2TABLE OF CONTENTS WHO WERE THE STUARTS JAMES I (1603 – 1625) CHARLES I (1625 – 1649)FOCUS: THE PETITION OF RIGHTS (1628)REPUBLICAN PARENTHESIS: CROMWELLCHARLES II (1660 – 1685)JAMES II (1685 – 1688)WILLIAM ( ) AND MARY ( )ANNE I ( )
3WHO WERE THE STUARTS ?The Stuarts were the first kings of the United Kingdom.The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 to 1714, a period which saw a flourishing Court culture but also much upheaval and instability, of plague, fire and war.The end of the Stuart line with the death of Queen Anne led to the drawing up of the Act of Settlement in 1701, which provided that only Protestants could hold the throne.
4JAMES I ( )James I of England and VI of Scotland was the son of Mary Queen of Scots by her second husband Lord Darnley.The accession of James VI of Scotland as James I of England, united the countries of England and Scotland under one monarch for the first time.He believed in the Divine Right of KingsHe forbade any interpretation of church doctrine different to his own and made Sunday Church- going compulsory.
5JAMES I ( )He also introduced English and Irish Protestants into Northern Ireland through the Ulster Plantation schemeHe tried to keep England at peace with the rest of Europe.His choice of favourites alienated ParliamentHe was not able to solve the country's financial or political problems (when he died in 1625 the country was badly in debt).
6CHARLES I ( )He was James I's son and came to the throne after his father's death.He did not share his father's love of peace and embarked on war with Spain and then with France.In 1629 he dismissed Parliament and ruled alone for the next eleven years.Like his father he also believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
7CHARLES I ( )His attempt to impose Anglicanism on Scotland led to revolt: two “Bishops Wars” ( ).Charles' financial state had worsened to such a degree that he had no choice but to recall a Parliament.Parliament's condemnation of his style of rule would lead the country to Civil War and Charles I to his execution in 1649.
8FOCUS: PETITION OF RIGHT (1628) In 17th century England, King Charles I broke up Parliament and ruled England on his own.In response, Edward Coke presented the Petition of Right.This document reminded Charles I that the law gave Englishmen their rights, not the king.Coke’s petition focused on Charles’s violations of the law.The king accepted the Petition of Right, but soon broke his word and resumed the violations.This struggle resulted in a civil war and ended with the beheading of Charles I in 1649
9OLIVER CROMWELLIn 1649, he took the title Lord Protector of the Commonwealth.He disliked the Irish Catholics and, on the pretence of punishment for the massacre of English Protestants in 1641, he lay siege to the town of Drogheda in 1649 and killed most of its inhabitants.Having conquered Ireland he declared war on the Netherlands.He established colonies in Jamaica and the West Indies.
10OLIVER CROMWELLHe faced opposition from those who supported Charles II as the rightful King.He established a sound reputation for the Commonwealth by the time of his death inHe was succeeded by his son Richard, who had no wish to rule.Cromwell's opponents overthrowed him and restored the monarchy with the accession of Charles II.
11CHARLES II ( )After his father's execution in 1649, he was formally recognised as King of Scotland and Ireland.In 1651 he led an invasion into England to defeat Cromwell and restore the monarchy: he was defeated.In 1660 he was invited, by parliament, to return to England as King Charles II: Restoration.Known as the 'Merry Monarch' because of his love of parties, music and the theatre.
12CHARLES II ( )Charles was forced to marry Portuguese Catherine of Braganza for the large dowry she would bring.He allied England with France, a move that led to war with the Dutch and the acquisition of New Amsterdam.Charles II died in 1685.
13JAMES II (1685-1688) He succeeded his brother Charles to the throne. James conversion (1671) to Roman Catholicism caused the House of Commons to attempt, unsuccessfully, to exclude him from the throne.James also evaded the Test Act of 1673, promoting Catholics to high office and military commissions.
14JAMES II ( )The Duke of Monmouth immediately mounted an uprising against James II but it was crushed and a series of treason trials known as the Bloody Assizes followed.The Bloody Assizes led to an increasing number of calls for James to be replaced by his son-in-law, William of Orange.William's subsequent invasion of England and accession to the throne is known as The Glorious Revolution. James fled to France where he lived until his death in 1701.
15WILLIAM (1689-1702) AND MARY (1689-1694) William III and his wife Mary II (James II's daughter), were proclaimed joint sovereigns of England in 1688 following the Glorious Revolution.They were accepted by Scotland, but Ireland, which was mainly Catholic, remained loyal to James II.William led an army into Ireland and James was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.Mary II died in 1694 and William ruled alone until his death in 1702
16ANNE I ( )She was the sister of Mary II and was married to Prince George of Denmark.She was a Protestant and supported the Glorious Revolution that replaced her father with her sister and brother-in-law.In 1707 the Act of Union formally united the Kingdoms of England and Scotland.She was the last Stuart monarch as none of her eighteen children survived beyond infancy.Anne died in 1714.