2Great Fire of London September 2, 1666 fire broke out in London bakery Lasted four daysDestroyed much of the cityFive people killed100, 000 Londoners were homeless
3CustomsSwearing in public was punished by paying a hefty fine determined by your social rankingTea was the common drink but cost nearly 10 pounds a pound; annual income was between 15 and 50 pounds a yearStagecoaches took a day to travel 84 miles
4Slave TradeIn 1672 a group of merchants formed the slave trade, Royal African Company, in West Africa. The RAC transported an average of 5000 Africans a year between 1680 and Shortly after, between all slave trade companies over 160,000 slaves were transported a year at 25 pound per person.
5State of the UnionIn 1707, the Act of Union established the state of Great Britain, composed pf England and Scotland. Once London was rebuilt, it continued to grow and became Europe’s largest city by 1750.
6Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces When James I succeeded the throne, he upheld the principle of the Divine Rights of Kings (the regent derives power directly from God). Catholics were forbidden to celebrate Mass and Puritans could not gather for religious meetings. Catholics went to France and Italy and Puritans went to Holland and North America.
7Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces Charles I, James’s son, came to power in Charles believed if he gave up power he would be committing a sin under the Divine Right. In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament. Charles called Parliament back in 1640, but it was too late for compromises.
8Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces Parliament called for a new constitution where they would control churches, military, judges, and ministers. This began a war between the king and the government called the English Civil War.
9Historical, Social, and Cultural Forces The English Civil War was fought between Royalist Cavaliers (loyal to king) and the Puritan Roundheads. Parliament won, due largely to Oliver Cromwell, a Puritan extremist. In 1646, Charles surrendered to the Scots who turned him over to Parliament for a large ransom. Charles was tried and found guilty of being a tyrant, among other things; he was beheaded publicly.
10Oliver CromwellOliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector of the country. Until his death in 1658, he imposed strict laws on behavior and religion. He banned theaters, dancing, music, and religious icons. He also forbade the celebration of Christmas.
11RestorationIn 1660, Parliament invited Charles II to return from exile and reclaim the throne. Charles restored many banned activities such as theaters, public festivals, new fashioned clothes, and food. Intellectual life began to flourish again.
12EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment was a European philosophical and literary movement often called The Age of Reason. It is characterized by profound faith in human reason and devotion to clarity in thought. Neoclassicism is also a literary movement which reached its pinnacle in the poetry, prose, and criticism of Samuel Johnson.
13PuritanismPuritanism was a radical form of Calvinistic Protestantism that acknowledged only the “pure” word of God as revealed in their interpretations of the Bible. John Milton, a Puritanist, valued civil liberties and was zealous in defending his beliefs, like many other Puritans of the time.
14EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment was a European philosophical and literary movement often called The Age of Reason. It is characterized by profound faith in human reason and devotion to clarity in thought. Neoclassicism is also a literary movement which reached its pinnacle in the poetry, prose, and criticism of Samuel Johnson.
15PlagueIn 1665, the bubonic plague broke out. The College of Physicians ordered houses infected to be nailed shut and the people in them to be left to their fate. So many died that their bodies were buried in communal pits rather than individual graces. More than 68,000 died. Including the Quakers and Jews, at least 100, 000 deaths total.
16RevolutionCharles II granted charter to the Royal Society of London for the Promotion of Natural Knowledge. This consisted of scientists, astronomers, architects, etc. Members included Edmund Halley and Isaac Newton.
17Rule of ReasonThe society emphasized the importance of experiment and observation. They started a journal, Philosophical Transactions, which is still published today.
18Time Line 1667 Milton publishes Paradise Lost 1685 Charles II dies, James II takes throne1707 England and Scotland unite as Great Britain1714 Alexander Pope published Rape of the Lock1726 Jonathan Swift published Gulliver’s Travels1768 Encyclopedia Britannica begins publication