Presentation on theme: "Medieval Period (Dark Ages / Middle Ages) Interim of Rome and Renaissance 1066-1485."— Presentation transcript:
Medieval Period (Dark Ages / Middle Ages) Interim of Rome and Renaissance
1066 1066 – Norman Invasion of England – basically French Vikings. Full fledged invasion and occupation English culture becomes a mix of Norman and A-S traditions
William the Conqueror Ruthless, brutal soldier and leader Slaughtered most of the Anglo- Saxon nobility, and replaced them with Normans (gets most of the landowners out of the way) – this created the largest change of land ownership in English history Actually controlled England and a sizable portion of France He was an organized politician / Institutes written and common law / Ordeal system for trials
Feudal System Complicated system of land holding under William the Conqueror Land is basically given to King’s loyal subjects in return for rent (money or military service) – in return, King shares spoils of military conquests No one owns land independently except for the King – creates a system where everyone owes allegiance to a higher up person (peasants, serfs, barons, knights) Domesday Book – detailed account of EVERYTHING related to land holding – leads to an organized “property tax” – solidified central government
William’s Family Robert Curthose William IIHenry William I dies in 1087 (gross video clip); Robert is given Normandy and William II gets England; William II is King until he dies in a “hunting accident.” Henry takes the crown, successfully battles Robert for Normandy, and then imprisons Robert for life. End result = poor leadership and civil war from
Plantagenet Family 1133 – Powerful Norman Family rises to power and puts their candidate on the throne Henry II – Two sons (Richard and John) Puts Thomas Beckett in charge of the church by making him the Archbishop of Canterbury (highest religious post in England)
Henry II vs. Thomas Beckett Henry hoped this would allow him to control Beckett/Church Instead Beckett upholds the supreme power of the Church So... Henry has him assassinated in 1170 The shrine the Pilgrims are visiting in The Canterbury Tales is for Beckett
Results of T. Beckett’s ► Henry II – wanted common law, even for the Church officials “benefit of clergy” ► T. Beckett becomes a martyr ► Backlash on Henry II No power to stop corruption in the Church Satire in The Canterbury Tales
Richard I - Crusades 1189: When Henry II dies, his eldest son becomes King – Richard I “Lionheart” Spends most of time fighting in the Crusades (wars declared by Popes to regain the Holy Land) – “take the cross” These always began with high hopes, and typically ended disastrously (there has never been any fighting there since…) Interesting side effect: Europeans gained knowledge from Arabic cultures in math and medicine (you have these wars to thank for algebra and calculus) English Knights play a major role in Crusades Code of Chivalry ► Honor, courage, courtesy, service to women ► Bold and fearless on the battlefield ► Kind and tender off of it 1199: Richard dies early in reign due to a festering wound (no son)
King John I 1199: 2 nd son of Henry II becomes king - John I (Think Robin Hood) WEAK King – loses land in France that England had owned since William the Conqueror’s invasion Signs Magna Carta in 1215 Gives more power to nobles and takes power from kings – begins breakdown of absolute power of the throne Kings don’t exactly follow this all time, but it’s on the books 1216: John dies
King Henry III (boring names!) 1216: With death of John I, his son Henry becomes king at age 9 – Henry III 1 st of the “Child Kings” Much of reign plagued with battles with nobles over the Magna Carta (he ignores it by killing people he doesn’t like – not cool with the nobility) By 1258, the nobility have gathered enough power to institute “The Great Council” This meant the king needed to OK his decisions with this group (this eventually becomes Parliament) 1272: Henry III dies
King Edward I – “Longshanks” 1272: With death of Henry III, his son Edward becomes King – Edward I Has 15 kids (only 1 male/5 females live to adulthood) 1282: Wales rebellion (Western neighbor of England) – Edward I brutally puts down the Wales rebellion and makes his eldest son the Prince of Wales; to this day the Prince of Wales is heir to the throne of England.
Edward I vs. Scotland 1300: Edward embarks on a war with Scotland (Braveheart plot – William Wallace) Edward does not really care about the land he gains, it’s about the money he can extort from the Scottish land barons. He really wants to go to war with France, but needs $$ to build his war chest. Speech – Braveheart Freedom Speech – BraveheartFreedom Speech – Braveheart 1305: Wallace captured – drawn and quartered for high treason. Edward I gains much of Scotland “Hammer of the Scots”
Edward II 1307: Edward I dies, and his son becomes King – Edward II (“the deuce”) Incompetent King – loses all the gains father made in Scotland – spends a lot of the throne’s money. Has one son with wife Isabella (French Princess). In 1327, Isabella and her lover Mortimer gain English support and force Eddie II to abdicate the throne. Edward II is imprisoned, tortured and killed.
Edward III 1327: After Edward II is deposed and killed, Isabella installs Edward III (14 yrs old) as King of England – “Puppet Regime” In 1330, Edward III hangs Mortimer and imprisons his mother Isabella until her death. 1337: Like his Grandfather, Edward III wants France. Start of 100 Years War. (France v England) Black Plague really gets going during this time; war + plague = losing lots of English population. English Oak long bows bring about the end of chivalrous warfare By 1359, Edward claims a great deal of money and land in France.
Richard II : The Prince of Wales dies, then Edward III dies. This leads to the Prince of Wales’ son Richard II being named King at the age of 10. Uncles argue for power and control – little gets done As Richard II gets older, he kills nobles he does not like – when the King has no children, it leads to massive paranoia Nobles don’t like this, so they revolt and kill him in 1399 – Plantagenet line ends
House of Lancaster 1399: Richard II’s first cousin is declared King: Henry IV (House of Lancaster) : England in wars with France, Scotland, Ireland, Wales – fun stuff. In 1413 Henry IV dies; his son Henry V is King By 1420, Henry wins much of France – major victory = Battle of Agincourt: Branagh's Henry V Speech Branagh's Henry V Speech Branagh's Henry V Speech Henry V convinces “mad” Charles VI of France to name Henry heir to the French throne – marries Charles’ daughter
House of Lancaster Henry simply has to wait for Charles to die and he’ll be King of England & France 1422: Doesn't happen – Henry dies before Charles. Henry VI becomes king at 9 months of age. Uncles fight for control – very little is accomplished. As Henry VI gets older, it is obvious that Henry VI is “mad” too. All father’s gains in France are lost. Claim to French throne is disputed, eventually lost.
Wars of the Roses : Henry VI’s inability to rule led to a challenge for rule from the House of York – Civil War for the throne. During these wars, there were a few short term York Kings (Edward IV, Richard III), but eventually Henry VII (Lancaster) defeats Richard III and becomes King. Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York – symbolically restores peace to England Tudor line begins - Tudor Rose
Medieval Period Quizzes ► NAMES (Take Home) QUIZ: William the Conqueror, Thomas Beckett, John I, Edward I&III, Richard I, Henry II, V, VI, VII ► Medieval Background QUIZ: Church’s power, 100 years war, Wars of the Roses, Crusades, Chivalry, Indulgences, Middle class
Religion/Church = Power Creates a society with a common set of beliefs – all belong to the Catholic Church Europe’s main publisher, librarian & teacher Excommunication = getting kicked out of the Church – BIG deal (bad) Indulgences: Paying the Church to get out of Purgatory or Hell Church is a powerful economic force; thereby a powerful political force. Construction of huge cathedrals throughout Europe.
Change in Power for the Church ► 1370 John Wycliffe translates the Latin Bible due to his dislike of growing corruption in Church. In Latin, church officials could interpret the Bible for people – now people can do this on their own (a really big deal).
Commoners Increase in Power Shift from farming to herding sheep – English wool considered best in Europe (good export) Causes a shift of higher city populations – Merchant class increase (more people with $ but not royal blood – middle class) Black Plague/Black Death “Ring around the Rosie” Wipes out 1/3 of population in Europe, Asia, North Africa Once contracted... dead in 4 days Huge impact: Plague + war deaths lead to a labor shortage (peasant/serf class moves up – beginning of the end of feudalism) ► Religious impact – loss of “good” ones (think about it…)
Connection to Canterbury Tales Geoffrey Chaucer ( ) – lived during really transitional times KINGS: corruption, warlike, power-hungry CHURCH: corruption, self-serving, powerful COMMONERS: gaining power, fewer people=more jobs
Geoffrey Chaucer ► Considered the father of English Literature ► Born into the rising middle class Mastered Latin, French, and Italian, along with his native language Served in the 100 Years War before he was 20 Was captured, and his release was ransomed by the king Job list: page, soldier, translator, courtier, diplomat, civil administrator, diplomat, Comptroller of Customs for the Port of London, Member of Parliament, Justice of the Peace, Clerk of the Works at Westminster Abbey and the Tower of London Oh, and a sub-forester for one of the king’s forests Overall, he served for three kings: Edward III, Richard II, and Henry IV This is a man who understood all levels of humanity ► Wrote his stories in English: French had been the language of literature (and the upper classes) since the Norman Invasion
The Canterbury Tales ► Frame Story Stories within the framework of an overall story (think TV sitcoms) Overall Story of the C. Tales ► 31 people on a pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral to visit the shrine of Thomas Beckett By using the frame story format, he naturally brings together a wide variety of people ► Three most important social classes of Medieval Society 1. Feudal 2. Ecclesiastical 3. Urban
The Canterbury Tales cont. ► The overall story focuses on the 31 pilgrims traveling to Canterbury ► On the way, each pilgrim will tell stories Two on the way there Two on the way back ► Quick Math – Chaucer’s goal was to write 124 stories He experienced writer’s block: he only got to 24 ► Why? ► He died (tough form of writer’s block to overcome…) ► Between the descriptions of each pilgrim in the prologue (he describes 23) and the tales he finished, The Canterbury Tales is considered the most accurate description of medieval life in existence ► Written as a poem, but it is informal and easy to understand (almost conversational)