Presentation on theme: "Age of Absolutism The Domestic Policies of the Sun King--- Louis XIV."— Presentation transcript:
Age of Absolutism The Domestic Policies of the Sun King--- Louis XIV
After the 30 years War….. Treaty of Westphalia- independent Northern Netherlands Goals of Cardinal Richelieu- expand French land at Hapsburg expense Treaty of the Pyrenees- end rivalry with Spain Little Louis XIII- regent Marie D-Medici with Richelieu to Mazarin
Goals of Richelieu/Mazarin Manifest Destiny Restore France to one religion Control economy Increase power of the king by reducing power of the nobility
The Fronde!!! Nobility to fight back one more time!! Take over Paris- Invade the Tuilleries Frighten little Louis XIV Mazarin puts revolt down but fate of nobility is sealed!!
Louis XIV takes control… Intendents- royal officers report directly to king Spies to ferret out conspiracy of nobility Creates a national army- Louisvois Builds Versailles- control court life Yearly payment to favored nobility Parlements- regional courts/councils
Colbert controls economy.. Mercantilism growth of French academies/arts Encouraged farming improved infrastructure Ends stealing by gov officials Tariffs on foreign goods Enlarged navy- improved trade
Grandeur of The Sun King Domestication of nobility Life revolves around him- keep the nobility busy!!! L’estat c’est moi!!!! Louis meets his goals domestically
Dark Side of Louis -- His wars! “You’re so Vain!!!” and ambitious! Extravagant Money for favorites Building of and Court life at Versailles Tax burden only on “3 rd Estate” Can you spell “economic crisis” in the future???
1667- Invades Spanish Netherlands Owned by Hapsburgs Invents “claims “ to border lands claiming it belonged to his Spanish wife! French troops capture border towns + Franche-Compte Holland has Eng and Sweden join in Triple Alliance against France. Forced to make peace. Fr keeps some border towns. Gives back some F- C.
1672– It’s Holland’s Turn!! Envies Holland trade. Breaks up Triple alliance by bribing Charles II-Eng. Invades Northern Netherlands William of Orange opens levees/stops French advance! War ends with compromise– Louis leaves North Netherlands in exchange for Franche-Compte
1689-97- I want PALATINATE! Wants this rich HRE territory- Alliance forms against France with North Netherland AND the new English King– William of Orange!!! After 8 years of indecisive battles, Louis agrees to make peace.
THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION!!! (the big one!) King of Spain leaves no heir. Louis’ grandson, Phillip, in line along with son of HRE Leopold (both had married Spanish sisters) King of Spain dies leaving throne to little Phillip Louis accepts for Little Phillip– War begins!!
New Alliance against Louis Eng, Netherlands and Austria Duke Of Marlborough for Eng Eugene of Savoy for Austria Queen Anne’s War in colonies- fighting between France and England All battles go against France– both land and sea. Louis forced to make Peace!!
English Absolutism 1603-1688 James I ( son of Mary Queen of Scots) Charles I ( chop chop) English Civil War Interregnum Charles II James II Mary and William ( she’s the Stuart- she gets top billing in my book!!!)
James I (also James VI of Scotland) 1603-1625 Poor working relationship with Parliament Search for Catholic wife for son Charles Did not like “Dissenters” in Parliament
Parliament’s reply to James I Help protestants in 30 years war Enforce anti-Catholic laws Reduce spending Urged son Charles to take protestant wife
“Great Protestation” when James decrees Parliament has no influence in these areas, Parliament issues “Great Protestation” Document outlined Parliaments jurisdictions James tears up document dismisses Parliament for remainder of his rule
Charles I 1625-1649 Same attitude toward Parliament but…. Needed money for wars so…. Called Parliament (still sore from James I) and they say no money Charles begins creative methods of collecting revenue “LOANS” from wealthy middle class Additional tariffs on imported goods
Petition of Right 1628 Parliament defines King’s power Major document in constitutional process Charles signs it …then ignors it “Shake down continues” Dismissed Parliament 1629 Rules 11 years without Parliament
Sidebar on Charles +religion Married French Catholic William Laud, Arch. Of Canterbury- autocratic Prosecute clergy who didn’t use “Little Edward’s Prayer Book” Court of High Commission- ( English inquisition?) Hatred for Church of England grew
1600- Protestant sects in England Presbyterians (largest),Puritans, Baptists, Quakers Many migrated from persecution in France + HRE often called dissenters Separatists- had no association with other sects but wanted religious freedom
Charles I against Scotland Charles tried forcing adherence of Presbyterians in Scotland to Anglican Church. Scots rebelled Charles wanted an army to put Scottish rebellion down but needed money from Parliament to do so.
OH NO Charles calls Parliament!! Needs money for war against Scotland Charles calls Parliament in 1640 and begins a series of events that will lead to Civil War. Called “Long Parliament” meets for 13 years
Parliament never forgets….. The “Long Parliament” begins where the “Petition of Right” left off.— They called to account Charles’ officials and charged them with treason. Parliament also passed laws so they could not be dissolved. had to meet every 3 years even if the King did not call them abolished the “Court of High Commission”
Parliament never forgets …(continued) Forbade Charles to collect illegal taxes Put an end to Charles despotic rule Drew up the “Grand Remonstrance” which stated the Kings offenses and proposed reforms. THIS LEADS TO “CIVIL WAR”!!!
English Civil War (1642- 1660 ) Both sides begin to gather troops Cavaliers- support Charles Roundheads- Support Parliament
Roundheads mean business Puritans in Parliament outlaw Anglican Church (1642). Roundheads find a leader in Oliver Cromwell. Charles gets support from Ireland and Northern England. War goes against Charles from the beginning
Charles is captured !!! Charles is surrounded. expecting good treatment—Charles surrenders to the Scottish army who immediately turn him over to Cromwell and Parliament Charles was imprisoned for 2 years.
Death sentence for Charles I In 1648, The Puritans kept all known royalty sympathizers out of Parliament— they then voted to condemn Charles on charges of treason. On Jan 30, 1649, Charles was beheaded in front of his palace in London ( A small group of extremists put Charles to death)
English Commonwealth under Oliver Cromwell 1649-1660 Also known as Interregnum May 19, 1649- “Rump Parliament” declares England a commonwealth ( a republic without a King or House of Lords) Oliver Cromwell was the real ruler with a 50,000 man army. Common people still felt Charles I was the rightful ruler albeit a “bad ruler”.
Cromwell- trouble on all sides- particularly Ireland and Scotland Ireland- supports Charles II as king- Cromwell takes army and crushes them Irish Catholics still have not forgotten or forgiven(roots of current “troubles”) Scotland- Charles II returns to Scotland from England- Cromwell totally annihilates Scottish army—“Chuck” II returns to France
More trouble for Cromwell 1651- Navigation Act- forbade bringing goods to England except in English vessels (leaves out Dutch trade!! Oh no not supporting fellow Protestants—Oh that’s right—they’re not the Dissenters type of Protestant!!!)SOOOOO--- 1654 brief war with Dutch over trade!!
“Rump” Parliament becomes unpopular by 1653 despite all their piety--- Took bribes Practiced extreme nepotism—(not to be confused with extreme sports) Held office for 13 years
Rump Parliament must GO… April 1643- Cromwell dismisses Rump Parliament and chooses his own Parliament Using same technique to kill Charles I— Cromwell’s more radical members arrive early to Parliament—exclude the more moderate members and vote Cromwell “Lord Protector”!!! Then dismiss themselves!!
Cromwell then rules as dictator until his death in 1658 Used strong army to keep peace Created good foreign relations But could not establish secure government due to much opposition— royalists, Anglicans, proponents of true republicanism
Confusion!! 1658-1660 Cromwell’s son takes over after father’s death/what does this sound like?? Most people began to look to the return to “legitimate” Monarchy
New Parliament 1660 Charles II contacts them from France— willing to return and promised to : Pardon all who took part in rebellion Permit confiscated lands to remain with current owner Consent to bill granting religious tolerance
RESTORATION OF STUART RULE the “puritan revolution” is over!!! Charles II never defies Parliament-- swore to uphold Great Charter(Magna Carta), Petition of Right
Parliament—made up of mostly Cavaliers—( and mostly as reaction to Puritan Revolution Re-establish the Anglican Church Pass a number of intolerant acts— aimed at Dissenters and ensuring the Anglican Church Attempted to keep Presbyterians and Independents from holding political office
Parliament passes: 1662- Act of Uniformity- required use of Edward’s Prayer book or clergy/teacher loses job 1672 Parliament passes “Test Act”- denies all but Anglican from holding political office( this will survive into the 19 th century!!)
Charles issues: “Declaration of Indulgence” to suspend enforcement of laws against Catholics and Dissenter.(Charles favored tolerance- tried to block all legislation prohibiting worship outside the Anglican Church) Parliament protested his interference—Charles II withdrew “Declaration”
Charles’ war and death Charles II has second war with Netherlands over trade- no decisive victory but England gets control of New York!!! Charles II succeeded by brother James II (Charles makes a death bed confession that he is a true Catholic!!!!)
James II has short memory—acts much like Charles I (chop-chop) J is ardent and openly Catholic English people tolerate James II as long as they felt he would be succeeded by his Protestant daughter Mary who was married to protestant William of Orange from Netherlands. BUT--- James marries a second time –a Catholic and has SON!!! Who now is in succession to the throne!!!
GLORIOUS REVOUTION OF 1688 Parliament sent for William and Mary—asked them to accept throne of England No bloodshed—(OK maybe someone broke a fingernail….) James II flees England as nobility march through London – pledging support to Mary and William. Parliament declares the throne vacant because James II had not lived up to Magna Carta—( see Locke’s theory on Social Contract in this???)
Parliament Passes “Bill Of Rights” in 1689 Defines rights of people Limits power of the monarchy King may not suspend laws of realm Can not free subjects from obeying law May not levy taxes or maintain army without consent of Parliament May not interfere in elections, free speech proceedings of Parliament
What were the Goals of the Glorious Revolution? Parliament Passes “Toleration Act” 1689- freeing dissenters from penalties by failing to attend Anglican Church services. Dissenters were recognized but still could not hold public office. King “owed” the crown—not divine right as justification to rule but will of Parliament!!
Settles Succession Question: “Act of Settlement” 1701 – provided that heir to English throne was protestant—if no protestant heir in reigning family then goes to nearest protestant relative. (after the death of Anne- Mary’s younger sister—throne will go to German House of Hanover)
ABSOLUTISM- OUT! CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY - IN!! Glorious Revolution ended the struggle between King and Parliament. Taxes: instead of lifelong guarantee for king; now year by year Funds for army voted annually King no longer controls army King could not accumulate wealth at expense of citizens
Absolutism Epilogue William III outlives Mary by 8 years— throne goes to Mary’s sister Anne(1702- 1714) 1707- union of Scotland and England- one parliament/one flag--- the Union Jack– Finally!
Absolutism Epilogue 1714-none of Anne’s 14 children survive her—Act of Settlement invoked Son of James I’s granddaughter Sophia who was married to Elector of Hanover is new king- George I—German and member of HRE
Positive Consequence of English Civil War Birth of political Parties in England Cavaliers to Tories to Conservative Roundheads to Whigs to Labour