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Persian Kings 550 – 530: Cyrus the Great 530 – 522: Cambyses Son of Cyrus – but nothing of his caliber Cambyses of Persia capturing Pharaoh Psammetichus.

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Presentation on theme: "Persian Kings 550 – 530: Cyrus the Great 530 – 522: Cambyses Son of Cyrus – but nothing of his caliber Cambyses of Persia capturing Pharaoh Psammetichus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Persian Kings 550 – 530: Cyrus the Great 530 – 522: Cambyses Son of Cyrus – but nothing of his caliber Cambyses of Persia capturing Pharaoh Psammetichus III (from Persian seal, 6 th Century b.c. Mentioned in Ezra 4:6 by throne name Xerxes Temple construction remained stalled during his reign

2 530 – 522: Cambyses 530: Assassinated his brother Smerdis 525: Attacked Egypt – took Memphis (Egypt remained under Persian control until Alexander)

3 530 – 522: Cambyses 530: Assassinated his brother Smerdis 525: Attacked Egypt – took Memphis : Three disastrous campaigns

4 530 – 522: Cambyses 530: Assassinated his brother Smerdis 525: Attacked Egypt – took Memphis : Three disastrous campaigns 522: Cambyses outraged the Egyptians killing the Apis Bull

5 The Apis Bull of the Egyptians, one of their most sacred objects of worship

6 530 – 522: Cambyses 530: Assassinated his brother Smerdis 525: Attacked Egypt – took Memphis : Three disastrous campaigns 522: Cambyses outraged the Egyptians killing the Apis Bull Commited suicide returning home – following coup in Ecbatana

7 Persian Kings 550 – 530: Cyrus the Great 530 – 522: Cambyses 522: Pseudo-Smerdis Gaumata was a Mede, a Magi, and pretended to be Smerdis Killed in conspiracy led by Darius, a military commander Gaumata (throne name: Artaxerxes (Ezra 4:7- 24)), keeps temple construction at standstill Hoped to reinstate Median religion and dominance

8 Persian Kings 550 – 530: Cyrus the Great 530 – 522: Cambyses 522: Pseudo-Smerdis 522 – 486: Darius the Great

9 Darius the Great (521 – 486) Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire

10 Darius the Great (521 – 486) Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire Reinstated Persian mono- theistic religion Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)

11 Darius the Great (521 – 486) Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire Reinstated Persian mono- theistic religion Established universal currency – the Daric Gold darics such as this one (with a purity of 95.83%) were only issued by the king himself.

12 Darius the Great (521 – 486) Brilliant consolidator of the Persian Empire Reinstated Persian mono- theistic religion Established universal currency – the Daric Undertook expansive building projects in Persepolis and elsewhere

13 The ruins of Persepolis. In the foreground is the treasure house, right behind the Palace of Darius.

14 Persepolis ruins

15 Darius the Great (521 – 486) 521 – 515: Put down minor revolts after Cambyses 520: Reauthorizes the temple project (Ezr. 5:3 – 6:12) Haggai encouraged the people to work (520) Zechariah preached his “night visions” (519)

16 1) Four Horses (1:7-17): The world was at peace under Darius 2) Four Horns (1:18-21): Disruptive powers now under control 3) Measuring Line (2:1-13): Jerusalem protected though unwalled 4) Priest Joshua (3): High Priest purified for his duties Zechariah’s Night Visions 5) Zerubbabel (4): Zerubbabel told “not by might…but by my spirit” 6) Flying Scroll (5:1-4): A judgment intended to purge the land 7) Wicked Woman (5:5-11): Symbolized by wickedness banished 8) Four Chariots (6:1-8): Call God’s people from all places to return

17 Darius the Great (521 – 486) 521 – 515: Putting down minor revolts after Cambyses 520: Darius reauthorizes the temple project (Ezr. 5:3 – 6:12) Haggai encouraged the people to work (520) Zechariah preached his “night visions” (519) 516: Second Temple is completed (Ezra 6:13 – 22) 514: Darius Launched his western campaign

18 : Darius consolidates control of Asia Minor : Darius largely taken with building projects in his major cities

19 : Darius consolidates control of Asia Minor : Darius largely taken with building projects in his major cities 498: Athenians sack Sardis – and provoke Ionian rebellion

20 : Darius consolidates control of Asia Minor : Darius largely taken with building projects in his major cities 498: Athenians sack Sardis – and provoke Ionian rebellion 494: Darius puts down the Ionian rebellion

21 : Darius consolidates control of Asia Minor : Darius largely taken with building projects in his major cities 498: Athenians sack Sardis – and provoke Ionian rebellion 494: Darius puts down the Ionian rebellion 490: Darius defeated at the famous Battle of Marathon

22 Tomb of Darius the Great (d. 486 b.c); located next to other Achaemenian kings at Naqsh-e Rustam


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