Presentation on theme: "Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe"— Presentation transcript:
1 Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe Chapter 9Civilization in Eastern Europe: Byzantium and Orthodox Europe
2 Map of Byzantine Empire under Justinian (527-565)
3 The Byzantine EmpireAfter 476 C.E. Rome was under the control of foreigners who themselves claimed to be continuing the empireThe Byzantine empire continued as before, believing themselves to be the Roman Empire.Their empire was centered in ConstantinopleIn the 4th century, Emperor Constantine established the capital here.It was able to hold off barbarian invaders
4 Had a predominately Greek character Byzantines through the course of the first millennium AD had to deal with cultural influences and political threats from European cultures, Asian cultures and, primarily, Islam after the seventh century.
5 The Byzantine Empire, with territory in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the eastern Mediterranean, maintained very high levels of political, economic, and cultural life between C.E.The empire continued many of the traditions of the western empire and spread its Orthodox Christianity to most of Eastern Europe, Belarus, Ukraine and Russia.
6 JustinianAttempted to reconquer Western territory but without lasting successAttacks from Slavs and Persian weakened frontiersSerious financial pressuresRebuilt Constantinople(Hagia Sophia)Justinian’s Code of Law(Corpus IurisCivilis)- it was also the first systematic attempt tosynthesize Roman lawand jurisprudence with Christianity- became the foundation of all Europeanlaw and legal practice (except for England).the persecution of hereticalChristians
7 Empress Theodora Byzantine empress and consort of Justinian I According to Procopius, already been an actress, dancer and courtesan when she won the heart of the ambitious JustinianShe eventually became his mistress, wife and the sharer of his throne (527)During the Nike Riots of 532, it was Theodora who saved the throne or herself and her husband by her courage. She lavished goods upon the poor, especially the unfortunate of her own sex. Her character remained exemplary until the appearance of The Secret History (Historia Arcana) of Procopius (1623), whose chief aim was to defame both Justinian and Theodora.
9 Arab Pressures and the Empire’s Defenses Successors of Justinian’s concentrated on the empire’s defenseRevived empire withstood invasions of Arab Muslims (however some important regions were lost-Eastern Med./M.E. heartlandFree rural population was weakened (those who paid taxes and served in the military)
10 BulgariaStrong rivalBasil II, the Byzantine emperor, conquered this kingdom in 1014At the close of the tenth century the Byzantine emperor may have been the strongest contemporary ruler.
11 Byzantine Society/Culture Relied on Constantinople's control of countrysideWhile classical studies, science, and philosophy largely dissipated in the Latin West, Byzantine education and philosophy still zealously pursued these intellectual traditionsCultural life centered on Hellenistic secular traditions and Orthodox ChristianityArt and architecture was elaborate- domed buildings, colored mosaics, and painted icons expressed an art linked to religion.
12 Byzantine Politics Resembled earlier Chinese system (emperor (patriarch) ordained by God and surrounded by an elaborate court ritual)The “patriarch” ruled both church and stateWomen occasionally held the throneElaborate bureaucracyCareful military organizationTroops recruited locally and given land in return for serviceEmpire socially and economically relied on Constantinople's control of the countryside
13 East/West SplitThroughout the middle ages various differences in political organization, culture and economic organization and the various versions of Christianity help illustrate the rift between east and west.Charlemagne in 800 was crowned Holy Roman Emperor causing hostility1054- final straw- Empire split due to the disagreement over what bread to use in the mass and the celibacy of priests caused the schismAlthough the two remained separate, there was still a common classical heritage shared
14 Decline of Empire 11th century: a long period of decline began Muslim Turkish invadersManzikert 1071Independent Slavic states in Balkans1204- Crusaders- Venetian merchants sack Constantinople1453- Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople
15 The Spread of Christianity Byzantine influence spread to the people of the Balkans and Southern Russia through conquest, commerce, and ChristianityCyril and Methodius- missionaries who devised a written script (Cyrillic) for the Slavic language providing a base for literacy in Europe.
16 Borderlands What is a “borderland?” Competition between eastern and western missionaries in the eastern EuropeRoman Catholics succeed in Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.Poland, Bohemia and Lithuania developed regional monarchies and ruled with a powerful landholding aristocracy.Also, Eastern Europe received an influx of Jews from the Middle East and Western EuropeThey were often barred from agriculture but participated in local commerce
17 Kievan RusSlavic Peoples migrated to Russia (during time of Roman Empire)Mixed with and incorporated local populationPossessed iron and extended agriculture in Ukraine and western RussiaAnimistic religion with rich tradition in music and oral legend
18 Rurik and Vladimir I Danish merchant 885- established a monarchy Loosely organized they flourished until the 12th century when Kiev became a prosperous commercial center.Contacts with the Byzantines led to the Conversion of Vladimir I ( ) to Orthodox ChristianityVladimir controlled church appointments and issued a formal law code
19 Institutions and Culture in Kievan Rus Borrowed much from Byzantine EmpireOrthodox Christian practicesDevotion to God’s power and the saintsOrnate churchesIconsmonasticismCultural, social and economic patterns developed differently from the western European experiencePolygamy yielded to Christian monogamyAlmsgiving was emphasizedArt and literature were heavily influenced by the Orthodox religionArchitecture was adapted from the Byzantines to fit local conditionsPeasants wer free farmers, and aristocratic landlords (Boyars) had less political power than the similar Westerners
20 Kievan Decline 12th century Rival princes established competing governments while the royal family quarreled over the successionMongol invasions of the 13th century incorporated Russian lands into their territoriesMongol (Tatar) dominance spread even to the western dominated areas of eastern EuropeMongols were tolerant in regards to religion and did not interfere with local religion as long as tribute was paid
21 End of Mongol controlWhen Mongol control ended in the 15th century, a Russian cultural and political tradition incorporation the Byzantine inheritance reemerged.The Russians claimed to be the successors of the Roman Empire and Byzantine states and declared Moscow as “Third Rome”
22 The End of an Era in Eastern Europe Difficult period for Eastern EuropeMongol invasionsRussia declineCollapse of ByzantiumBorder territories (i.e. Poland) fell under Western influence while the Balkans fell under the Influence of the Islamic world of the Turks (Ottoman Empire)Western and eastern Europe evolved separately, with the former pushing ahead in power and cross-cultural sophistication
23 Global Connections Byzantines- active in interregional trade Constantinople was one of the worlds greatest trading centers (geographical location)When Byzantium declined and the Mongols conquered Russia a period of isolation beganBy the 15th century, Russia began to regain independence and faced decisions about how to re-engage with the West