Presentation on theme: "In a nutshell: The Fourteenth Century (1307-1399): War with France (100 Years’ War begins) Plague (1347- ) Rebellion (1381) and Deposition (1399) Heresy."— Presentation transcript:
In a nutshell: The Fourteenth Century (1307-1399): War with France (100 Years’ War begins) Plague (1347- ) Rebellion (1381) and Deposition (1399) Heresy Schism Chaucer and Gawain; Richard II and Henry IV The Fifteenth Century (1399-1485): War with France (100 Years’ War concludes) Civil War (Wars of the Roses) Printing (1470s) Henry V and Richard III The Sixteenth Century (1485-1603): Reformation (and Counter-Reformation) Humanism Sidney and Shakespeare; Henry VIII and Elizabeth
ENGLAND IN THE FOURTEENTH CENTURY 1327 Edward III accedes to the throne 1337Beginning of Hundred Years’ War 1346English victory at Crecy 1348Black Death arrives in England 1356English victory at Poitiers; French king John II captured 1377Death of Edward III; accession of grandson Richard II at age nine 1378Beginning of Great Schism (competing Popes, until 1415-18) 1381June uprising (“Peasant’s Revolt”) 1399Henry Bolingbroke deposes Richard, rules as Henry IV 1401 Statute De haeretico comburendo enacted; John Badby burned at the stake, 1410
John Badby’s execution, 1410 (from John Foxe's Book of Martyrs, 1563 edition)
Rome as a mourning widow Paris, BN MS Ital. 81, f. 18
Chaucer portrait in MS Harley 4866 (Hoccleve’s Regement of Princes, c.1412)
ENGLAND IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY, part one 1413Death of Henry IV; Henry V accedes 1415English victory at the battle of Agincourt 1420Treaty of Troyes makes Henry V heir to French throne 1422Death of Henry V; accession of Henry VI at 9 mos. Minority begins. 1431Joan of Arc captured and executed, though England is steadily losing its Frenchpossessions. 1437End of Henry’s minority 1453-54 Henry VI mad; Richard Duke of York Protector 1455Battle of St. Albans opens civil war (Wars of the Roses) 1461Battle of Towton: Henry VI deposed; Edward of York reigns as Edward IV 1469-70 Warwick’s rebellion-- Henry VI is restored to the throne
ENGLAND IN THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY, part two 1471Edward returns; Henry again deposed and murdered. 1476William Caxton sets up a printing press in Westminster 1483Death of Edward IV; his son Edward V succeeds him, but through the machinations of Richard, duke of Gloucester, he is declared illegitimate and Richard takes the throne as Richard III. Edward and his younger brother vanish. 1485Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, defeats Richard at Bosworth Field, where Richard is killed. Henry accedes as Henry VII.
A page from William Caxton’s edition of the Canterbury Tales (1476/1483)
Battles in the War of the Roses,1455-71 From http://www.richardiii.net/battles%20submenu.htm
Edward Duke of York, later King Edward IV Henry VI
Richard, Duke of York, later King Richard III Henry Tudor, later King Henry VII
ENGLAND IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 1509 Death of Henry VII; Henry VIII becomes king. 1517Luther’s 95 Theses begin the Reformation 1533 Henry divorces Catherine of Aragon, marries Anne Boleyn 1534 Act of Supremacy: Henry VIII makes himself head of the Church of England 1536- Henry VIII dissolves the monasteries and confiscates their property 1547 Death of Henry VIII; Edward VI, age 10, becomes king. 1553Death of Edward VI; Mary becomes queen and returns the country to Catholicism, persecuting Protestants. 1558 Death of 'Bloody Mary'; Elizabeth I becomes queen. Protestantism again! 1576 The first public theatre (The Theatre!) opens in London 1577 Sir Francis Drake begins voyage around the world 1588 Defeat of the Spanish Armada 1603 Death of Elizabeth; James I becomes king.
Baldassare Castiglione, Il Cortegiano (The Courtier), 1528 English translation by Sir Thomas Hoby, 1561 on Sprezzatura: But I, imagynyng with my self oftentymes how this grace commeth, leaving a part such as have it from above, fynd one rule that is most general whych in thys part (me thynk) taketh place in all thynges belongyng to man in worde or deede above all other. And that is to eschew as much as a man may, and as a sharp and dangerous rock, Affectation or curiousity and (to speak a new word) to use in every thyng a certain Reckelessness, to cover art withall, and seeme whatsoever he doth and sayeth to do it wythout pain, and (as it were) not myndyng it. And of thys do I beleve grace is muche deryved, for in rare matters and wel brought to passe every man knoweth the hardnes of them, so that a redines therin maketh great wonder. And contrarywise to use force, and (as they say) to hale by the hear, geveth a great disgrace, and maketh every thing how great so ever it be, to be litle estemed. Therfore that may be said to be a very art To cover art. that appeereth not to be art…
Captain Marvel’s Magic Word: Shazam! S The wisdom of Solomon H The strength of Hercules A The stamina of Atlas Z The power of Zeus A The courage of Achilles M The speed of Mercury
Poetry is therefore an art of imitation….to speak metaphorically, a speaking picture—with this end, to teach and delight. Sidney, Defense of Poesy, 1579 Aut prodesse uolunt aut delectare poetae aut simul et iucunda et idonea dicere uitae. (Poets wish to either benefit or delight us, or, at one and the same time, to speak words that are both pleasing and useful for our lives.) Horace, Ars poetica (c. 18 B.C.E.), ll. 333-34 (trans. Leon Golden, 1995)
Romans 15 1-7 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 1 We who are strong have an obligation to bear with the failings of the weak, and not to please ourselves. 2 Let each of us please his neighbor for his good, to build him up. 3 For Christ did not please himself, but as it is written, “The reproaches of those who reproached you fell on me.” 4 For whatever was written in former days was written for our instruction, that through endurance and through the encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 5 May the God of endurance and encouragement grant you to live in such harmony with one another, in accord with Christ Jesus, 6 that together you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ. 7 Therefore welcome one another as Christ has welcomed you, for the glory of God.
For these [poets], indeed, do merely make to imitate, and imitate both to delight and teach, and delight to move men to take that goodness in hand, which without delight they would fly as from a stranger; and teach to make them know that goodness whereunto they are moved:—which being the noblest scope to which ever any learning was directed, yet want there not idle tongues to bark at them. (Defence of Poesy, 958) …since our erected wit maketh us know what perfection is, and yet our infected will keepeth us from reaching unto it. (Defence of Poesy, 957)
Now, as in geometry the oblique must be known as well as the right, and in arithmetic the odd as well as the even; so in the actions of our life who seeth not the filthiness of evil, wanteth a great foil to perceive the beauty of virtue. This doth the comedy handle so, in our private and domestical matters, as with hearing it we get, as it were, an experience what is to be looked for of a niggardly Demea, of a crafty Davus, of a flattering Gnatho, of a vain-glorious Thraso; and not only to know what effects are to be expected, but to know who be such, by the signifying badge given them by the comedian. And little reason hath any man to say that men learn evil by seeing it so set out; since, as I said before, there is no man living, but by the force truth hath in nature, no sooner seeth these men play their parts, but wisheth them in pistrinum, although perchance the sack of his own faults lie so behind his back, that he seeth not himself to dance the same measure,—whereto yet nothing can more open his eyes than to find his own actions contemptibly set forth. (Defence of Poesy, 964)
….so think I none so simple would say that Æsop lied in the tales of his beasts; for who thinketh that Æsop wrote it for actually true, were well worthy to have his name chronicled among the beasts he writeth of. What child is there that, coming to a play, and seeing Thebes written in great letters upon an old door, doth believe that it is Thebes? If then a man can arrive at that child’s-age, to know that the poet’s persons and doings are but pictures what should be, and not stories what have been, they will never give the lie to things not affirmatively but allegorically and figuratively written. (Defence of Poesy, 967)