Presentation on theme: "Rule by Virtue Virtue/Morality Holds the Central place in Chinese culture Three Ancient Sage Kings--Rule by Virtue Yao/Shun/Yu What is the limit of this."— Presentation transcript:
Rule by Virtue Virtue/Morality Holds the Central place in Chinese culture Three Ancient Sage Kings--Rule by Virtue Yao/Shun/Yu What is the limit of this model? How to pass the throne to the next generation? Moral strengths vs. blood line
Xia Shang Zhou Chronology Project 夏商周断代工程 a multi-discipline project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia Dynasty, the Shang Dynasty and the Zhou Dynasty. Some 200 experts took part in the project. The project results were released in November 2000. Claimed results include: All four phases of Erlitou culture were part of the Xia Dynasty. The Western Zhou period was precisely dated.
Methods Used The project correlated radiocarbon dating, archaeological dating methods, historical textual analysis, astronomy, and used other interdisciplinary methods to achieve more temporal and geographic accuracy.
Ancient Worship: inclusive Fengshan Sacrificial Ceremonies Heaven/Earth/Ancestors Feng and shan sacrificial ceremonies at Mt. Tai Temple constructions For cultural legetimation 祭祀【 jìsì 】 offer sacrifices to gods or ancestors. 祭 / 吉【 jí 】 lucky; auspicious; propitious. This ritual holds the central status in all rituals/rites Animals used: Color has to be pure, body has to be complete; otherwise they are disqualified; go plowing in the field or play other functions; 色纯为 “ 牺 ” ，体全为 “ 牲 ” Biblical reference Legitimation is the act of providing legitimacy. Legitimation in the social sciences refers to the process whereby an act, process, or ideology becomes legitimate by its attachment to norms and values within a given society. It is the process of making something acceptable and normative to a group or audience. Legitimate power is the ability to influence through authority, the right by virtue of one's organization position or status to exercise control over persons in subordinate position.
From the King James Bible (1611) http://www.biblegateway.com/quicksearch/?quicksea rch=genesis&qs_version=NIV Le’viticus: the third book of the Bible, containing laws relating to the priests and ‘Levites and to the forms of Jewish ceremonial observance. Abbreviation: Lev. 6: And if his offering for a sacrifice of peace offering unto the LORD be of the flock; male or female, he shall offer it without blemish. 22: Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having a wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, ye shall not offer these unto the LORD,
The Xia Dynasty 华夏【 huáxià 】 an ancient name for China 2070 to 1600 BCE, the First Dynasty Yu the Great,; “Tribute to Yu” http://ctext.org/shang- shu/xia-shu http://ctext.org/shang- shu/xia-shu 九州【 jiǔzhōu 】 a poetic name of China, referring to the nine prefectures or provinces outlined by Yu after taming the flood; 16 rulers, ending with Jie.
Yu’s Birth Possibly Serving as the First Case of a Caesarean section, or nicknamed as the “Emperor’s Cut” Different versions
The Erlitou culture 二里头文化 The Erlitou culture is a name given by archaeologists to an Early Bronze Age urban society that existed in China from 2000 BCE to 1500 BCE. The culture was named after the site discovered at Erlitou ( 二里頭村 ) in Yanshi 偃师, Henan Province. The culture was widely spread throughout Henan and Shanxi Province, and later appeared in Shaanxi and Hubei Province. Most Chinese archaeologists identify the Erlitou culture as the site of the Xia Dynasty.
Erlitou Historical Site Near city of Luoyang, Henan province 黄河流域【 huánghé liúyù 】 the Yellow River Valley; river basin; drainage area.
Qi, the Founding Emperor of Xia According to the historian Sima Qian, Yu did not want his son to become king and intended to give the throne to Boyi, the son of Gao Yao. But due to Yu's great influence, all the leaders of the Xia state came to admire Qi instead of Boyi, so Yu had no choice but to pass the throne to Qi. Qi then succeeded Yu. According to the Bamboo Annals, however, Boyi took the throne and became the king of China, but later Qi assassinated him and abducted the throne.
Gao Yao 皋陶 c. 2100 BCE? Gao Yao 皋陶 was a political advisor of the Yu the Great in China during the Xia Dynasty. His son was Bo Yi ( 伯益 ). He is cited admonishingly saying to his king: "[The] Heaven can see and hear, and does so through the eyes and ears of the people; Heaven rewards the virtuous and punishes the wicked, and does it through the people.“
Legal Code of Xia 五刑【 wǔxíng 】 the five chief forms of punishment in ancient China (tatooing the face, cutting off the nose, cutting off the feet, castration and decapitation).”
Palace Construction in the Xia Dynasty Post-and-Beam Structure was used in Xia’s palace construction, which could reduce the pressure and weight on the wall and save lots of timber.
Status of Jade in China In Xia dynasty, jade was used as ritual objects Jade craftworks were among the most precious and luxurious ones; people wear and decorate rooms to indicate loyalty, elegance, beauty, and eternity. The most popular patterns were: peach (longevity/female fertility), mandarin duck (love), deer (high official ranks), bat (blessing), fish (affluence), double phoenixes (thriving), bottle (safety), lotus (holiness), bamboo (lofty conduct), and fan (benevolence), etc. http://www.history-of- china.com/xia-dynasty/jade.htm
King Jie of Xia The Last Ruler Who Ruined His Dynasty the 17th and last ruler of the Xia Dynasty of China. He is traditionally regarded as a tyrant and oppressor who brought about the collapse of his dynasty. 《史记 · 律书》夸张地说他 “ 手搏豺狼，足追四 马 ” 。 Combat/catch a jackal/wolf empty- handed; or fast-footed to race neck and neck with four horses… Record of the Grand Scribe/Historian by Sima Qian, Father of the Chinese history/histori’ography--Scholars discuss historiography topically
Mo Xi as a gift to Jie Jie entertained envoys from vassals and neighbours. In his sixth year, he received an envoy from the Qizhong Barbarian ( 歧踵戎 ) people. In his 11th year, he summoned all his vassals to his court. Youmin ( 有 缗氏 ) did not come, so he attacked and conquered that kingdom. According to her biography in the Lienü zhuan 烈女 传 (written c.18 BC by Liu Xiang, the Western Han Dynasty), Jie was corrupted by his infatuation with his concubine Mo Xi ( 妺喜 ; Mo Hsi), who was beautiful, but completely lacking in virtue. Among other things, she liked to drink, enjoyed music, and also had a penchant for jugglers and sing-song girls. Apparently, she had King Jie order a lake of wine made. Once it was finished, she commanded 3000 men to drink the lake dry, only to laugh when they all drowned.
Jie of Xia riding on two women slaves King Jie with a halberd, representing oppression, and sitting on two ladies, symbolising his abuse of power. Rubbing of relief from a Wu family shrine, Jiaxiang, Shandong Province, 150 CE. Alice in Wonderland (2010), the wicked queen enjoys resting her feet on the soft bosom of pigs.