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The Crusades and Papacy of the Middle Ages Notes from James Meadows.

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1 The Crusades and Papacy of the Middle Ages Notes from James Meadows

2 Reasons for Launching the Crusades The advance of Islam was stopped by Charles Martel (734) at Tours, France. Pope Urban II called (November, 1095) for all the faithful to a vast crusade. –He announced that Palestine had fallen to Moslems. –They needed to go to the rescue of the holy shrines of Palestine. –They needed to have Christianity in the East to consider and protect those who had not already fallen and regain those who had. –They needed to roll back Moslem power.

3 The Crusades Gregory VII followed Urban II. He boosted the spirit of the Crusades. His purpose was to bring Eastern Christianity under Rome, a desire for power. The Crusades were launched in 1099 and lasted about 400 years.

4 Fruits of the Crusades Did not permit for the conversion of Moslems because it heightened hatred for Christians. Middle 13 th Century there was a change of policy toward Islam. –Thomas Aquinas said, “The sword ought only to be used in defensive war.” –Aquinas also said Moslems ought to be taught. –Honorius IV joined Aquinas in teaching the Moslems and established schools (University of Paris) that encouraged learning Arabic.

5 Fruits of the Crusades The Council of Venia asked that several universities be established to prepare missionaries by teaching them Oriental languages. Literature against the Moslems began to appear all over Europe. Establishment of two orders during this time: –Dominican – Dominica –Francisisn - Francisis

6 Conditions in the Early 11 th Century Ungodliness, wickedness prevailed in the papacy. –Climaxed in 1046 when 2 popes were deposed and another forced to give up the throne. Emperor Henry III, of Germany, was a religious man. –He saw the papacy was rotten and decided to do something about it. –He went to Rome and stopped at Sutri, a little town on the way. –There were three popes at this time – Gregory VI, Benedictine IX and Sylvester III.

7 The Era of Hildebrand Henry III called a Synod at Sutri. –Gregory VI presided. –Benedictine IX and Sylvester III were deposed. –Another meeting was held at Rome and Gregory VI was asked to resign. Clement III elected next pope, reigned 9 months Benedictine IX got control again and stayed until July 16, 1048, then went to Germany.

8 The Era of Hildebrand Damasus II was elected and lived 23 days. A Frenchman called Bruno, bishop of Tours, selected December, 1048. –Was under the influence of monastery of Cluny. –Went to Rome to officially accept title. –Hildebrand told him to accept the title from the church in Rome, not Henry III. –Bruno consecrated in Feb., 1049, with the title Leo IX. –He made Hildebrand his advisor and an overseer.

9 Era of Hildebrand Five popes ruled from 1049 to 1073. Heldebrand became pope April 22, 1073. –He ruled 12 years. –Claimed by some to be most brilliant. –Came to the throne with the idea of reform –Started making changes first by making a law against Simony (the buying or selling of church office) –His view of the church and state is the most outstanding.

10 The Era of Hildebrand Henry IV did not like to be told what to do. Gregory wanted a fuss with someone and Henry was the man. Gregory VII excommunicated Henry IV and Rudolph got the throne. Gregory died May 25, 1085 at Salerno.

11 Introduction to the Age of Innocent III (1198-1216) The most important era in the study of the Middle Ages. Schaff calls it, “The golden age of the Medieval Era.” Catholicism and Innocent III enjoyed both temporal and spiritual power. No other mortal before or since has ever wielded the powers Innocent III had. He is a perfect example of Catholicism.

12 Life of Innocent III Born 1160 in Anagni, Italy Brilliant, good education, theology and canon law at University of Paris and Bologna, proficient in scholastic learning Appointed cardinal by Clement III and lived an obscure life for 8 years Devoted himself to life of literature. His writings teach all about the world is sinful He was elected pope on the day of Coelestin’s funeral and ascended the papal chair, at the age of 37, on Feb. 22, 1198.

13 Innocent III and His Works He laid the foundation for papal infallibility, although it was not enacted until 1870. Added the title – Vicar of God Over both temporal and spiritual domains He summoned and guided the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) –Established the Inquisition –Doctrine of transubstantiation became a doctrine of official dogma.

14 Innocent III and His Works He set in motion the fourth Crusade. The first inkling of rebellion is seen during his time. It seems to have descended from his power. –They thought one must submit to the pope in order to submit to Christ.

15 Innocent’s Idea of the Papacy Thoroughly convinced God established papacy for good of the church and salvation of the world Felt pope had been entrusted with dominion over the church and the world Felt he had perfect God-given right to enforce in any way complete submission to his will.

16 Innocent’s Ideas of the Papacy He used two great powers to enforce his laws –Excommunication – One individual impacted –Interdict – Whole country impacted because people were deprived of spiritual benefits Innocent III borrowed some thoughts from Hildebrand. –Pope rules over souls of men as sun by day and king rules over bodies of men as moon –The pope has regal and pontifical authority

17 Innocent and Politics The head of the German Empire, Henry IV, had married Constance, a Norman princess. –Through her he laid claim to Sicily, thus he held land north and south of the pope He died Sept. 28, 1197, just before Innocent III ascended the throne. Frederick was made king of Sicily and Innocent appointed as his guardian after Constance’s death.

18 Innocent and Politics Otto and Philip tried to get the political throne, but Innocent III chose Frederick. –He excommunicated Philip, who was later killed by Otto. –Then, he excommunicated Otto. Frederick II was crowned over the Holy Roman Empire in 1212. –Innocent called in the armies of Philip II of France and defeated Otto at Bouvines in 1214.

19 Innocent’s Further Actions King John was the cruel ruler of England. –The people drew up the Magna Charta and forced John to sign it, which was the first significant effort on the part of the people to gain freedom. –Innocent took the side of John against the Magna Charta (Catholics insist they uphold liberty). It was during this period that the Fourth Lateran Council was called and guided by Innocent (1215). –To study the means of retaking Palestine –For the betterment of the church

20 The Fourth Lateran Council Fourth Lateran Council was the largest in the West until that time –412 bishops, 800 abbots and a raft of delegates –It established the Inquisition and the doctrine of transubstantiation Last act by the council was to set the date for the 4 th Crusade (1217). –Forbade all Christians to have dealings with Saracens for the next 4 years –Any person that would participated in or contribute to would receive eternal bliss and full indulgence

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