Presentation on theme: "Formerly... Persia 1935 become Iran “land of the Aryans”"— Presentation transcript:
Formerly... Persia 1935 become Iran “land of the Aryans”
Nor is it surprising that Iranians return the favor. America supported the Shah, helped Saddam in the Iran-Iraq war, invaded two of Iran's neighbors and imposes sanctions on Iran. Iran took an American embassy hostage. It may have had a hand in the bombing of the American marine barracks in Lebanon in 1983 And it stands accused now of helping to kill American soldiers in Iraq. It is not surprising that many Americans consider Iran a bitter foe. We have a long history with Iran
'The greatest obstacle to this future is that your rulers have chosen to deny you liberty and to use your nation's resources to fund terrorism, and fuel extremism, and pursue nuclear weapons.' - President Bush UN Address Speaking at the UN about Iran
1925 Army Officer Reza Khan abolishes the Quajar dynasty and declares himself Shah. The Pavli Dynasty begins. Reza Shah introduced many socio-economic reforms To his supporters his reign brought "law and order, discipline, central authority, and modern amenities – schools, trains, buses, radios, cinemas, and telephones". However, his attempts of modernization have been criticized for being "too fast“ and "superficial",and his reign a time of "oppression, corruption, taxation, lack of authenticity" with "security typical of police states. In 1935, the Iranian ruler issued a letter to the League of Nations insisting the name Iran (the historical name of the nation dating back thousands of years) be used instead of Persia (Pars), which is the name of one of Iran's significant cultural provinces and the national language (Parsi / Farsi) During WWII. After initial changes to his country (western ways) he is considered to favor the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Turkey) rather than the Allied powers of the British,French, and Soviets. For this the Allied powers force him into exile and install his son Mohammad Reza who becomes the new shah
In 1935, the Iranian ruler issued a letter to the League of Nations insisting the name Iran (the historical name of the nation dating back thousands of years) be used instead of Persia (Pars), which is the name of one of Iran's significant cultural provinces and the national language (Parsi / Farsi) During WWII. After initial changes to his country (western ways) he is considered to favor the Axis powers (Germany, Italy, Turkey) rather than the Allied powers of the British,French, and Soviets. For this the Allied powers force him into exile and install his son Mohammad Reza who becomes the new shah
In August 1941, the Allied powers Great Britain and the Soviet Union invaded and occupied Iran by a massive air, land, and naval assault, subsequently forcing Reza Shah to abdicate in favor of his son. “Would His Highness kindly abdicate in favor of his son, the heir to the throne? We have a high opinion of him and will ensure his position. But His Highness should not think there is any other solution.” Reza Shah was forced, by the invading British, to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi who replaced his father as Shah on the throne on September 16, 1941. A secular Muslim himself, Mohammad Reza gradually lost support from the Shi’a clergy of Iran, particularly due to his strong policy of modernization, secularization, conflict with the traditional class of merchants known as bazaar, and recognition of Israel.
In the autumn of 1962, the government put in new laws governing elections to local and provincial councils, which deleted the former requirement that those elected be sworn into office on the Quran. Seeing in this a plan to permit the infiltration of public life, Imam Khomeini telegraphed both the Mohammad Reza Shah and the prime minister, warning them to stop from violating both the law of Islam and the Iranian Constitution of 1907, failing which the 'ulama' (religious scholars) would engage in a sustained campaign of protest. Ayatollah Khomeini
“Revolution” in name only Attempt to modernize and increase shah’s power Clergy were target (peasants got the Clergy land) Part of the reason for launching the White Revolution was that the Shah hoped to get rid of the landlords' influence and create a new base of support among the peasants and working class. The bulk of the program was aimed at Iran’s peasantry, a class the Shah hoped to gain as an ally to thwart the threat of the increasingly hostile middle class. Last straw for Khomeini—he protests, and is arrested
The internal decadence is well illustrated by the 2,500th anniversary of the founding of the Persian Empire. These celebrations consisted of a three-day party held at the site of Persepolis in October, 1971, to which only foreign dignitaries had been invited to attend. Officially, the celebrations cost $40 million, but unofficial estimates were more in the range of $100-120 million. The party included extravagances, such as over a ton of caviar, prepared by some of the two hundred chefs flown in from Paris. Meanwhile, many within Iran had insufficient food and shelter of their own.
Following the Arab-Israeli War of October 1973, Iran did not join the Arab oil embargo against the West and Israel. Instead, it used the situation to raise oil prices, using the money gained for modernization and to increase defense spending. Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi
1979 Revolution Background In the early 1970's, as the price of oil continued its upward climb, a rising gap forms between the rich and the poor. Many of them wanted the basic Shi'a Islamic lifestyle to return, and opposite to the Shah's efforts for modernism and progress, which they believed to be western dominated, imperialism. They see the Shah's reforms as self-serving and his promise of providing "progress" to be false. Even many of the pro-western middle class became increasingly angered by the regime's cronyism, internal corruption, and repressive nature and use of the secret police. Depiction if the Shah kissing the ring of USA President Jimmy Carter
Revolutionary coalition starts to emerge Urban poor —especially recent rural urban migrants who were confronted with cultural chasm between traditional and modernity social issues/rights Moderate middle class (want political freedoms) Bazaar merchants (had established networks and could bring economy to a stop) Clergy: moral focus point—they had solid centralized organization, communication networks, good orators, financial independence, mobilizing networks (mosques, Islamic foundations etc), popular slogans, legit from years of opposition to Shah—they were the “vanguard party”
Iran occupied a strategic place in U.S. foreign policy toward the Middle East, acting as an island of stability, and a buffer against Soviet penetration into the region (fear of Communism spreading) This alliance offends many in Iran Shah turns to the US The Iranian Shah meeting with Alfred Atherton, William Sullivan, Cyrus Vance, President Carter, and Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1977
Massive Street Demonstrations in 1978 and 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returns from exile (sent away by the Shah and urges mass demonstration) Many cities were placed under martial law. It was too late. People poured to the streets to defy the Shah. Soldiers were ordered to shoot. They did, and according to the opposition, more than 600 people were killed in Zhaleh Square alone. This day (September 8 1978) became known as “Black Friday “ and that square's name was changed to the Square of Martyrs. This recognition only incites more to rebel.
Soon the army refuses to support the shah and he falls The Iranian Revolution transformed Iran from a pro-western constitutional monarchy, under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic, populist theocratic republic under the rule of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini Most policymakers are elected by the people, but they are overseen by clerics who are not themselves fully accountable to anything except their own religious conscious and one another REGIME CHANGE
The US Embassy Hostage Crisis On February 14 1979 a group of Iranian students associated with a Marxist political group temporarily seized control of the US Embassy in Tehran. From the perspective of many Iranians, the Embassy literally represented the power behind the throne, which propped up the Shah’s rule and acquiesced in his despotic ways. Khomeini denounced the takeover, and forced their retreat. On November 4 the embassy was stormed a second time, taking sixty six hostage. However, on this occasion the students were followers of Khomeini, and inspired by the belief that the US was preparing a counter-revolution that would restore the monarchy. Most believed that their seizure would not be a prolonged affair. However, within a matter of days Khomeini formally endorsed the takeover, which helped project the new regime’s staunch anti-Americanism and sideline more moderate forces who sought better relations with the US. The hostage crisis would continue on for 444 days, generating frustration and a deep animosity in the US toward Iran, while serving as a source of revolutionary pride for many Iranians. In April 1980 President Carter approved a military operation to rescue the hostages, only to have the mission scuttled after an air crash en route to Tehran that killed eight servicemen. Only after Carter had been defeated by Reagan in the 1980 elections did Khomeini agree to allow the hostages to leave. To this day, the US does not have formal diplomatic relations with Iran.
First revolution in which which the dominate ideology was religion, and the leadership cadres were clergy instead of secular, lay individuals (a revolution led by religion, financed by the bazaar merchants and fought by the urban poor )
Supreme Leader Iran has had two "Supreme Leaders" Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, 1979–1989, and Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, 1989–present.
Iran’s Supreme leader taking a salute from Iranian Air Force NYT Feb 9 2007
The image of Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, the supreme leader of Iran, looking down on a street in Tehran
May 2006 The supreme leader of Iran has vetoed a ruling by President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that would have allowed women to attend major sporting events.
President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, at a speech in Iran, again called the Holocaust a "myth" that was promoted by Europeans. NYT DEC 20, 2005 October 27, 2005 Iran's New President Says Israel 'Must Be Wiped Off the Map' TEHRAN, Oct. 26 - Iran's new president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, told a group of students at an anti-Israel event on Wednesday that Israel "must be wiped off the map" and that attacks by Palestinians would destroy it, the ISNA news agency reported. He was speaking to about 4,000 students at a program called "The World Without Zionism," in preparation for an annual anti-Israel demonstration held on the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan.
Presidential election of 2008 Mir-Hossein Mousavi 39 million people voted (mainly by paper ballot) within 1 hour of polls closing they announce the winner….by a landslide Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Protests begin in the streets when election results seem “unbelievable”