Presentation on theme: "Prehistoric BritainPrehistoric Britain BC Roman Britain Roman Britain 43 AD Anglo Saxon Britain Anglo Saxon Britain 450 Viking Britain Viking Britain 793."— Presentation transcript:
Prehistoric BritainPrehistoric Britain BC Roman Britain Roman Britain 43 AD Anglo Saxon Britain Anglo Saxon Britain 450 Viking Britain Viking Britain 793 Medieval Britain Medieval Britain 1066 Tudor Britain Tudor Britain 1485 Stuart Britain Stuart Britain 1603 Georgian Britain Georgian Britain 1714 Victorian Britain Victorian Britain 1837 Modern BritainModern Britain 1902 +
Hundreds of years ago, Britain didn't have just one king - it had lots! Celtic kings and princes ruled Scotland, Ireland and Wales, and everything else was divided up between tribes of Anglo-Saxons.Anglo-Saxons Each tribe had its own king. Sometimes one king became more powerful than the others, and for a while he would be overlord or chief king. Then in early 800s, bands of Danish Vikings from northern Europe began attacking Britain. In 878, the Saxon King of Wessex, Alfred the Great won a great battle against the Danes and forced them to agree to peace. Much of Britain was divided into Danish land (the Dane law) and Anglo-Saxon Land (England).VikingsAnglo-Saxon
Gradually the Danes and the Saxons learned to live together and in 924 Athelstan (Alfred's grandson) became king of both Saxon and Danish lands - the first 'King of England'. But England wasn't peaceful for long. After about 60 years, the Viking raids began again - and only ended in 1016, when the Danish King, Canute, became King of England.
Timeline of the Kings and Queens of England from 1066 to 1603 The Normans The Normans (1066 - 1154) Plantagenets Plantagenets ( 金雀花 )(1154 - 1399) The House of Lancaster The House of Lancaster (1399 - 1461) The House of York The House of York (1461 - 1485) The Tudors The Tudors (1485 -1603)
Kings and Queens of the United Kingdom from 1603 to the present day The Stuarts The Stuarts (1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714) The House of Hanovarians The House of Hanovarians (1714 -1901) Saxe-Coburg-Gotha （萨克森 - 柯堡 - 哥塔 ） (1901 -1910) The Windsors The Windsors (1910 - Today)
The only time when there was no King or Queen in Britain was when the country was a republic between 1649 and 1660. ( In 1649 King Charles I was executed and Britain became a Republic for eleven years. The monarchy was restored in 1660.)
The Normans King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087 Invaded England from Normandy. Defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.Battle of Hastings In 1085 the Doomsday Survey was begun and all England was recorded so William knew exactly what his new kingdom contained. The Doomsday Book was, in effect, the first national census. When William died his lands were divided between his eldest two sons. Robert inherited Normandy, while William became king of England.
The Normans King William II, Rufus 1087 - 1100 Son of William I. He was called William Rufus or William the Red because of the reddish colour of his hair and complexion. He was killed in the New Forest by a stray arrow while out hunting, maybe accidentally, there is some doubt about this. The Rufus Stone in The New Forest marks the spot where he fell.
The Normans King Henry I 1100 - 1135 The fourth and youngest son of William I. Henry's two sons were drowned so his daughter Matilda was made his successor. When Henry died the Council considered a woman unfit to rule so offered the throne to Stephen, a grandson of William I.
The Normans King Stephen 1135 - 1154 Nephew of Henry I and grandson of William l. The Welsh and Scots invaded. Civil war followed between King Stephen and Matilda, Henry I's daughter. A compromise was decided, Matilda's son, Henry Plantagenet, was to be king when
The Normans Empress Matilda 1141 Daughter of Henry I. England's first female monarch. She was called the Empress because her dead husband had been the German Emperor. She had a very bad temper and wasn't very popular.
The Plantagenets King Henry II 1154 - 1189 Son of Matilda and grandson of Henry I. Came to the throne at just 21. He ruled for thirty-four years, but spent only fourteen of them in England. He controlled more of France than the King of France.
The Plantagenets King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199 Third and eldest surviving son of Henry II. He was in England for only ten months, spending the other time fighting in the *Crusades. He spoke very little English. He is usually depicted as a brave, warrior king, and was given the nickname 'Lionheart'. Richard had no children, so the next king was his brother John.
The Plantagenets King John 1 1199 - 1216 Fourth child of Henry II and brother of Richard l. Responsible for the Magna Carta (Great Charter) giving justice to all.
The Plantagenets King Henry III 1216 - 1272 Eldest son of John I. Henry was 9 years old when he became king. His reign lasted fifty-six years, making it the longest of any English monarch (NB not British monarch) In 1264 Henry was captured during a civil war and was forced to set up a 'Parlement' (from the French "parler", to talk) at Westminster, the start of the House of Commons. He rebuilt Westminster Abbey.
The Plantagenets King Edward I 1272 - 1307 Eldest son of Henry III. Edward 'Longshanks' (so called because he was over 6ft tall) fought wars against the Scots King Robert the Bruce and was called 'the hammer of the Scots'. Edward formed the Model Parliament in 1295, bringing together the knights, clergy, nobility and burgesses of the cities, bringing Lords and Commons together for the first time.
The Plantagenets King Edward II 1307 - 1327 Son of Edward I. He was called Edward of Carnarvon after his birthplace in Wales. Edward's wife raised an army to take over the Kingdom. He was murdered in gaol.
The Plantagenets King Edward III 1327 - 1377 Son of Edward II. Edward came to the throne at the age of 14. He fought many battles against the Scots and the French. Set up the Order of the Garter. The outbreak of bubonic plague, the 'Black Death' in 1348-1350 killed half the population of England. The Black Prince Edward's lll's eldest son was also called Edward. He was known as the Black Prince because of the colour of his armour.
The Plantagenets Richard II 1377 - 1399 Son of Edward the Black Prince and grandson of Edward III. Richard ruled at the time of Chaucer the poet. His cousin, Henry IV, had him murdered in prison to take over the throne.
The House of Lancaster Henry IV 1399 - 1413 Henry was eldest son of John of Gaunt (fourth son of Edward III) and grandson of Edward III. He came to the English throne by force. He made his cousin Richard ll, abdicate, and then seized the crown himself. This started a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Henry died of leprosy in 1413.
The House of Lancaster Henry V 1413 - 1422 Son of Henry IV. He was the first English king who could read and write easily in English. Henry was 14 years old when he fought his first battle. He fought the French in the battle of Agincourt and won. Died at the age of 35.
The House of Lancaster Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471 Henry succeeded the throne when he was only 9 months old. He was crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris on 16 December 1431. He lost the English claim to all French soil except for Calais. He was very ill during his reign. The war of the roses began between the House of Lancaster and the House of York. He founded Eton College in 1440. He was murdered in the Tower of London a few days after the Yorkist' victory in the Wars of Roses at Tewkesbury.
The House of York King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483 Came to the throne in 1461 after defeating Henry Vl at the Battle of Towton, in Yorkshire. He was just 19 years old. Tried to bring peace to the country. During his reign the first printing press was established in Westminster by William Caxton.
The House of York King Edward V 1483 - 1483 Elder son of Edward IV. He reigned for only two months. He and his brother Richard were murdered in the Tower of London. He was only about 12 years old when he died.Tower of London
The House of York King Richard III 1483 - 1485 Younger brother of Edward IV and prime suspect to the suspected murders of the two princes, Edward and Richard. He was killed in battle against Henry Tudor (Henry VII) ending the Wars of the Roses. He was the last English King to die on the Battlefield.
The Tudors King Henry VII 1485 - 1509 Henry gained the throne when he defeated and killed Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. The battle ended the War of the Roses, a dispute between the House of Lancaster and the House of York.King Henry VII Kept England peaceful and brought riches to the crown and country.
The Tudors King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547 Second son of Henry VII. Henry succeeded to the throne because his elder brother Arthur died in 1502. His first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was Arthur's wife. The best known fact about Henry VIII is that he had six wives! Argued with the Pope and made himself the head of the new 'Church of England'.King Henry VIII
The Tudors King Edward VI 1547 - 1553 Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour. He was never a healthy King and died aged only 15 years.King Edward VI
The Tudors Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558 Daughter of Henry VIII and Katharine of Aragón. Married Philip II of Spain. Wanted to make England Catholic again. Killed many who opposed her which is why she is remembered as Bloody Mary.Queen Mary I
The Tudors Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603 Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. During her reign great adventurers discovered many new lands. Fought off the Spanish Armada. Named James VI of Scotland her heir, uniting the two countries Scotland and England.Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth I was the last ever Queen of England. From now on the monarch, although living in England, would be known as the Monarch of the United Kingdom.
The Stuarts James I 1603 - 1625 When James became King of England, he was already a king - King James VI of Scotland. He was the first monarch to rule both countries and the first to call himself 'King of Great Britain'. However it was not until 1707 that an act of Parliament formally brought the two countries together. James authorized the translation of the King James Bible. He also had Sir Walter Raleigh executed
The Stuarts Charles I 1625 - 1649 Second son of James I. He was not brought up to be king, but his elder brother, Henry, died of Typhoid at the age of 18. Married Henrietta Maria of France. Fought against the Parliament leading to civil war. Was executed as a result on 30 January 1649.
England became a Republic for eleven years from 1649 - 1660. At first England was ruled by Parliament, but in 1653, Oliver Cromwell, commander of the army, became Lord Protector of England. He held his post until his death in 1658 (when his son briefly took over). Cromwell did not want to be king and refused the crown when it was offered to him. The Commonwealth - declared May 19th 1649 Oliver Cromwell (1653-58) Richard Cromwell (1658-59)
The Stuarts line Restored Charles II 1660 - 1685 Son of Charles I. He was crowned King of Scotland in 1651. When Richard Cromwell lost the confidence of Parliament and abdicated, Charles returned to London in time for his thirteenth birthday and to rule Great Britain (Scotland, England and Wales).
The Stuarts line Restored James II 1685 - 1688 Younger brother of Charles II. James was 15 when his father was executed. He escaped to France in 1648, disguised as a girl. Whilst king, James tried to force people to follow his Roman Catholic faith. He was very unpopular because of his persecution of the Protestants, and he was hated by the people. He was forced to give up the crown in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
The Stuarts line Restored William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694 Parliament asked William of Orange to take the throne. Mary, daughter of James II and her Dutch husband were invited to be King and Queen following James abdication.
The Stuarts line Restored Queen Anne 1702 - 1714 Sister of Mary II, the second daughter of James II. Married George of Denmark. All of her 17 children died. 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England formed Great Britain. Last Stuart sovereign.1707 Act of Union
The House of Hanoverians After Anne's death the succession went to the nearest Protestant relative of the Stuart line. This was Sophia of Hanover, daughter of Elizabeth of Bohemia, James I 's only daughter. Anne died without leaving an heir, succession to the throne passed to Sophia's son George of Hanover.
The House of Hanoverians King George I 1714 - 1727 Son of Sophia and great-grandson of James I. The first German king of England made little effort to learn the language and customs of the country and communicated with his ministers in French. He spent much of his reign in Hanover. Sir Robert Walpole became England's first Prime Minister.
The House of Hanoverians King George II 1727 - 1760 Son of George I Preferred Germany to England, but learned to speak English, unlike his father. He was the last English King to appear on the battlefield - against the French at the Battle of Dettingen in 1743.
The House of Hanoverians King George III 1760 - 1820 George III was the first Hanoverian monarch to be born in England. He was the son of Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, and grandson of George II. George III ruled for 50 years and fathered 15 children. Australia was colonised. His reign was the age of some of the greatest names in English literature - Jane Austen, Byron, Shelley, Keats and Wordsworth.
The House of Hanoverians King George IV 1820 - 1830 Eldest son of George III. He became Prince Regent while his father was very ill. Built Brighton Pavilion.
The House of Hanoveriansm King William IV 1830 - 1837 Third son of George III Became known as the "Sailor King" after joining the navy from just 13 years old. During his reign England abolished slavery in the colonies in 1833.
The House of Hanoverians Queen Victoria1837 - 1901 She was the daughter of Edward, duke of Kent (fourth son of George III) and a niece of George IV and William lV. Ruled during the industrial revolution. The British Empire became powerful, rich and confident. When Victoria died in 1901, after the longest reign in English history, the British Empire and British world power had reached their highest point. She had 9 children, 40 grand-children and 37 great-grandchildren, scattered all over Europe.
The House of Saxe - Coburg Gotha King Edward VII 1901 - 1910 The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Edward was created Prince of Wales almost immediately after his birth. He married Alexandra of Denmark and kept Europe at peace during his life. He was known as Edward the Peacemaker. He enjoyed fine food and horse racing.
The House of Windsor When George V came to the throne, he changed the family name to Windsor because of the anti-German feeling at the time. Name changed in 1917
The House of Windsor King George V 1910 - 1936 Second son of Edward VII Ruled Britain during First World War 1914 - 1918. During his reign women were allowed to vote for the first time. Sinn Fein Easter Rising in 1916 led to independent Parliament in Ireland in 1918.
The House of Windsor King Edward VIII June 1936 - abdicated December 1936 Eldest son of George V. Ruled for just 325 days. Abdicated to marry Mrs Wallis Simpson, as he was not able to marry a divorced woman and become King. Mrs. Simpson was an American, a divorcee and had two husbands still living.
The House of Windsor King George VI 1936 - 1952 Second son of George V and the shy brother of Edward VIII. He didn't expect to become King. Ruled during World War Two and refused to leave London during the blitz. The two Princesses, Elizabeth and Margaret, spent the war years at Windsor Castle.World War Twothe blitz The post-war years of his reign were ones of great social change and saw the start of the National Health Service. The whole country flocked to the Festival of Britain held in London in 1951National Health Service
The House of Windsor Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day Elder daughter of George VI. On Nov. 20, 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, duke of Edinburgh. They were in Kenya (en route for a tour of Australia and New Zealand) when the king died (Feb. 6, 1952) and Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Her coronation, on June 2, 1953, was the first to be televised. Queen Elizabeth II is the 40th monarch (King or Queen) since William the Conqueror obtained the crown of England in 1066.