Presentation on theme: "KEY IDEA Absolute monarchs in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power."— Presentation transcript:
KEY IDEA Absolute monarchs in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power.
The House of Stuart Takes the Throne of England When Queen Elizabeth I died,her cousin James, king of Scotland, became king of England. The reign of James began a long series of struggles between king and Parliament for control of the English government. He thought that the king had the god-given right to rule and need answer to no other authority. James I
James I Poses a Threat To Anglican Church Reform Parliament disagreed. James’s religious policies also angered the Puritans in Parliament. They wanted to reform the Church to make it as holy as possible. James was unwilling to make these changes. His son, Charles I, continued the tension between king and Parliament.
King James was very interested in religion and scholarship. It bothered him that although there were many English translations of the Bible, none was as well written as he wanted. There fore, he sponsored a committee of Bible scholars to create a new royally approved translation. This temporarily pleased the Puritan dissenters.
The new version of the Bible was first printed in 1611. The notion of translating the whole Bible into English belongs to John Wycliffe, a 14 th Century theologian. Wycliffe believed that the Bible, rather than the pope was the authority of faith and morals.
Charles is Forced to Sign the Petition of Right Parliament forced Charles I to sign a Petition of Right in 1628 which greatly limited the power of the monarchy. By signing, Charles I recognized that the king was answerable to another power. Then, in defiance, he dissolved the Parliament and tried to raise money without it—going directly against the Petition of Right. Charles I
Charles Has Problems With Parliament Charles tried to impose the Anglican prayer book on the Scots. The Calvinist Scots revolted and they threatened to invade England. To meet the danger, Charles needed some money, and in order to raise taxes he needed Parliament’s approval. Parliament launched its own revolt against Charles. The Parliament quickly passed laws to limit his power. Charles responded by trying to arrest its leaders.
The Cavaliers and Roundheads Soon England was plunged into a civil war: Charles and his Royalists against the supporters of Parliament, many of whom were Puritans. At first, the odds favored the forces loyal to Charles, the Cavaliers. Eventually, the supporters of the opposition, the Roundheads, gained the upper hand under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell.
England’s Civil War The English Civil War lasted from 1642 to 1649. The English Civil War posed a major challenge to absolutism. In England, the forces of the revolution triumphed over the royal forces. Under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell, the forces of the Puritans won. Oliver Cromwell
Cromwell’s Red Coats During the English Civil War, Cromwell proved himself to be an excellent military strategist. He was responsible for the well-known brilliant red color of the English soldiers red coats that helped to distinguish between friendly forces and enemy forces. The red also camouflaged any blood stains from wounds thus keeping morale high.
Cromwell In Control Cromwell and his supporters in Parliament tried Charles I for treason and had him publicly beheaded. This was the first time that a ruling monarch had been tried and executed by his own people. With this execution, Parliament sent a clear message that no ruler could claim absolute power over and ignore the law.England Cromwell became a military dictator, ruling until 1658.
The Puritans became a political as well as a religious movement during the English Revolution (1640-1660, also called the Puritan Revolution), when Parliament rebelled against the absolutism of Charles I. This rebellion gave the Puritans a chance to demand the abolition of bishops in the Church of England. Both in England during the Commonwealth (government established by Parliament, from 1649-1660) and in 17th century New England, The Puritans meant freedom from direction and control by civil authority. Why Were the Puritans Ready for Revolution?
Cromwell Becomes a Oppressive Leader Cromwell crushed a rebellion in Ireland and tried to reform society at home. In 1652, Cromwell passed a law exiling most Catholics to barren land in the west of Ireland. If anyone refused to go, the penalty was death. Soon after his death, though, Cromwell’s government collapsed
James II Become King After Charles II’s death in 1685, his brother became king, James II. His pro-Catholic policies angered and worried the English, who feared that he would restore Catholicism. James II
James II Catholicism Leads to Fears in England James II became king in 1685, he favored Catholics in his appointments and published the Declaration of Indulgences in 1687, providing “liberty of conscience”. The birth of James’s son in 1688 aroused public fear of continued Catholic rule caused English nobles to offer the throne to James’s older daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange the prince of the Netherlands. William and Mary were Protestant which eased the fears of the English people. When they took the throne, this was called the Glorious Revolution.
The Glorious Revolution Finally, in 1688, seven members of Parliament contacted James’s older daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, prince of the Netherlands—both Protestants. They wanted them to replace James II on the throne. The event was called the Glorious Revolution, a bloodless revolution that forced James to flee to France.
William and Mary agreed, swearing to rule according to the laws made by Parliament. They agreed to accept the Bill of Rights, which guaranteed English people certain rights. From then on, no king or queen could rule England without the consent of Parliament. William and Mary Sign The Bill of Rights
The English Bill of Rights The Bill of Rights ensured the superiority of the Parliament over the monarchy The Bill of Rights affirmed the right of habeas corpus, meaning that no person could be held in person without first being charged with a specific crime. A king could not interfere with Parliamentary debates of suspend laws. The Bill of Rights also barred all Roman Catholics from sitting on the throne.
The United States Adopted many of the government reforms and institutions that the English developed during this period. The right of Habeas Corpus Freedom of Speech and freedom of worship Strong legislative branch to limit the power of the executive branch Cabinet appointed to make decisions