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Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Chapter 28 Pages 644 – 671.

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Presentation on theme: "Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Chapter 28 Pages 644 – 671."— Presentation transcript:

1 Descent into the Abyss: World War I and the Crisis of the European Global Order Chapter 28 Pages 644 – 671

2 Images 29.1: What the image is…and what is going on with that image…how it relates to the chapter.

3 MAIN Europeans leaders thought their goals could only be achieved by force The glorification of armed strength took rise during this time Otherwise known as militarism Mobilization of military was also important Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism

4 The System of Alliances The Triple Alliance Italy Germany Austria-Hungary The Triple Entente France Russia Also had a secret alliance with Italy Great Britain Video

5 The Balkan “Powder Keg” Provided outlet to the sea Russia seeking to improve trade Fall of Ottoman Empire Rise of Baltic Nations Pan-Slavism Uniting of all Slavic people under one government Austria – Hungary was opposed to this The arch-duke of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was assassinated by a Serbia terrorist An ultimatum was made by A-HE Serbia must suppress all groups that opposed the throne Serbia must dismiss teachers and destroy books that did not support throne Serbia must dismiss government officials that did not support throne Austro-Hungarian officials must be a part of the trial of the assassins If these demands were not met, military action would be used –Austria declared war on Serbia in July of 1914

6 Mobilization of Europe Russia supported Serbia Began to mobilize troops Germany told them to stop or face war Germany disregarded Belgian neutrality Marched through Belgium on the way to France England declared war later that day

7 The War Expands Japan joined Great Britain and France Italy signed secret treaty with Great Britain, France and Russia for share of spoils Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria joined Austria-Hungary and Germany

8 The Belligerents Belligerents or offending nations became known as the Central Powers Central Powers had more rapid communications and movement Better army Allied Powers had more: Soldiers Better industry Better navy

9 Innovations in Warfare Machine gun U-boat Submarines – videovideo Poison gas Airplane Tank Video Propaganda Selected bits of information to promote cause

10 Early Years of the War Fighting on Gallipoli Peninsula off of Constantinople Naval warfare French and British ships bombarded Ottoman Empire The British and Germans set up blockades Germans sank a cruise liner, killing 128 Americans Received a stern warning from President Woodrow Wilson The stalemate – a war of attrition Each side was trying to outlast the other

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12 The United States and World War I Contraband America supplied both sides since we were neutral Propaganda about German atrocities Heinous acts against defenseless civilians in Europe The German foreign minister sent a secret telegram to Mexico requesting an alliance Offered to help Mexico regain Texas, New Mexico and Arizona if they would fight on German side The British intercepted it, and they published it in American newspapers Unrestricted submarine warfare cost many innocent American lives Democratic ideals The Russian people overthrew the Czar and America felt it must defend democracy and declared war in April of 1917 (video)(video)

13 Russia in World War I Causes of Russian Uprising Poverty Suppression of democracy Weak Duma Military took the side of the demonstrators

14 Lenin and the Bolsheviks Two groups in Russia after revolution One that was trying to piece nation back together Mensheviks Promised to continue war One that was more radical Bolsheviks Led by Vladimir Lenin Slogan was peace, bread, and land Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies –Soviet means council Appealed to the poor Russian masses Believed in equality of humans and equality of economics Formed basis of communism Overthrew the provisional government in October revolution –Named their new party the Communist Party (video)video

15 Peace and Civil War Lenin signed peace treaty with Central Powers Gave up some land Executed Czar and family Communists fought socialist opposition Led to Civil War Reds – Communists Whites – counter revolutionary army Reds won after three years and named the new nation the Union of Soviet Socialistic Republics (USSR)

16 Defeat of the Central Powers Russia’s withdrawal allowed the Germans to pull troops out of the east and put them on the western front Arrival of American troops greatly aided the allies With America’s help the Allies stopped the Germans 37 miles from Paris Began to push the Germans back to their own border Austria-Hungary’s throne was dissolved and the two became separate nations Turks also asked for peace Kaiser finally gave up his throne and an armistice was signed to stop the fighting Between 8 – 10 million people died in the fighting Total cost of the war was 300 billion dollars

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18 The Paris Peace Conference Problems facing the peacemakers Dominated by the four main Allied Powers U.S., France, Great Britain, and Italy Some countries were excluded Territorial conflicts Reparations and peacekeeping Allies wanted Germany to pay League of Nations

19 What Kind of Peace? Paris Peace Conference Conflicting viewpoints Treaty of Versailles United States wanted fair settlement Many Allies wanted to punish Germany and break it up into regions occupied by Allied forces (video)video

20 The Treaty of Versailles Individual treaties with each offending country No draft Maximum of 100,000 men No heavy artillery, military planes, or submarines Ally occupation of Rhineland Reparation were to be paid by Germany at no determined amount or time period Poland made independent nation Alsace Lorraine was returned to France Video

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22 The Fourteen Points When the war ended President Wilson came up with 14 Points to make the world a more just place Six general points to ensure a just and safer world No secret treaties Freedom of the seas for all nations Removal of all economic barriers – tariffs, etc. Adjustment of colonial claims to make them fair to both the imperialist powers and to colonies Establishment of a “general association of nations” Eight points dealt with specific regions and countries The points impressed people throughout the world Video

23 Fates of Former Territories Ethnic populations New territorial lines were not ethnically correct Parts of Germany were given to Czechoslovakia Parts of Hungary were given to Romania Genocide occurred Systematic killing of a certain ethnic group –In Turkey Armenians were the victims Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and Russia Bulgaria had to give territory to Greece and lost its outlet to the seas Ottoman Empire was reduced to mostly just Turkey Russia Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania all declared independence and were recognized by the League of Nations

24 The League of Nations Two goals Maintain peace Promote international cooperation Organization Assembly Representatives of all member nations Council Consisted of 9 main countries to ensure peace Secretariat World Court Now located in The Hague in The Netherlands Mandates Colonies of defeated powers ruled by “advanced” governments The start of the League 42 member nations grew to 59 by the 1940s


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