Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Congress of Vienna –Uprooted the revolutionary seed –How?
Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Conservatives –Who were they? –What type of government did they support? –Who did they want to run business and the economy? –What were their goals?
Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Liberals –Who were they? –What type of government did they support? –Who did they want to run business and the economy? –What were their goals?
Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Nationalism –What is the definition of modern nationalism? –How did it start in Europe? Where, why? –What are the goals of modern nationalists? –What are some negative effects of nationalism?
Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Revolts Against the Old Order –Balkans Why did the Serbians revolt against the Ottoman Empire? Key Leaders –Karageorge –Milos Obrenovic What did the Serbians actually achieve? –Autonomy - definition
Section 1: An Age of Ideologies Revolts Against the Old Order –The Greeks Why did the Greeks revolt against the Ottoman Empire? Why did the West assist the Greeks in independence? Where is the Concert of Europe?
Section 2: To the Barricades French Revolutions of 1830 & 1848 –Congress of Vienna restored Louis XVIII to the throne Charter of French Liberties –Two house legislature and allowed limited freedom of the press –Ultraroyalists – extreme conservatives wanted to restore Old Order –Battle of the ideologies - Liberals Vs Conservatives
Section 2: To the Barricades July Revolution –Causes: Louis XVIII dies brother Charles X takes throne Rejected charter – suspended the legislature, limited the right to vote, and restricted the press Liberals respond in Paris – barricades and uprisings – Rebels control Paris Charles X abdicates to England
Section 2: To the Barricades July Revolution –Radicals wanted a republic –Moderate Liberals wanted a constitutional monarchy –Chamber of Deputies (lower house of legislature) chose Louis Philippe as king Citizen King – owed his throne to the people Policies favored the middle class over the workers He extended suffrage but only for the wealthier citizens
Section 2: To the Barricades French Revolution of 1848 –Causes: Discontent: socialists – end of private property Factories shut down, poor harvests –February Days – Paris barricaded Phillipe abdicates – liberal, radical and social leads – Second republic (First was Napoleon Bonaparte) Socialists wanted far reaching social and economic change that would help Hungary workers Socialists forced the government to set up national worships to provide jobs for the unemployed
Section 2: To the Barricades French Revolution of 1848 –June days Upper and Middle class interests had won control of the government They saw workshops as a waste of time Violence – liberal and socialist desires come to a head – 1500 people killed in uprisings
Section 2: To the Barricades French Revolution of 1848 –1848 - National Assembly comes back and dominates government again –Restore order, issues a constitution – strong president one house legislature Universal male suffrage
Section 2: To the Barricades Louis Napoleon – appeared to care about issues such as poverty 1852 – crowned Napoleon III (Napoleon II was “Napoleon” son – died never took throne) –Wanted to restore the glory days of Napoleon Bonaparte –Ruled in a time of economic growth
Section 2: To the Barricades Spread of the Revolution –What happened in the following places? Belgium Poland Italy Germany –Frankfurt Assembly – first attempt to unify Germany –Tried to write a constitution of r the whole land –Should Germany be a republic or a monarchy – debated –Assembly offered Frederick William IV the throne – HE REJECTED IT! –Said it came from the people, “the gutter” not from German Princes –1849 assembly dissolved – Germany a mess
Section 2: To the Barricades Why did most of the rebellions fail? What caused most of these rebellions?
European Empires: 1660s Section 3: Latin American Wars of Independence
Causes of Latin American Revolutions 1.Enlightenment Ideas- writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine. - Women held Tertulias 2. Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions.
3. Inspiration of American & French Revolutions Declaration of Independence, 1776 Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen, 1789
Toussaint L’Ouveture Leads a Revolution in Haiti (1804)
Mexico 1810 – Father Miguel Hidalgo –Creole Priest in the poor parish of Dolores –Sept. 16 1810 called people to prayer and called people to fight for independence and liberty– “el Grito de Dolores” the cry of Dolores –After some early successes, the rebels began to face opposition –A year after his speech, Hidalgo was captured and executed
Mexico Jose Morelos –Another priest who picked up where Hidalgo left off –Wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, abolish slavery and give the vote to all men –He too was captured and shot in 1815 1821 – Spanish rule is overthrown in Mexico Agustin de Iturbide – Creole helped overthrow Spanish viceroy –Emperor Agustin I – soon to be overthrown by liberal Mexicans Republic of Mexico –Mexico will have to deal with internal struggles as well as interference from foreign powers
Central America Spanish ruled countries in Central America declared independence in 1820 After the overthrow of the viceroy in Mexico, local leaders set up a republic called: United Provinces of Central America –Short lived – fragmented into separate republics of Guatemala, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador and Costa Rica
South America - Peru Tupac Amaru – claimed to be a descendant of the royal Incan family –Demanded that the government end brutal system of forced Indian labor –1780 – Organized a revolt –Revolt crushed – leader killed –Spanish King DID order officials to look into the system and eventually abolish it
Simón Bolivar: The “Brains” of the Revolution Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela. Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.
Bolivar’s Failure After uniting Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador into Gran Columbia, he left to help free the rest of Latin America. He died a year later, with his goal of uniting all of South America unfulfilled!
Brazil Freed from Portugal The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil. Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal. Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.
Independence for Spanish & Portuguese Latin America By the mid-1820s, revolts create many newly-independent nations. $Toussaint L’Ouveture – Haiti $Bolívar, San Martín, & O’Higgins in: Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Peru, Bolivia, the United Provinces of Central America, and Gran Columbia!
1. Life did not change for most people Independence did not take away all the problems the countries faced while still colonies If anything, problems got worse
2. No Unity! Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America: $Many newly independent countries struggle with civil wars. By 1830s, geographic factors (mts., the Amazon, etc.) plus cultural differences defeated attempts at unification. $Gran Columbia. $United Provinces of Central America.
3. Social Classes did not change The Peninsulares will die out after independence The creoles will take their place and exert control and misuse the lower classes
4. Democracy Did Not Come Colonies did have the know how to organize and put into place a working democratic government
5. Left Many Countries in the Control of Caudillos WHY? – little experience with self government WHO WERE THEY?: $BUT…Overthrew governments and took away basic human rights. $Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends [nepotism]. $Power changes usually occurred at bayonet-point [coup d’etats!]
6. Catholic Church Supported Old System Catholic Church owned most of the land in Latin America and wished to keep control of it.
7. Cash Crop Economies Newly independent countries did not have their mother countries to rely on for trade Countries were not industrialized. They only grew cash crops such as coffee, tobacco, etc. Cash crop economies are dangerous If the crop should fail, the economy collapses If people are only growing cash crops there will be a lack of food
8. Economic Dependency Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments. The nations are desperate for other countries to buy their goods What they have to offer is natural resources and therefore are dependent on the US and Britain for manufactured products