Cardinal Richelieu = right-hand man Reduce power of Huguenots and strengthen monarchy Cuts off supplies to port city of La Rochelle Louis is young and mother serves as regent Richelieu forces La Rochelle to become Catholic Louix XIII


22 Threat from Nobles Louis XIII and Richelieu suppress nobles
Richelieu’s spies uncover series of secret planned revolts Punishments severe and included execution Richelieu directs foreign policy Thirty Years War Sides with Protestants in effort to overthrow Hapsburgs Thirty Years War pitted Catholics against Protestants in Central Europe

23 Thinking Question Who did Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu see as their enemies? Answer(s): Huguenots, nobles, the Hapsburg family

24 Monarchy of Louis XIV Louis XIII and Richelieu die
Louis XIV crowned at time of power, prosperity, and glory Rise of the “Sun King” Cardinal Mazarin advises Begins to rule by himself at age 18 Mother serves as regent – has been taught skills to serve as king since childhood, has much confidence in ability Louis XIV chose the sun as his personal symbol, implying that the world revolved around him He thus became known as the Sun King “I am the state,” he declared

25 Louis XIV, Absolutism, and Versailles
Begins tradition of absolute monarchy that lasts over a century Deprives nobles of influence Urges nobles to develop expensive new habits of dressing, dining, and gambling Absolute monarchy - demanded to be in charge of all military, politics, and economics As nobles grew poorer, had to depend on king’s generosity just to survive Louis XIV and nobles Demanded nobles visit regularly at Versailles Nobles gain prestige by being servants at Versailles, not by fighting

26 Spectacle at Versailles
Versailles was a grand spectacle of kingly power Louis XIV’s style emphasized political strength Practically every moment of king’s day required rituals by bowing courtiers Examples of rituals: Eating, dressing, walking in garden all required rituals Louis always knew who had given what he considered proper attention

27 Louis and Protestantism
Smashed power of Huguenots revoked Edict of Nantes Results in financial crisis Treasury saved by policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert Enlarges military Spends money on good equipment Louis XIV becomes most powerful ruler in Europe When Edict of Nantes revoke prosperous merchants/artisans flee - loss of their skills and wealth leads to financial crisis Money and the Military Louis’ finances always a concern Grand lifestyle cost great deal of money Treasury saved by efficient policies of Jean-Baptiste Colbert Limited imports, increased exports Even reduced government’s debt Most Powerful Ruler Louis needed cash to build up military, expand French territory Enlarged army to more than 200,000 disciplined soldiers Spent money on good equipment Was most powerful ruler in Europe, taking France to war four times

28 War Over a Throne War of Spanish Succession
Louis wants Spanish throne for his oldest son England, Netherlands, Holy Roman Empire went to war against France Other European countries do not want Spain and France so closely connected Fighting over throne spreads over the Atlantic to North America

29 Louis XIV remains in power until death in 1715
Treaty of Utrecht Louis XIV remains in power until death in 1715 After many defeats, Louis accepts treaty Louis’ grandson got Spanish throne France and Spain never to be ruled by same monarch Louis gave up territory acquired War benefited England at expense of France and Spain

30 Thinking Question What were some main events during Louis XIV’s reign?
Answer(s): building of Versailles, cancellation of Edict of Nantes, War of the Spanish Succession, Treaty of Utrecht

31 Monarchy in England: Main Idea
In contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarch was limited by Parliament Following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful

32 The Tudors and Parliament
Henry and Elizabeth 2 prominent members of Tudor dynasty In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy Both father and daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals Henry and Parliament Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England Act of Supremacy

33 Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth
Henry VIII  Edward  Mary I Bloody Mary makes England Catholic Mary dies Elizabeth I crowned queen Returns England to Anglican Church with help of Parliament Tension between Elizabeth and Parliament Wanted Elizabeth to marry, she said “NO!” Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed

34 Elizabeth in Charge Elizabeth allows members of Parliament to speak their minds without fear of punishment Elizabeth was clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions Earl of Essex rebelled against authority Essex executed as traitor Not the last to question Queen Elizabeth’s authority Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign Asked publicly, “Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?”

35 Thinking Question What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do? Answer(s): to pass laws to help the monarch achieve desired results

36 The Stuarts and Parliament
Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth Not as close to Parliament James I Considered outsider Rarely got the money he needed from Parliament Wanted to be absolute monarch Sees Puritans as a threat to his power Publishes the King James Bible Refused to pass Puritans’ requests for reform

37 Charles I Defines Parliament
James I dies, son Charles I takes over Declines in popularity when marries Catholic princess Parliament refused to provide money until Charles signed Petition of Right Limited king’s power - cannot act without approval from Parliament Charles ends up taxing English people without Parliament - forces bankers to lend him money Petition of Right Placed limits on king’s power Could not levy taxes without Parliamentary approval Parliament later refused to give Charles money again He taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him money Parliament was furious Charles dismissed Parliament 1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament again

38 Thinking Question Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament?
Answer(s): Both wanted to rule as absolute monarchs

39 The English Civil War Conflict continued Limited king’s powers
Between king who believed in absolute monarchy and Parliament who saw itself as independent Limited king’s powers Having been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit Demand Parliament be called at least every 3 years Parliament reconvened Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for money “Long Parliament” Grudging acceptance Parliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament Charles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn

40 War with Parliament Radical Puritans try to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church King is outranged and arrested Puritan leaders for treason Charles led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped English Civil War officially begins

41 Royalists and Roundheads
King needed to rely on wealthy nobles called Royalists to pay for army Parliament could back its army by voting for funding Roundheads = Puritans, merchants, some upper class Led by Oliver Cromwell kill 4,000 of king’s men king surrenders and Cromwell dismisses all members of Parliament who disagreed with him Rump Parliament

42 Trial and Execution Eventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason and put him on trial Charles defended himself and recognized the authority of Parliament to put him on trial Charles sentences to death and executed January 30, 1649

43 England Under Cromwell
England’s gov’t becomes commonwealth and outlaws monarchy Cromwell given title of Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland Foreign Issues Military expeditions to Scotland and Ireland Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain Commonwealth, government based on common good of all people As Lord Protector…. Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment

44 A Defender of Absolutism
Question of rule People troubled by constant turmoil in England Thomas Hobbes fled to France during Cromwell’s rule Hobbes wrote Leviathan Leviathan Hobbes described humans as naturally selfish People need all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government Hobbes’s ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alone—like a king Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible

45 Thinking Question What were some effects of the English Civil War?
Answer(s): temporarily ended monarchy and House of Lords, restricted English social life in certain ways

46 Monarchy Returns The Restoration Charles II invited to be king
Cromwell dies, son replces but not a good leader Parliament eventually votes to bring back monarchy Charles II invited to be king Had to agree to Parliament’s conditions

47 The Reign of Charles II Has to address conflict with Dutch, religious tensions, role of Parliament Supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen Church of England (+) Charles reopened theaters (+) Habeas Corpus Act passed (-) bubonic plague returned followed by Great Fire of London (+) After fire Charles supported public construction projects Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released

48 James II Brother of Charles…CATHOLIC
James not popular - believed in right to rule as absolute monarch Not tolerated by English Glorious Revolution William and Mary invited to become monarchs Both Protestant James fled to France

49 Changes in Government Bill of Rights Constitutional monarchy
William and Mary had to sign before taking throne Prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament US Bill of Rights based on this document Constitutional monarchy Term for monarchy limited by law England rejected conceot of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarch ruled by law

50 Thinking Questions What happened during the Glorious Revolution?
Answer(s): William and Mary were given the English throne by Parliament

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