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Renaissance England (1485-1660) Raphael’s “The School of Athens”

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1 Renaissance England (1485-1660) Raphael’s “The School of Athens”

2 “Renaissance” Renaissance is French for “rebirth.” Renaissance is French for “rebirth.” Renewed love of classical learning – and how the texts survived. Renewed love of classical learning – and how the texts survived. A rebirth of the human spirit – of curiosity and creativity. A rebirth of the human spirit – of curiosity and creativity. A “Renaissance man” A “Renaissance man”

3 The Renaissance in Italy Italy’s vast wealth from banking and trade help it flourish. Italy’s vast wealth from banking and trade help it flourish. Famous Italians of this time: Famous Italians of this time: Painters: da Vinci, Michelangelo, etc. Painters: da Vinci, Michelangelo, etc. Explorers: Columbus, Vasco da Gama Explorers: Columbus, Vasco da Gama Scientists: Galileo Scientists: Galileo The popes serve as The popes serve as patrons, encouraging patrons, encouraging further growth. further growth. Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel – commissioned by Pope Julius II

4 Humanism Tried to find an answer to what it is to be human and lead a good life, using both classical and Christian sources as inspiration. Tried to find an answer to what it is to be human and lead a good life, using both classical and Christian sources as inspiration. Humanism = Humanities? Humanism = Humanities? Thomas More’s Utopia is a great example of humanism – it analyzes the current problems of England and envisioning an ideal society Thomas More’s Utopia is a great example of humanism – it analyzes the current problems of England and envisioning an ideal society

5 Religion Numerous Reformations happened at this time, which weakened the Catholic Church. Numerous Reformations happened at this time, which weakened the Catholic Church. * Martin Luther (1483-1546) – Protestant Reformation in Germany * Martin Luther (1483-1546) – Protestant Reformation in Germany * Humanists in England were criticizing the Catholic Church * Humanists in England were criticizing the Catholic Church * Henry VIII creates the Church of England to get a divorce * Henry VIII creates the Church of England to get a divorce

6 The War of the Roses 1455-1487 1455-1487 Unlike the Hundred Years War, this war took place on British soil. Unlike the Hundred Years War, this war took place on British soil. King Richard II died without an heir. He had been overthrown and murdered by Henry IV who usurped the throne. King Richard II died without an heir. He had been overthrown and murdered by Henry IV who usurped the throne. Edward IV > Henry VI > Edward IV > (princes) > Richard III > Henry VII Edward IV > Henry VI > Edward IV > (princes) > Richard III > Henry VII Lancastrian faction – Henry IV’s descendants and supporters. Lancastrian faction – Henry IV’s descendants and supporters. Yorkist faction – descended from Edward IV, associated with House of York from North England. Yorkist faction – descended from Edward IV, associated with House of York from North England. Henry Tudor (Henry VII) had won the final battle and easily took the throne (most of the candidates had died in battle). He also married Edward IV’s daughter to strengthen his claim to the throne. Henry Tudor (Henry VII) had won the final battle and easily took the throne (most of the candidates had died in battle). He also married Edward IV’s daughter to strengthen his claim to the throne.

7 Henry VIII – the early years England had never been very wealthy, England had never been very wealthy, but thanks to Henry VII’s financial but thanks to Henry VII’s financial skills, Henry VIII took the throne skills, Henry VIII took the throne with a considerable fortune. with a considerable fortune. King at 18, dashing and handsome, Henry King at 18, dashing and handsome, Henry married Catherine of Aragorn (his dead older brother’s wife). married Catherine of Aragorn (his dead older brother’s wife). Henry showed little interest in politics and spent most of his time amusing himself with sport and entertainment. Henry showed little interest in politics and spent most of his time amusing himself with sport and entertainment. But Henry showed an interest in the navy. Swayed by Catherine’s father Ferdinand, and his own pride, Henry attacked France in the early part of his reign. But Henry showed an interest in the navy. Swayed by Catherine’s father Ferdinand, and his own pride, Henry attacked France in the early part of his reign.

8 Henry VIII – the marriages With England showing more distaste towards Spain, and Catherine’s constant miscarriages, started causing some major changes. Henry showed more interest in politics and in his own legacy: With England showing more distaste towards Spain, and Catherine’s constant miscarriages, started causing some major changes. Henry showed more interest in politics and in his own legacy: Catherine (mother of Mary) – Anne Boleyn pregnant, no male heir, broke from pope to have a divorce Catherine (mother of Mary) – Anne Boleyn pregnant, no male heir, broke from pope to have a divorce Anne Boleyn – Elizabeth and a miscarriage, Henry notices Jane, framed for treason and incest, executed Anne Boleyn – Elizabeth and a miscarriage, Henry notices Jane, framed for treason and incest, executed Jane Seymour – married within a day of Anne’s death, gave birth to Edward and died Jane Seymour – married within a day of Anne’s death, gave birth to Edward and died Anne of Cleves – French alliance, Henry notices Kathryn, divorce Anne of Cleves – French alliance, Henry notices Kathryn, divorce Kathryn Howard – thirty years younger, infidelity, executed Kathryn Howard – thirty years younger, infidelity, executed Katherine Parr – married as many times as Henry, good stepmother, remarried right after Henry died Katherine Parr – married as many times as Henry, good stepmother, remarried right after Henry died

9 Henry VIII – the later years Henry’s ego was as enormous as his body, but fortunately many of the selfish moves he made for himself benefited England. Henry’s ego was as enormous as his body, but fortunately many of the selfish moves he made for himself benefited England. The separation of government from the church saved England from religious civil war. The separation of government from the church saved England from religious civil war. His interest in the Navy helped it build up to the impressive fleet Elizabeth I needed to defeat the Spanish Armada. His interest in the Navy helped it build up to the impressive fleet Elizabeth I needed to defeat the Spanish Armada. His forceful attempt at unifying Scotland with England was not successful, but it encouraged the importance of unity in the British Isles and brought structured rule to Ireland. His forceful attempt at unifying Scotland with England was not successful, but it encouraged the importance of unity in the British Isles and brought structured rule to Ireland. His foundations for Parliament were important for the future of England. Henry’s desire to not perform an illegal act according to law made this possible. His foundations for Parliament were important for the future of England. Henry’s desire to not perform an illegal act according to law made this possible.

10 Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Nothing was expected of Elizabeth. She was placed third in line for the throne, behind Edward and Mary. Nothing was expected of Elizabeth. She was placed third in line for the throne, behind Edward and Mary. Edward VI (1547-1552) Edward VI (1547-1552) Mary I (1553-1557) Mary I (1553-1557) Elizabeth took over the kingdom during a period of fierce religious feuds. She restored law and order and reestablished the Church of England. The pope excommunicated her. Elizabeth took over the kingdom during a period of fierce religious feuds. She restored law and order and reestablished the Church of England. The pope excommunicated her.

11 Elizabeth I “the Virgin Queen” “the Virgin Queen” Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots King Philip and the Spanish Armada King Philip and the Spanish Armada James VI of Scotland takes the throne James VI of Scotland takes the throne

12 Life in Renaissance England Wealth and security throughout England. Wealth and security throughout England. Catholicism is illegal, more illegal to be a Jesuit. Catholicism is illegal, more illegal to be a Jesuit. Language: The educated use “thou,” the uneducated “thee” – “thy” and “thine” Language: The educated use “thou,” the uneducated “thee” – “thy” and “thine” Servants exist, but they are hopeful. Servants exist, but they are hopeful. London – crowded, smelly, the sign of success London – crowded, smelly, the sign of success Ways to kill time: sports, gossip, theatre Ways to kill time: sports, gossip, theatre

13 The Flood of Literature Elizabeth as a muse and literary symbol. Elizabeth as a muse and literary symbol. Poetry – pastorals, love sonnets, “carpe diem” Poetry – pastorals, love sonnets, “carpe diem” A philosophical and cultural revolution. A philosophical and cultural revolution. Drama Drama Metaphysical poetry – intellectual use of conceits, paradox, and imagery Metaphysical poetry – intellectual use of conceits, paradox, and imagery

14 Pastorals and Pastoral Poets Christopher Marlowe – translated love poems by Ovid considered too erotic and burned by the Bishop of London, became a spy, wrote the play Dr. Faustus, was killed(?) Christopher Marlowe – translated love poems by Ovid considered too erotic and burned by the Bishop of London, became a spy, wrote the play Dr. Faustus, was killed(?) Sir Walter Raleigh - handsome, well-dressed, and arrogant, captain of Elizabeth’s guard and fought for England in numerous countries, enamored with Elizabeth, Spain demanded Raleigh be killed to make peace with England (James), noble and carefree about death Sir Walter Raleigh - handsome, well-dressed, and arrogant, captain of Elizabeth’s guard and fought for England in numerous countries, enamored with Elizabeth, Spain demanded Raleigh be killed to make peace with England (James), noble and carefree about death *** *** Pastorals – depict country life in idyllic, idealized terms. The characters in pastoral poems are naïve and innocent yet express themselves with poetic sophistication. Pastorals – depict country life in idyllic, idealized terms. The characters in pastoral poems are naïve and innocent yet express themselves with poetic sophistication. P. 295-298 (#1-5 and write two PROPER paragraphs in response to “The Bait”) P. 295-298 (#1-5 and write two PROPER paragraphs in response to “The Bait”)

15 Metaphysical Poetry John Donne – government career, poet in secrecy, well-read in the morning and socialite in the evening, married a 17 yr old and arrested: John Donne – government career, poet in secrecy, well-read in the morning and socialite in the evening, married a 17 yr old and arrested: John Donne, John Donne, Anne Donne, Anne Donne, Undone. Undone. Eventually wrote against his first religion Catholicism, James made him a clergyman, gave brilliant, theatrical sermons until his death. Eventually wrote against his first religion Catholicism, James made him a clergyman, gave brilliant, theatrical sermons until his death. * * * Metaphysical poetry – intellectual and abstract, noted for its ingenious and obscure imagery, philosophical and religious speculations, rough-sounding meter, conceits, and witty word play. Metaphysical poetry – intellectual and abstract, noted for its ingenious and obscure imagery, philosophical and religious speculations, rough-sounding meter, conceits, and witty word play. P. 338 (1-5) – as a class / p. 342 (1-6) / p. 349 (1-5, 8) P. 338 (1-5) – as a class / p. 342 (1-6) / p. 349 (1-5, 8)

16 John Milton (1608-1674) Chose to be a poet early in life, Milton came from a supportive and financially-capable family that could support his aspirations. Chose to be a poet early in life, Milton came from a supportive and financially-capable family that could support his aspirations. Milton fought for the Parliament when they struggled with King Charles, causing many to believe he was a Puritan. Later he became a diplomat, translating all correspondence with other countries. Milton fought for the Parliament when they struggled with King Charles, causing many to believe he was a Puritan. Later he became a diplomat, translating all correspondence with other countries. Milton went blind at the age of forty-four before writing his epic. Milton went blind at the age of forty-four before writing his epic. Charles’ son was put on the throne by the people, years later, branding Milton a traitor and practically getting him beheaded. Charles’ son was put on the throne by the people, years later, branding Milton a traitor and practically getting him beheaded.

17 John Milton’s Paradise Lost Milton’s daughters read poetry to their father to help his study. They also would write his epic for him Milton’s daughters read poetry to their father to help his study. They also would write his epic for him Milton debated on the subject of his literary epic, and he found British folklore like Arthur too fictitious and chose the Bible instead as his subject. Milton debated on the subject of his literary epic, and he found British folklore like Arthur too fictitious and chose the Bible instead as his subject. Imitated Greek epic and Shakespeare Imitated Greek epic and Shakespeare Milton covered few Bible verses, hoping to answer the question of why if God loves us does he also allow evil in the world. In the process of writing this epic, Milton didn’t realize that Satan started to become the hero of this epic – a fierce individual, fighting against immeasurable odds again and again. Milton covered few Bible verses, hoping to answer the question of why if God loves us does he also allow evil in the world. In the process of writing this epic, Milton didn’t realize that Satan started to become the hero of this epic – a fierce individual, fighting against immeasurable odds again and again.

18 Sir Thomas More 1478-1535 Son of a prominent judge, wrote comedies while at Oxford, considered being a monk and took up their habits Son of a prominent judge, wrote comedies while at Oxford, considered being a monk and took up their habits Became close with Henry VIII Became close with Henry VIII (assisting with uprisings and (assisting with uprisings and helping Henry with his writing), helping Henry with his writing), made Speaker of the House of made Speaker of the House of Commons and Chancellor of Commons and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster the Duchy of Lancaster Established parliamentary right of free speech and wouldn’t endorse Henry’s divorce, becomes Lord Chancellor, beheaded for treason, "The King's good servant, but God's First." Established parliamentary right of free speech and wouldn’t endorse Henry’s divorce, becomes Lord Chancellor, beheaded for treason, "The King's good servant, but God's First."

19 More’s Utopia Utopia, originally written in Latin and later translated into many languages, depicts what its narrator, Raphael Hythloday, claimed to be an ideal human society, the island of Utopia. Utopia, originally written in Latin and later translated into many languages, depicts what its narrator, Raphael Hythloday, claimed to be an ideal human society, the island of Utopia. There is still a great deal of debate whether Utopia is More’s ideal country or merely a criticism of Tudor England. There is still a great deal of debate whether Utopia is More’s ideal country or merely a criticism of Tudor England. There are many ways to analyze the society of Utopia. It can be thought of as the culmination of rational thought or Humanist beliefs, as an alternative to feudalism, a statement in favor of communal society, or an effort to promote reform according to Christian values. There are many ways to analyze the society of Utopia. It can be thought of as the culmination of rational thought or Humanist beliefs, as an alternative to feudalism, a statement in favor of communal society, or an effort to promote reform according to Christian values.


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