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Section III: The Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, and Russia (Pages 397-401) This section is about: This section is about: The civil war in Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "Section III: The Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, and Russia (Pages 397-401) This section is about: This section is about: The civil war in Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section III: The Rulers of the Holy Roman Empire, Prussia, and Russia (Pages ) This section is about: This section is about: The civil war in Germany that ended the reign of the Holy Roman Empire. The civil war in Germany that ended the reign of the Holy Roman Empire. How politics and war helped to make both Russia and Prussia major European powers. How politics and war helped to make both Russia and Prussia major European powers. Important historical figures such as Fredrick the Great, Peter the Great, and Catherine the Great. Important historical figures such as Fredrick the Great, Peter the Great, and Catherine the Great.

2 In “Main Ideas:” letter A is something we knew was coming, but it’s been a long time since we don’t have this group in power. We knew a little about letter C, but there’s more now. We should look at the two maps – the first is on page 398. The second: on page 400

3 The Thirty Year’s War Absolute rulers in Europe used the military and economics to expand their power. Absolute rulers in Europe used the military and economics to expand their power. Germany was not one of these places: Germany was just dozens of small and independent “states.” Germany was not one of these places: Germany was just dozens of small and independent “states.” Even the Holy Roman Empire couldn’t unite them. Even the Holy Roman Empire couldn’t unite them.

4 Germany and Civil War In 1612: Ferdinand II came to power in Bohemia In 1612: Ferdinand II came to power in Bohemia He was a Hapsburg who wanted to get Protestantism out of the Holy Roman Empire. He was a Hapsburg who wanted to get Protestantism out of the Holy Roman Empire. The Bohemian nobles didn’t agree, and forced Ferdinand to step down – replacing him with a Protestant ruler. The Bohemian nobles didn’t agree, and forced Ferdinand to step down – replacing him with a Protestant ruler. This began _ _ years of war. This began _ _ years of war. ……………………… ………………………

5 Peace came in 1635, but….Cardinal Richelieu worried about Hapsburg power and started the war again – now against Spain and in the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Scandinavia. Peace came in 1635, but….Cardinal Richelieu worried about Hapsburg power and started the war again – now against Spain and in the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, and Scandinavia. The war was fought mostly by mercenaries (hired soldiers) who would do anything for money. The war was fought mostly by mercenaries (hired soldiers) who would do anything for money. If they didn’t get money, they’d just take whatever they could find of value. If they didn’t get money, they’d just take whatever they could find of value. At the end of the war, 1/3 of Germany’s population had been killed, or died from undernourishment (and sometimes the plague). At the end of the war, 1/3 of Germany’s population had been killed, or died from undernourishment (and sometimes the plague).

6 The Peace of Westphalia Peace talks started in 1640 – and lasted until 1648 (The Peace of Westphalia). Peace talks started in 1640 – and lasted until 1648 (The Peace of Westphalia). The Hapsburgs were forced to give upon their idea of a Roman catholic Europe. The Hapsburgs were forced to give upon their idea of a Roman catholic Europe. Protestants would now have religious freedom. Protestants would now have religious freedom. Germany became weak, and France grew much more powerful. Germany became weak, and France grew much more powerful. The Holy Roman Empire was divided into 300 separate “states.” The Holy Roman Empire was divided into 300 separate “states.” This was the end of the Holy Roman Empire as a political force in the world. This was the end of the Holy Roman Empire as a political force in the world. Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire

7 The Rise of Prussia as a European Power At this time, Prussia was starting to become a power. At this time, Prussia was starting to become a power. Prussia was in northeastern Europe and is now parts of Poland, Germany, and Russia. Prussia was in northeastern Europe and is now parts of Poland, Germany, and Russia.

8 A Military State In the early 1600’s (Thirty Year’s War), Prussia came under the control of Fredrick William. In the early 1600’s (Thirty Year’s War), Prussia came under the control of Fredrick William. He began a policy of militarism (military needs and values are most important). He began a policy of militarism (military needs and values are most important). He wanted to build a strong, capable army in case he was ever attacked. He wanted to build a strong, capable army in case he was ever attacked. The next Fredrick (III) was asked to supply some of his soldiers for the Spanish. The next Fredrick (III) was asked to supply some of his soldiers for the Spanish. He said he would, if he was named King of Prussia, so now he was King Fredrick I. He said he would, if he was named King of Prussia, so now he was King Fredrick I. He developed a huge standing army (1/5 of his citizens). He developed a huge standing army (1/5 of his citizens). (professionally trained, prepared, and paid soldiers)

9 Fredrick the Great Fredrick II (the Great) comes along next ( ). Fredrick II (the Great) comes along next ( ). He loved literature, philosophy, the arts, religious liberty, and was a brilliant military leader. He loved literature, philosophy, the arts, religious liberty, and was a brilliant military leader. One of his acts was to invade and control Silesia (Poland). One of his acts was to invade and control Silesia (Poland). Austria, Russia, and France didn’t like that, so they went after Fredrick the Great in the Seven Years War. Austria, Russia, and France didn’t like that, so they went after Fredrick the Great in the Seven Years War. Even though he was outnumbered 10-1, he was able to save his kingdom. Even though he was outnumbered 10-1, he was able to save his kingdom.

10 Fredrick the Great’s style of rule is called enlightened despotism. Fredrick the Great’s style of rule is called enlightened despotism. This is when an absolute ruler uses their power to bring changes that help their subjects. This is when an absolute ruler uses their power to bring changes that help their subjects. He’s called the Great, so he was good overall for Prussia, but he was bad at being prepared: he never named his successor, so… He’s called the Great, so he was good overall for Prussia, but he was bad at being prepared: he never named his successor, so… Prussia became weak – enough that 20 years after his death, they were successfully invaded by a French General named Napoleon. Prussia became weak – enough that 20 years after his death, they were successfully invaded by a French General named Napoleon.

11 The Russian Empire Emerges In the late 1600’s, Russia wasn’t really even an organized country: In the late 1600’s, Russia wasn’t really even an organized country: They had little contact with Europe. They had little contact with Europe. They had a little different religion (Russian Orthodox – from Constantinople and not Rome). They had a little different religion (Russian Orthodox – from Constantinople and not Rome). They had been invaded often (Mongols, etc…). They had been invaded often (Mongols, etc…). They have a lot of geography to deal with (big place, tough place). They have a lot of geography to deal with (big place, tough place). They don’t have many warm weather ports. They don’t have many warm weather ports. We had already talked about Ivan the Great and Ivan the Terrible, but this is a little later than them. We had already talked about Ivan the Great and Ivan the Terrible, but this is a little later than them.

12 Peter the Great Peter I started organizing Russia into one nation. Peter I started organizing Russia into one nation. When he was 25, he went to Europe for a year. When he was 25, he went to Europe for a year. He wanted to make his country more like Europe (culturally, economically, militarily, socially, etc…). He wanted to make his country more like Europe (culturally, economically, militarily, socially, etc…). ………………… …………………

13 This is for page “F” in your packets Peter I actually shaved the noblemen’s beards himself to get the process going. Ha, what guts. He was determined to modernize Russia and take them away from their old- fashioned habits. Oh I guess I should say now that beards were considered a gift from God and a man without one was an effeminate beast. Needless to say the Russians were outraged and fearful God would deny them admittance into heaven without there traditional beards. To assuage his people’s fears, Peter I decided to allow beard-growth on any man (what about bearded ladies?) so long as he paid a beard tax and had a beard license. I found this picture of what the men with beards were given after paying their beard tax. Notice the beard replica at the bottom of the token.

14 One of the first things he did – attack and get some new lands in the Baltic Sea region. One of the first things he did – attack and get some new lands in the Baltic Sea region. He also built a new home – in a new city (Saint Petersburg) which was going to be a symbol of a new Russia. He also built a new home – in a new city (Saint Petersburg) which was going to be a symbol of a new Russia. He adopted a system of mercantilism – encouraged mining, textile production, trade, exports, education. He adopted a system of mercantilism – encouraged mining, textile production, trade, exports, education. He was also an absolute monarch – and that was hard on the peasants and serfs. He was also an absolute monarch – and that was hard on the peasants and serfs. One thing he didn’t do: have a successor. He had his own son executed for treason (tortured to death). He didn’t believe the next ruler should be a descendant. One thing he didn’t do: have a successor. He had his own son executed for treason (tortured to death). He didn’t believe the next ruler should be a descendant.

15 Catherine the Great No true heir to the throne: meant chaos in Russia for about 30 years. No true heir to the throne: meant chaos in Russia for about 30 years. Finally, in 1762, Catherine proclaimed herself Tsarina. Finally, in 1762, Catherine proclaimed herself Tsarina. She admired some French philosophers and was tolerant of different religions, but she enjoyed being in power (often at serfs/peasants expense). She admired some French philosophers and was tolerant of different religions, but she enjoyed being in power (often at serfs/peasants expense). She did add to Russia’s territory. She also won (in a war) a port on the Black Sea. She did add to Russia’s territory. She also won (in a war) a port on the Black Sea.

16 Catherine was actually German and not Russian. Her marriage to Peter, the heir to the Russian throne was arranged by Peter’s mother in Once Peter assumed the throne, he proved to be an ineffective ruler, and the royal couple grew to hate each other. The nobles and common people of Russia were happy when Catherine overthrew her husband, had him murdered in 1762, and assumed the throne herself. Catherine was actually German and not Russian. Her marriage to Peter, the heir to the Russian throne was arranged by Peter’s mother in Once Peter assumed the throne, he proved to be an ineffective ruler, and the royal couple grew to hate each other. The nobles and common people of Russia were happy when Catherine overthrew her husband, had him murdered in 1762, and assumed the throne herself.

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