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 Charles V: Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella  Hapsburg Empire: Included HRE and Netherlands  Constant warfare  Enemy: Ottoman Empire  Too scattered.

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Presentation on theme: " Charles V: Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella  Hapsburg Empire: Included HRE and Netherlands  Constant warfare  Enemy: Ottoman Empire  Too scattered."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Charles V: Grandson of Ferdinand and Isabella  Hapsburg Empire: Included HRE and Netherlands  Constant warfare  Enemy: Ottoman Empire  Too scattered for one person to rule  Divided empire and left to enter monastery  Philip II  Son of Charles V  Strengthened Catholic Church  Made own power absolute  Silver from Americas  Isolated  Absolute monarch: ruler with complete authority  Divine right: believed his authority came directly from God

3  Attempted to advance Spanish Catholic power  Defeated Ottomans  Protestant rebellions in Netherlands/Luxembourg  Richest part of empire  Opposed high taxes and Spanish rule  1581: Protestants declared independence  Became known as Dutch Netherlands  Official recognition in 1648

4  Queen Elizabeth I was chief Protestant enemy  Supported Dutch against Spain  Encouraged English “Sea Dogs” to plunder treasure ships  Looted Spanish cities in Americas  Spanish Armada  Huge fleet to carry Spanish invasion force to England  1588  130 ships  20,000 men  2,400 pieces of artillery  Battle in English Channel  Spain lost many ships  English ships were lighter and faster  Storm blew in and scattered the Armada

5  Power and prosperity slowly declined  Lack of strong leadership  Phillip II’s successors weak  Costly wars overseas  Treasure from Americas led to neglecting farming and commerce  Heavily taxed middle class  Weakening the group that supported royal power  Expulsion of Muslims and Jews deprived economy of skilled merchants and artisans  American gold led to soaring inflation  Late 1600s: France replaced Spain as most powerful European nation 

6  1560-1590  Huguenots (French Protestants) vs. Catholic majority  Tore France apart  St. Bartholomew’s Day 1572: Royal wedding celebration  Massacre of 3,000 Huguenots  Day symbolized complete breakdown of order in France

7  1589: Huguenot Prince inherited throne  Became Catholic  “Paris is well worth a Mass”  Edict of Nantes: 1598  To protect Protestants  Religious toleration  Goal of “a chicken in every pot”  Government  Justice, roads, bridges, agriculture  Reduced influence of nobles  Royal absolutism  Killed by assassin in 1610  Son Louis XIII inherited throne  1624: Appointed Cardinal Armand Richelieu  Sought to destroy Huguenots and nobles  Outlawed armies

8  Disorder  Fronde  Uprising  Nobles, merchants, poor rebelled  “I am the state”  Divine right  Took sun as symbol of divine power  Estates General did not meet  Strengthened royal power  Strongest army in Europe  300,000 soldiers

9  Finance minister  Mercantilist policies  Farming, mining  High tariffs on imported goods  Encouraged overseas colonies in Americas  Wealthiest state in Europe

10  Louis turned royal hunting lodge into immense palace  Spared no expense  Symbol of wealth  Housed 10,000 people  Nobles and servants  Elaborate court ceremonies  Levee: ritual of rising  Hold royal wash basin, handing king his diamond buckled shoes  At night, ceremony repeated in reverse

11  Ruled for 72 years  French culture replaced Italy as the “standard” for European taste  Wars  Poured vast resources into wars  Gained some territories  English and Dutch fought to maintain balance of power  Wars of Spanish Succession  Philip V of France inherited throne of Spain  European powers worked to prevent alliance  France signed Treaty of Ultrecht in 1713 to end wars  Agreed not to unite two crowns  Persecuted Huguenots by revoking Edict of Nantes  100,000 fled  Among most hardworking and prosperous of Louis’s subjects

12  1485-1603  Ruled by Tudor dynasty  Divine right  Valued good relations with Parliament  Henry VIII  Consulted Parliament, but they often did what he wanted  Elizabeth I  Consulted and controlled Parliament  Popular and successful ruler

13  Elizabeth died in 1603 without an heir  Throne passed to Stuarts  Ruling family of Scotland  Neither as popular nor skilled as Tudors  James I  Claimed divine right  House of Commons fiercely disputed him  Dissolved Parliament  Dissenters: Protestants who differed with Church of England  Puritans  New translation of the bible (King James Version)

14  1625: inherited throne  Absolute monarch  Imprisoned foes, squeezed nation for money  Petition of Right  Prohibited king from raising taxes without consent of Parliament or imprisoning anyone w/o just cause  Dissolved parliament in 1629  Created bitter enemies  Strict Anglican rules: people feared Catholic revival  Calvinists Scots rebelled  Summoned parliament in 1640  Revolt

15  1640  Lasted until 1653  Actions triggered greatest political revolution in English history  Tried and executed chief ministers  Parliament can not be dissolved  Abolition of bishops  Charles led troops into House of Commons  Parliament raised own army

16  Lasted from 1642-1649  Major challenge to absolutism  Odds favored Cavaliers (Supporters of Charles I)  (Roundheads) Forces of Parliament  Oliver Cromwell  New Model Army  Defeated Cavaliers

17  Put king on trial  Condemned him to death  “Tyrant, traitor, murderer, public enemy”  Beheaded  1 st time a ruling monarch was executed by own people  Sent signal that no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the law

18  House of Commons abolished monarchy, House of Lords, official Church of England  Declared a republic  Oliver Cromwell led  Supporters of Charles II attacked England  1652: Parliament exiled most Catholics to land west of Ireland  Levellers suppressed

19  Rule of Saints  Root out godlessness  Sunday set aside for religious observance  Closed all theatres  Frowned on dancing, taverns, gambling  Read the bible  Education of all people  Religious freedom  Welcomed Jews back

20  Cromwell died in 1658  Puritans lost England  1660: newly elected Parliament invited Charles II back from exile  Restoration of monarchy  Puritan ideas endured  Limited monarchy

21  Inherited throne  Flaunted Catholic faith…feared he would restore Holy Catholic Church  William and Mary (daughter and her husband) invited to rule  Bloodless overthrow  English Bill of Rights  Required monarch to summon parliament regularly  Parliament- power of the purse  Banned Catholic from sitting on the throne  Trial by jury  No excessive fines/cruel and unusual punishment  Habeas corpus- no person could be held without being charged for a crime  Religious freedom

22  Voltaire- French philosopher  Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor Roman, nor an empire  Patchwork of small states  Electors  North Protestant  South Catholic

23  Religious and political causes  Began in Bohemia  Protestants tossed two officials out of a castle window in Prague  Sparked revolt  Widened into general European war  HR emperor tried to roll back the Reformation

24  Fighting took toll  Armies burned villages, destroyed crops and killed without mercy  Murder and torture  Famine and disease  Wolves stalked deserted streets  Severe depopulation  1/3 of entire German population died in the war  Peace in 1648  Peace of Westphalia  Netherlands and Swiss Federation recognized as independent  Left Germany divided into 360 states

25  Emerged as new protestant power  Hohenzollern rulers united lands  Frederick William I  Best-trained army in Europe  Frederick II  Seized Silesia from Austria  Made Prussia a great power

26  1750  Great Powers of Europe:  Austria  Prussia  France  England  Russia  Formed alliances to maintain balance  Rivalries  Prussia vs. Austria  Britain vs. France  Seven Years’ War  Prussia, Austria, Russia, France, Britain battled in Europe  On 4 continents  Treaty of Paris ended wars  Gave Britain huge empire


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